Artemisa

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Artemisa
Artemisa mausoleo.jpg
The Martyrs Mausoleum (Mausoleo de los Mártires)
Artemisa (Cuban municipal map).png
Artemisa municipality (red) within
Artemisa Province (yellow) and Cuba
Coordinates: 22°48′49″N82°45′48″W / 22.81361°N 82.76333°W / 22.81361; -82.76333 Coordinates: 22°48′49″N82°45′48″W / 22.81361°N 82.76333°W / 22.81361; -82.76333
CountryCuba
Province Artemisa
Founded1818
Incorporated1976
Founded byFrancisco de Arango y Parreño
Area
[1]
  Total690 km2 (270 sq mi)
Elevation
50 m (160 ft)
Population
 (2004) [2]
  Total81,209
  Density117.7/km2 (305/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Artemiseño, -a
Time zone UTC-5 (EST)
Area code(s) +53-47
Climate Aw

Artemisa (Spanish pronunciation:  [aɾteˈmisa] ) is a municipality and city in Cuba, formerly part of La Habana Province. According to a law approved by the Cuban National Assembly in August 2010, Artemisa became the capital city of the newly formed Artemisa Province, which comprises eight municipalities of the former La Habana Province and three from Pinar del Río. [3]

Cuba Country in the Caribbean

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometers (42,800 sq mi). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometers (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.

La Habana Province Province of Cuba

La Habana Province or formerly known as Ciudad de La Habana Province, is a province of Cuba, that includes the territory of the city of Havana, capital of the Republic.

Capital city Primary governing city of a top-level (country) or first-level subdivision (country, state, province, etc) political entity

A capital city is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government. A capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the government's offices and meeting places; the status as capital is often designated by its law or constitution. In some jurisdictions, including several countries, the different branches of government are located in different settlements. In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.

Contents

History

The origin of the name of Artemisa is uncertain. It has been argued to have originated from the Greek goddess Artemis (Diana, in the Roman version) or that it refers to the name of Ragweed in Spanish, Artemisia ( Ambrosia artemisifolia ), abundant at the time.

Greek mythology body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks

Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities, heroes, and mythological creatures, and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, and to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself.

Artemis Deity in ancient Greek religion and myth

Artemis, in the ancient Greek religion and myth, is the goddess of the hunt, the wilderness, wild animals, the Moon, and chastity.

Artemisa was an important source of fighters supporting Fidel Castro's Revolution during the attack on "Cuartel Moncada" in Santiago de Cuba (1953) and Sierra Maestra Guerrilla (19561959). The Martyrs Mausoleum (Mausoleo de los Mártires) in Artemisa is a National Monument of Cuba. [4]

Fidel Castro Former First Secretary of the Communist Party and President of Cuba

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008. A Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, Castro also served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from 1961 until 2011. Under his administration, Cuba became a one-party communist state, while industry and business were nationalized and state socialist reforms were implemented throughout society.

Cuban Revolution Revolution in Cuba between 1953 and 1959

The Cuban Revolution was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the military dictatorship of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista. The revolution began in July 1953, and continued sporadically until the rebels finally ousted Batista on 31 December 1958, replacing his government with a revolutionary socialist state. 26 July 1953 is celebrated in Cuba as the Day of the Revolution. The 26th of July Movement later reformed along communist lines, becoming the Communist Party in October 1965.

Moncada Barracks barracks

The Moncada Barracks was a military barracks in Santiago de Cuba, named after the General Guillermón Moncada, a hero of the Cuban War of Independence. On 26 July 1953, the barracks was the site of an armed attack by a small group of revolutionaries led by Fidel Castro. This armed attack is widely accepted as the beginning of the Cuban Revolution. The date on which the attack took place, 26 July, was adopted by Castro as the name for his revolutionary movement which eventually toppled the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista on 12 January 1959.

Artemisa belonged to Pinar del Río Province until 1970.

Pinar del Río Province Province of Cuba

Pinar del Río is one of the provinces of Cuba. It is at the western end of the island of Cuba.

Geography

The municipality is divided into the barrios of Las Cañas, Lavandero (El Pilar), Cayajabos, Lincoln (Andorra), Pijirigua, Puerta de la Güira, Las Mangas, Neptuno and El Corojal.

Barrio is a Spanish word meaning a quarter or neighbourhood. In Spain, several Latin American countries and the Philippines, the term is also used officially to denote a division of a municipality.

Demographics

In 2004, the municipality of Artemisa had a population of 81,209. [2] With a total area of 690 km2 (270 sq mi), [1] it has a population density of 117.7/km2 (305/sq mi).

