Bayamo

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Bayamo
Boulevard of Bayamo.jpg
The "Boulevard" of Bayamo
Bayamo (Cuban municipal map).png
Bayamo municipality (red) in
Granma Province (yellow) and Cuba
Coordinates: 20°22′54″N76°38′34″W / 20.38167°N 76.64278°W / 20.38167; -76.64278 Coordinates: 20°22′54″N76°38′34″W / 20.38167°N 76.64278°W / 20.38167; -76.64278
Country Cuba
Province Granma
EstablishedNovember 15, 1513 [1]
Incorporated 1827 (city)
Area
[2]
  Total918 km2 (354 sq mi)
Elevation
55 m (180 ft)
Population
 (2004) [3]
  Total222,118
  Density242.0/km2 (627/sq mi)
Time zone UTC-5 (EST)
Postal code
85100
Area code(s) +53 23
Vehicle registration G
Urban agriculture in Bayamo Urban-agriculture-cuba-1.jpg
Urban agriculture in Bayamo

Bayamo is the capital city of the Granma Province of Cuba and one of the largest cities in the Oriente region.

Granma Province Province of Cuba

Granma is one of the provinces of Cuba. Its capital is Bayamo. Other towns include Manzanillo and Pilón.

Cuba Country in the Caribbean

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometers (42,800 sq mi). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometers (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.

Oriente Province former province in Cuba

Oriente, known as Santiago de Cuba Province before 1905, was one of six provinces of Cuba until 1976. The earlier name is still used to refer to the eastern part of the country. Fidel and Raúl Castro were born in its provincial capital, Santiago de Cuba.

Contents

Overview

The community of Bayamo lies on a plain by the Bayamo River. It is affected by the violent Bayamo wind.

A bayamo is a violent wind blowing from the land on the south coast of Cuba, especially near the Bight of Bayamo. It is also the namesake for Giddings and Webster's most popular tuba mouthpiece.

One of the most important education institutions in the province is the University of Granma.

The University of Granma is a university located in Bayamo, Cuba.

History

Bayamo was the second of the seven cities founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar; it was established on November 5, 1513. [4] Francisco Iznaga, [5] a Basque landowner in the western portion of Cuba during the first 30 years of the colonization of Cuba, was elected mayor in 1540. Iznaga was the originator of a powerful lineage that finally settled in Trinidad, where the Torre Iznaga (Iznaga Tower) is. His descendants fought for the independence of Cuba and for annexation to the U.S., from 1820 to 1900.

Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Spanish governor of Cuba

Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar was a Spanish conquistador. He conquered and governed Cuba on behalf of Spain and moved Havana from the south coast of western Cuba to the north coast, placing it well as a port for Spanish trade.

Trinidad, Cuba Municipality in Sancti Spíritus, Cuba

Trinidad is a town in the province of Sancti Spíritus, central Cuba. Together with the nearby Valle de los Ingenios, it has been a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1988.

During much of the 16th century it was one of the most important agricultural and commercial settlements of the island. Its inland situation gave it relative security against the pirates who infested West Indian seas, and the misfortunes of Santiago were the fortunes of Bayamo. Down the Cauto River, then open to the sea for vessels of 200 tons, and through Manzanillo, Bayamo drove a thriving contraband trade that made it the leading town of Cuba at the opening of the 17th century. [4]

Caribbean Region to the center-east of America composed of many islands / coastal regions surrounding the Caribbean Sea

The Caribbean is a region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Santiago de Cuba City in Cuba

Santiago de Cuba is the second-largest city in Cuba and the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province. It lies in the southeastern area of the island, some 870 km (540 mi) southeast of the Cuban capital of Havana.

Cauto River river in Cuba

The Cauto River or Río Cauto is the longest river of Cuba. Located in southeast Cuba, it is one of two navigable rivers in Cuba, with the other being the Sagua la Grande River.

A tremendous flood, in 1616, choked the Cauto with trees and wrecked vessels, cutting it off from direct access to the sea; but through Manzanillo it continued a great clandestine traffic with Curaçao, Jamaica, and other foreign islands throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. Bayamo was then surrounded by fine plantations. [4]

Curaçao Island country in the Caribbean, part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Curaçao is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about 65 km (40 mi) north of the Venezuelan coast. It is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Jamaica Country in the Caribbean

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola ; the British Overseas Territory of the Cayman Islands lies some 215 kilometres (134 mi) to the north-west.

In 1827 it acquired the status of city. In the war of 18681878 it was an insurgent stronghold. One of the most desperate conflicts of the war was fought nearby, and it was nearly destroyed by the opposing parties. [4]

Demographics

In 2004, the municipality of Bayamo had a population of 222,118. [3] With a total area of 918 km2 (354 sq mi), [2] it has a population density of 242.0/km2 (627/sq mi).

Transportation

Bayamo is an under-recognized world leader in sustainable transportation. Per a UN study only about 15% of commuters rely on motorized transport and almost three times as many (39%) rely on about 500 licensed horse-drawn carriages generally following fixed routes. The rest of the non-pedestrian traffic is bicycle and bicycle taxi. [6] [7]

Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Airport satisfies the city's commercial aviation needs; it has service to Havana on Cubana Airlines.

