1,1,1-Tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane

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1,1,1-Tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane
Triphos.svg
Names
IUPAC name
1,1,1-Tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane
Other names
Triphos,
tdppme,
tdme
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.241.729 OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
EC Number
  • 811-359-5
PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/C41H39P3/c1-41(32-42(35-20-8-2-9-21-35)36-22-10-3-11-23-36,33-43(37-24-12-4-13-25-37)38-26-14-5-15-27-38)34-44(39-28-16-6-17-29-39)40-30-18-7-19-31-40/h2-31H,32-34H2,1H3
    Key: BARUNXKDFNLHEV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • InChI=1/C41H39P3/c1-41(32-42(35-20-8-2-9-21-35)36-22-10-3-11-23-36,33-43(37-24-12-4-13-25-37)38-26-14-5-15-27-38)34-44(39-28-16-6-17-29-39)40-30-18-7-19-31-40/h2-31H,32-34H2,1H3
    Key: BARUNXKDFNLHEV-UHFFFAOYAL
  • CC(CP(C1=CC=CC=C1)C2=CC=CC=C2)(CP(C3=CC=CC=C3)C4=CC=CC=C4)CP(C5=CC=CC=C5)C6=CC=CC=C6
Properties
C41H39P3
Molar mass 624.67 g/mol
Appearancewhite crystals
Melting point 99 to 102 °C (210 to 216 °F; 372 to 375 K)
Insoluble
Hazards
GHS labelling:
GHS-pictogram-exclam.svg
Warning
H315, H319, H335
P261, P264, P271, P280, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P312, P321, P332+P313, P337+P313, P362, P403+P233, P405, P501
Safety data sheet (SDS) Triphos MSDS
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

1,1,1-Tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane, also called Triphos, is an organophosphorus compound with the formula CH3C[CH2PPh2]3. An air-sensitive white solid, it is a tripodal ligand ("three-legged") of idealized C3v symmetry. It was originally prepared by the reaction of sodium diphenylphosphide and CH3C(CH2Cl)3: [1]

3 Ph2PNa + CH3C(CH2Cl)3 → CH3C[CH2PPh2]3 + 3 NaCl

It forms complexes with many transition metals, usually as a tripodal ligand. [2] Such complexes are used to analyze mechanistic aspects of homogeneous catalysts. [3] For example, rhodium forms complexes with CH3C[CH2PPh2]3 like [(triphos)RhCl(C2H4)], [(triphos)RhH(C2H4)], and [(triphos)Rh(C2H5)(C2H4)], provide model intermediates in the catalytic cycle for hydrogenation of alkenes. [4]

Triphos sometimes behaves as a bidentate ligand. Illustrative cases include fac-[Mn(CO)3Br(η2-triphos)] and [M(CO)42-triphos)], where M is Cr, Mo, or W. Triphos serves as a tridentate-bridging ligand in an icosahedral Au13 cluster. The phosphine bridges three chlorogold(I) groups to form the tripod molecule of trichloro-1,1,1-(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethanetrigold(I), CH3C[CH2PPh2AuCl]3. [5]

Related Research Articles

Wilkinsons catalyst Chemical compound

Wilkinson's catalyst is the common name for chloridotris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium(I), a coordination complex of rhodium with the formula [RhCl(PPh3)3] (Ph = phenyl). It is a red-brown colored solid that is soluble in hydrocarbon solvents such as benzene, and more so in tetrahydrofuran or chlorinated solvents such as dichloromethane. The compound is widely used as a catalyst for hydrogenation of alkenes. It is named after chemist and Nobel laureate Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson, who first popularized its use.

Vaskas complex Chemical compound

Vaska's complex is the trivial name for the chemical compound trans-carbonylchlorobis(triphenylphosphine)iridium(I), which has the formula IrCl(CO)[P(C6H5)3]2. This square planar diamagnetic organometallic complex consists of a central iridium atom bound to two mutually trans triphenylphosphine ligands, carbon monoxide and a chloride ion. The complex was first reported by J. W. DiLuzio and Lauri Vaska in 1961. Vaska's complex can undergo oxidative addition and is notable for its ability to bind to O2 reversibly. It is a bright yellow crystalline solid.