Economy

Artemisa is widely known among Artemiseños by the name Jardín de Cuba (Garden of Cuba). Its ferric red soil is also an outstanding feature, and provides great fertility to the area, which produces banana, tobacco, sugar cane, and minor fruits. Due to the color of the soil, Artemisa is known as Villa Roja (Red Village).

Main sights

Church of Artemisa Iglesia artemisa.jpg
Church of Artemisa

Places of historical importance include the Cafetal Angerona (named after Angerona, the goddess of silence and fertility, and protector of Rome), which is currently in ruins. Its remains evoke a period of great abundance, business development, love affairs, and slavery. The cafetal belonged to the German entrepreneur Cornelio Souchay who fell in love with the black Haitian, Úrsula Lambert. The couple lived their romance in secret due to the taboos of the period.

The Hotel Campoamor, built by Asturiano Fernando González-Campoamor, has played an important role since it was finished in 1911. Many important figures visited the place, including Rita Longa, Ernest Hemingway, Juan Marinello, Gabriela Mistral, and Ignacio Villa "Bola de Nieve." Centrales azucareros (Sugar mills) Pilar and Lavandero are landmarks of the city, as well as the mansion of sugar magnate, Julio Lobo.

Artemisa's patron saint is Saint Mark the Evangelist. The church of Artemisa is located in The Park (el Parque). The building was renovated due to efforts made by Father Antonio Rodriguez Dias, the hard work and cooperation of many Artemiseños, and generous monetary donations from German brethren.

Other sites include the Artemisa Municipal Museum.

Personalities

Important personalities in the history of Cuba were born or lived in Artemisa. Among them Magdalena Peñaredonda, a poet and journalist, appointed as captain of rebel forces during the war of independence, Father Guillermo González Arocha, born in Regla, but whose significant contribution to the independence of Cuba was carried out while a priest in Artemisa, is considered an adopted son of the city. This priest also founded a school and had the cemetery of the city built.

See also

Related Research Articles

Provinces of Cuba

Administratively, Cuba is divided into 15 provinces and a special municipality that is not included in any province. The last modification was approved in August 2010, splitting Havana province into two new provinces: Artemisa and Mayabeque. The new provinces started functioning from January 1, 2011. Havana City Province recovered its original name: La Habana.

Cienfuegos Province Province of Cuba

Cienfuegos is one of the provinces of Cuba. The capital city of the province is also called Cienfuegos and was founded by French settlers in 1819.

Ranked list of Cuban provinces

Ranked list of provinces of Cuba. Note: In summer 2010, it was decided to divide province of La Habana into two new provinces: Artemisa and Mayabeque, with effect from 1 January 2011.

Bauta, Cuba Municipality in Artemisa, Cuba

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Guanajay Municipality in Artemisa, Cuba

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Cruces, Cuba Municipality in Cienfuegos, Cuba

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Viñales Municipality in Pinar del Río, Cuba

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La Habana (baseball) defunct Cuban National Series baseball team representing Havana Province

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Municipalities of Cuba

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Camajuaní Municipality in Villa Clara, Cuba

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San Cristóbal, Cuba Municipality in Artemisa, Cuba

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Candelaria, Cuba Municipality in Artemisa, Cuba

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Caimito, Cuba Municipality in Artemisa, Cuba

Caimito is a municipality and town in Artemisa Province of Cuba. The town was founded in 1820. The municipality of Caimito del Guayabal was created in 1910, based on the previously existing (1879-1902) municipality of Guayabal in the Pinar del Río Province. Since 1976, the official name is Caimito.

San José de las Lajas Municipality in Mayabeque, Cuba

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Sierra del Rosario Mountain range of Cuba

Sierra del Rosario is a mountain range in the provinces of Pinar del Río and Artemisa, western Cuba. It is located in the eastern part of the Guaniguanico range and, along with the Sierra de los Órganos, is part of it.

Mayabeque Province Province of Cuba

Mayabeque Province is one of two new provinces created from the former La Habana Province, whose creation was approved by the Cuban National Assembly on August 1, 2010, the other being Artemisa Province. The new provinces were enforced on January 1, 2011.

Artemisa Province Province of Cuba

Artemisa Province is one of the two new provinces created from the former La Habana Province, whose creation was approved by the Cuban National Assembly on August 1, 2010, the other being Mayabeque Province. The new provinces were enforced on January 1, 2011.

References

  1. 1 2 Statoids (July 2003). "Municipios of Cuba". Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
  2. 1 2 Atenas.cu (2004). "2004 Population trends, by Province and Municipality" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2006-07-14. Retrieved 2007-10-07.
  3. http://www.cubadebate.cu/noticias/2010/06/07/cuba-tiene-dos-nuevas-provincias-artemisa-y-mayabeque/
  4. National Council for Cultural Heritage. "National Monuments in Cuba" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2007-12-11. Retrieved 2007-10-09.

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