Notable residents

See also

Related Research Articles

La Bayamesa national anthem

El Himno de Bayamo is the national anthem of Cuba. The anthem was first performed during the Battle of Bayamo in 1868. Perucho Figueredo, who took part in the battle, wrote and composed the song. The melody, also called La Bayamesa, was composed by Figueredo in 1867.

Sancti Spíritus Province Province of Cuba

Sancti Spíritus is one of the provinces of Cuba. Its capital is the identically named Sancti Spíritus. Another major city is Trinidad.

Ten Years War armed conflict in Cuba between 1868 and 1878

The Ten Years' War (1868–1878), also known as the Great War and the War of '68, was part of Cuba's fight for independence from Spain. The uprising was led by Cuban-born planters and other wealthy natives. On October 10, 1868 sugar mill owner Carlos Manuel de Céspedes and his followers proclaimed independence, beginning the conflict. This was the first of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Little War (1879–1880) and the Cuban War of Independence (1895–1898). The final three months of the last conflict escalated with United States involvement, leading to the Spanish–American War.

Sancti Spíritus Municipality in Cuba

Sancti Spíritus is a municipality and capital city of the province of Sancti Spíritus in central Cuba and one of the oldest Cuban European settlements. Sancti Spíritus is the genitive case of Latin Sanctus Spiritus.

Manzanillo, Cuba Municipality in Granma, Cuba

Manzanillo is a municipality and city in the Granma Province of Cuba. By population, it is the 14th largest Cuban city and the most populated one not being a provincial seat.

Palma Soriano Municipality in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Palma Soriano is a Cuban city and municipality in the Santiago de Cuba Province. With a population of 76,179 in the city proper, it is the 2nd in the province and the 16th in Cuba.

Yara, Cuba Municipality in Granma, Cuba

Yara is a small town and municipality in the Granma Province of Cuba, located halfway between the cities of Bayamo and Manzanillo, in the Gulf of Guacanayabo. Yara means "place" in the Taíno language.

Alazanes de Granma baseball team

Alazanes de Granma is a baseball team in the Cuban National Series, based in the eastern province of Granma. Until the 2016-2017 season, the Alazanes were a frequent contender, but had never advanced to a National Series final. However, in 2017 Granma not only made it to the Cuban National Series final, but swept Ciego de Ávila to win the series, breaking a 40-year record of being seen as underdogs who could not compete with dominant powerhouse teams.

Francisco Vicente Aguilera Patriot

Francisco Vicente Aguilera was a Cuban patriot born in Bayamo, Cuba on June 23, 1821. He had ten children with his wife Ana Manuela Maria Dolores Sebastiana Kindelan y Sanchez. He studied at the University of Havana receiving the degree of Bachelor of Laws.

Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Airport airport in Cuba

Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Airport is a regional airport serving the city of Bayamo in the Granma Province of Cuba. It is named for Carlos Manuel de Céspedes.

Urbano Noris Municipality in Holguín, Cuba

Urbano Noris is a municipality and city in the Holguín Province of Cuba. The municipal seat is located in the town of San Germán.

Buey Arriba Municipality in Granma, Cuba

Buey Arriba is a municipality and town in the Granma Province of Cuba. It is located 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Bayamo, the provincial capital.

Cauto Cristo Municipality in Granma, Cuba

Cauto Cristo is a municipality and town in the Granma Province of Cuba. It is located on the banks of the Río Cauto, in the western part of the province, bordering the provinces of Holguín and Las Tunas.

Río Cauto, Cuba Municipality in Granma, Cuba

Río Cauto is a municipality and town in the Granma Province of Cuba. It is located in the northern part of the province, upstream of the mouth of Cauto River.

Bartolomé Masó Cuban politician, military and patriot

Bartolomé de Jesús Masó Márquez was a Cuban politician and military, patriot for Cuban independence from the colonial power of Spain, and later President of the República en Armas.

Úrsula Céspedes 19th century poet

Úrsula Céspedes was a Cuban poet and founder of the Academia Santa Úrsula in Manzanillo, Cuba, originally from Bayamo, Cuba.

Circuito Sur de Oriente Highway in Cuba

The Circuito Sur de Oriente (CSO), meaning "Southern Circuit of the Orient", is a west-east highway connecting Bayamo to Santiago de Cuba, through Manzanillo, Niquero and the southern coastal side of eastern Cuba, below the Sierra Maestra mountain range. Also known as Circuito Guacanayabo-Sur de Oriente, because it crosses the Gulf of Guacanayabo, the name Oriente, refers to the ancient and former Oriente Province. With a length of 347 km, it is the fourth-longest Cuban highway after the "Carretera Central", the "Circuito Norte" and the "Circuito Sur".

References

  1. Guije.com. "Bayamo" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
  2. 1 2 Statoids (July 2003). "Municipios of Cuba". Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
  3. 1 2 Atenas.cu (2004). "2004 Population trends, by Province and Municipality" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2006-07-14. Retrieved 2007-10-06.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bayamo". Encyclopædia Britannica . 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 553–554.
  5. Jorge Iznaga. FRANCISCO IZNAGA Iznaga Genealogy (IZNAGA - 1420 - Present), Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  6. "Getting the carriages out, Cuban-style". UN-HABITAT. 2004-07-20. Archived from the original on 2017-07-31. Retrieved 2017-07-31.
  7. Jon Petrie. "Bayamo, an unacknowledged leader in horse dependent/ ecological transport". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on 2017-07-31. Retrieved 2017-07-31.

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