Transition metal pincer complex

In chemistry, a transition metal pincer complex is a type of coordination complex with a pincer ligand. Pincer ligands are chelating agents that binds tightly to three adjacent coplanar sites in a meridional configuration. The inflexibility of the pincer-metal interaction confers high thermal stability to the resulting complexes. This stability is in part ascribed to the constrained geometry of the pincer, which inhibits cyclometallation of the organic substituents on the donor sites at each end. In the absence of this effect, cyclometallation is often a significant deactivation process for complexes, in particular limiting their ability to effect C-H bond activation. The organic substituents also define a hydrophobic pocket around the reactive coordination site. Stoichiometric and catalytic applications of pincer complexes have been studied at an accelerating pace since the mid-1970s. Most pincer ligands contain phosphines. Reactions of metal-pincer complexes are localized at three sites perpendicular to the plane of the pincer ligand, although in some cases one arm is hemi-labile and an additional coordination site is generated transiently. Early examples of pincer ligands were anionic with a carbanion as the central donor site and flanking phosphine donors; these compounds are referred to as PCP pincers.

Triphenylphosphine Chemical compound

Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 and often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P. It is widely used in the synthesis of organic and organometallic compounds. PPh3 exists as relatively air stable, colorless crystals at room temperature. It dissolves in non-polar organic solvents such as benzene and diethyl ether.

Rhodium(III) chloride Chemical compound

Rhodium(III) chloride refers to inorganic compounds with the formula RhCl3(H2O)n, where n varies from 0 to 3. These are diamagnetic solids featuring octahedral Rh(III) centres. Depending on the value of n, the material is either a dense brown solid or a soluble reddish salt. The soluble trihydrated (n = 3) salt is widely used to prepare compounds used in homogeneous catalysis, notably for the industrial production of acetic acid and hydroformylation.

1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane Chemical compound

1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) is an organophosphorus compound with the formula (Ph2PCH2)2 (Ph = phenyl). It is a commonly used bidentate ligand in coordination chemistry. It is a white solid that is soluble in organic solvents.

Martin Arthur Bennett FRS is an Australian inorganic chemist. He gained recognition for studies on the co-ordination chemistry of tertiary phosphines, olefins, and acetylenes, and the relationship of their behaviour to homogeneous catalysis.

Diphosphines

Diphosphines, sometimes called bisphosphanes, are organophosphorus compounds most commonly used as bidentate phosphine ligands in inorganic and organometallic chemistry. They are identified by the presence of two phosphino groups linked by a backbone, and are usually chelating. A wide variety of diphosphines have been synthesized with different linkers and R-groups. Alteration of the linker and R-groups alters the electronic and steric properties of the ligands which can result in different coordination geometries and catalytic behavior in homogeneous catalysts.

A migratory insertion is a type of reaction in organometallic chemistry wherein two ligands on a metal complex combine. It is a subset of reactions that very closely resembles the insertion reactions, and both are differentiated by the mechanism that leads to the resulting stereochemistry of the products. However, often the two are used interchangeably because the mechanism is sometimes unknown. Therefore, migratory insertion reactions or insertion reactions, for short, are defined not by the mechanism but by the overall regiochemistry wherein one chemical entity interposes itself into an existing bond of typically a second chemical entity e.g.:

Bis(diphenylphosphino)methane Chemical compound

1,1-Bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm), is an organophosphorus compound with the formula CH2(PPh2)2. Dppm, a white, crystalline powder, is used in inorganic and organometallic chemistry as a ligand. It is more specifically a chelating ligand because it is a ligand that can bond to metals with two phosphorus donor atoms. The natural bite angle is 73°.

Organoiridium compound

Organoiridium chemistry is the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing an iridium-carbon chemical bond. Organoiridium compounds are relevant to many important processes including olefin hydrogenation and the industrial synthesis of acetic acid. They are also of great academic interest because of the diversity of the reactions and their relevance to the synthesis of fine chemicals.

