XII International Brigade

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XII International Brigade
Garibaldi Brigade
Flag of the International Brigades.svg
CountryMostly Italian
Allegiance Flag of Spain 1931 1939.svg Spain
Branch Emblem of the International Brigades.svg International Brigades
Type Mixed Brigade - Infantry
RoleHome Defence
Part of 14th Division (1937)
11th Division (1937)
35th Division (1937)
45th Division (1937–1939)
Garrison/HQ Albacete, Barcelona
Nickname(s)Brigada Garibaldi
Engagements Spanish Civil War
Máté Zalka
Randolfo Pacciardi

The XII International Brigade was mustered on 7 November 1936 at Albacete, Spain. It was formerly named the Garibaldi Brigade, after the most famous and inspiring leader in the Italian Independence Wars, General Giuseppe Garibaldi.



Its first commanding officer was a Soviet advisor of Hungarian origin, Gen. "Pavol Lukács" (Máté Zalka), who went on to command the 45th Division of the Spanish Republican Army (he was killed during the Huesca Offensive), and its first political commisar was Gustav Regler. [1]

The brigade included, among others, the following battalions: [2] [3] [4]

The Brigade fought in the battles of Madrid, [7] the Corunna Road, [8] Guadalajara, [9] Guadarrama [10] and Brunete. [11]

See also

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  1. Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p. 468
  2. Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, Appendix III
  3. (in Spanish) EPR Order of Battle Website
  4. (in Spanish) Associació Catalana Website Archived 29 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p. 468
  6. Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. p. 468
  7. Beevor, Antony. (2006). The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Penguin Books. London. p. 179
  8. Beevor, Antony. (2006). The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Penguin Books. London. pp. 190 and 192
  9. Thomas, Hugh. (2001). The Spanish Civil War. Penguin Books. London. pp. 580–581
  10. Beevor, Antony. (2006). The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Penguin Books. London. p. 277
  11. Beevor, Antony. (2006). The battle for Spain. The Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Penguin Books. London. p. 280