Organoplatinum chemistry is the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing a carbon to platinum chemical bond, and the study of platinum as a catalyst in organic reactions. Organoplatinum compounds exist in oxidation state 0 to IV, with oxidation state II most abundant. The general order in bond strength is Pt-C (sp) > Pt-O > Pt-N > Pt-C (sp3). Organoplatinum and organopalladium chemistry are similar, but organoplatinum compounds are more stable and therefore less useful as catalysts.

Organorhodium chemistry

Organorhodium chemistry is the chemistry of organometallic compounds containing a rhodium-carbon chemical bond, and the study of rhodium and rhodium compounds as catalysts in organic reactions.

Dichlorotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II) Chemical compound

Dichlorotris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium(II) is a coordination complex of ruthenium. It is a chocolate brown solid that is soluble in organic solvents such as benzene. The compound is used as a precursor to other complexes including those used in homogeneous catalysis.

In chemistry, metal-catalysed hydroboration is a reaction used in organic synthesis. It is one of several examples of homogeneous catalysis.

Metal-phosphine complex

A metal-phosphine complex is a In coordination complex containing one or more phosphine ligands. Almost always, the phosphine is an organophosphine of the type R3P (R = alkyl, aryl). Metal phosphine complexes are useful in homogeneous catalysis. Prominent examples of metal phosphine complexes include Wilkinson's catalyst (Rh(PPh3)3Cl), Grubbs' catalyst, and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0).

Tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium carbonyl hydride Chemical compound

Carbonyl hydrido tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium(I) [Carbonyl(hydrido)tris(triphenylphosphane)rhodium(I)] is an organorhodium compound with the formula [RhH(CO)(PPh3)3] (Ph = C6H5). It is a yellow, benzene-soluble solid, which is used industrially for hydroformylation.

In organometallic chemistry, a transition metal alkene complex is a coordination compound containing one or more alkene ligands. Such compounds are intermediates in many catalytic reactions that convert alkenes to other organic products.

Bis(diphenylphosphinoethyl)phenylphosphine Chemical compound

Bis(diphenylphosphinoethyl)phenylphosphine is the organophosphorus compound with the formula [Ph2PCH2CH2]2PPh (Ph = C6H5). It is an air-sensitive white solid that function as tridentate ligands in coordination and organometallic chemistry.

Bis(triphenylphosphine)rhodium carbonyl chloride Chemical compound

Bis(triphenylphosphine)rhodium carbonyl chloride is the organorhodium complex with the formula [RhCl(CO)(PPh3)2]. This complex of rhodium(I) is a bright yellow, air-stable solid. It is the Rh analogue of Vaska's complex, the corresponding iridium complex. With regards to its structure, the complex is square planar with mutually trans triphenylphosphine (PPh3) ligands. The complex is a versatile homogeneous catalyst.

References

  1. W. Hewertson & H. R. Watson (1962). "283. The preparation of di- and tri-tertiary phosphines". J. Chem. Soc. : 1490–1494. doi:10.1039/JR9620001490.
  2. Huttner, G.; Strittmatter, J.; Sandhoefner, S. (2004). "Phosphorus Tripodal Ligands". Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II. Vol. 1. pp. 297–322. doi:10.1016/B0-08-043748-6/01082-3. ISBN   9780080437484.
  3. Bianchini, Claudio; Marchi, Andrea; Marvelli, Lorenza; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Romerosa, Antonio; Rossi, Roberto (1996). "Multiple Re-C Bonds at the [{MeC(CH2PPh2)3}Re(CO)2]+ Auxiliary". Organometallics . 15: 3804. doi:10.1021/om9602264.
  4. Bianchini, Claudio; Meli, Andrea; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Vizza, Francesco (1990). "Tripodal Polyphosphine Ligands in Homogeneous Catalysis. 1. Hydrogenation and Hydroformylation of Alkynes and Alkenes Assisted by Organorhodium Complexes with MeC(CH2PPh2)3". Organometallics . 9: 226–240. doi:10.1021/om00115a035.
  5. Cooper, Mervyn K.; Henrick, Kim; McPartlin, Mary & Latten, Jozef L. (1982). "The synthesis and X-ray structure of trichloro-1,1,1-(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethanetrigold(I)". Inorganica Chimica Acta . 65 (2): L185. doi:10.1016/S0020-1693(00)93540-0.