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An autobiographical novel is a form of novel using autofiction techniques, or the merging of autobiographical and fictive elements. The literary technique is distinguished from an autobiography or memoir by the stipulation of being fiction. Because an autobiographical novel is partially fiction, the author does not ask the reader to expect the text to fulfill the "autobiographical pact".Names and locations are often changed and events are recreated to make them more dramatic but the story still bears a close resemblance to that of the author's life. While the events of the author's life are recounted, there is no pretense of exact truth. Events may be exaggerated or altered for artistic or thematic purposes.
Novels that portray settings and/or situations with which the author is familiar are not necessarily autobiographical. Neither are novels that include aspects drawn from the author's life as minor plot details. To be considered an autobiographical novel by most standards, there must be a protagonist modeled after the author and a central plotline that mirrors events in his or her life.
Novels that do not fully meet these requirements or are further distanced from true events are sometimes called semi-autobiographical novels.
Many novels about intense, private experiences such as war, family conflict or sex, are written as autobiographical novels.
Some works openly refer to themselves as "non-fiction novels". The definition of such works remains vague. The term was first widely used in reference to the non-autobiographical In Cold Blood by Truman Capote but has since become associated with a range of works drawing openly from autobiography. The emphasis is on the creation of a work that is essentially true, often in the context of an investigation into values or some other aspect of reality. The books Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance by Robert M. Pirsig and The Tao of Muhammad Ali by Davis Miller open with statements admitting to some fictionalising of events but state they are true "in essence".
|James Agee||A Death in the Family||1957|
|Louisa May Alcott||Little Women||1868|
|Sherman Alexie||The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian||2007|
|Maya Angelou||I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings||1969|
|James Baldwin||Go Tell It on the Mountain||1953|
|J. G. Ballard||Empire of the Sun||1984|
|John Barth||Once Upon a Time: A Floating Opera||1994|
|Saul Bellow||The Adventures of Augie March||1953|
|George Borrow||Lavengro: The Scholar, the Gypsy, the Priest||1851|
|Rita Mae Brown||Rubyfruit Jungle||1973|
|Charles Bukowski||Post Office||1971|
|William S. Burroughs||Junkie||1953|
|Samuel Butler||The Way of All Flesh||1903|
|Louis Ferdinand Céline||Journey to the End of the Night||1932|
|J. M. Coetzee||Boyhood: Scenes from Provincial Life||1997|
|J. M. Coetzee||Youth: Scenes from Provincial Life II||2002|
|J. M. Coetzee||Summertime||2009|
|Charles Dickens||David Copperfield||1850|
|Charles Dickens||Great Expectations||1861|
|Nodar Dumbadze||Granny, Iliko, Illarion, and I||1960|
|Nodar Dumbadze||The Sunny Night||1967|
|Marguerite Duras||The Lover||1984|
|George Eliot||The Mill on the Floss||1860|
|Ralph Ellison||Invisible Man||1952|
|Frederick Exley||A Fan's Notes||1967|
|F. Scott Fitzgerald||This Side of Paradise||1920|
|James Frey||A Million Little Pieces||2003|
|James Frey||My Friend Leonard||2005|
|Jean Genet||The Thief's Journal||1949|
|Jean Genet||Our Lady of the Flowers||1943|
|John Green||Looking for Alaska||2005|
|Graham Greene||The End of the Affair||1951|
|Ernest Hemingway||A Farewell to Arms||1929|
|Homer Hickam||October Sky||1998|
|Thomas Hughes||Tom Brown's School Days||1857|
|James Joyce||A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man||1916|
|Jack Kerouac||On the Road||1957|
|Jack Kerouac||The Dharma Bums||1958|
|Karl Ove Knausgård||My Struggle series||2009–2011|
|D. H. Lawrence||Sons and Lovers||1913|
|Tao Lin||Richard Yates||2010|
|Jack London||John Barleycorn||1913|
|Fitz Hugh Ludlow||The Hasheesh Eater||1857|
|Norman Maclean||A River Runs Through It and Other Stories||1976|
|W. Somerset Maugham||Of Human Bondage||1915|
|Henry Miller||Tropic of Cancer||1934|
|Henry Miller||Tropic of Capricorn||1939|
|Davis Miller||The Tao of Muhammad Ali||1996|
|Sandy Mitchell||Ciaphas Cain||2003|
|Tim O'Brien||The Things They Carried||1990|
|Kenzaburō Ōe||A Personal Matter||1964|
|Robert M. Pirsig||Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance||1973|
|Sylvia Plath||The Bell Jar||1963|
|Marcel Proust||In Search of Lost Time||1927|
|Gregory David Roberts||Shantaram||2003|
|Mona Simpson||Anywhere but Here||1986|
|Gertrude Stein||The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas||1933|
|Hunter S. Thompson||Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas||1971|
|Denton Welch||A Voice Through a Cloud||1950|
|Denton Welch||Maiden Voyage||1943|
|Jeanette Winterson||Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit||1985|
|Thomas Wolfe||Of Time and the River||1935|
|Thomas Wolfe||Look Homeward, Angel||1929|
|Tobias Wolff||Old School||2003|
|Annie Ernaux||The Years||2008|
An autobiography, sometimes informally called an autobio, is a self-written account of one's own life.
A false document is a technique by which an author aims to increase verisimilitude in a work of fiction by inventing and inserting or mentioning documents that appear to be factual. The goal of a false document is to convince an audience that what is being presented is factual.
Nonfiction is any document or media content that attempts, in good faith, to provide accurate information regarding a real-world topic. It is written to communicate facts or opinions about reality. Nonfictional content may be presented either objectively or subjectively. Nonfiction is one of the fundamental divisions of narrative writing — in contrast to fiction, largely populated by imaginary characters and events, though sometimes ambiguous regarding its basis in reality.
Roman à clef, French for novel with a key, is a novel about real-life events that is overlaid with a façade of fiction. The fictitious names in the novel represent real people, and the "key" is the relationship between the nonfiction and the fiction. This metaphorical key may be produced separately—typically as an explicit guide to the text by the author—or implied, through the use of epigraphs or other literary techniques.
A ghostwriter is hired to write literary or journalistic works, speeches, or other texts that are officially credited to another person as the author. Celebrities, executives, participants in timely news stories, and political leaders often hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, memoirs, magazine articles, or other written material. Memoir ghostwriters often pride themselves in "disappearing" when impersonating others since such disappearance signals the quality of their craftsmanship. In music, ghostwriters are often used to write songs, lyrics, and instrumental pieces. Screenplay authors can also use ghostwriters to either edit or rewrite their scripts to improve them. Usually, there is a confidentiality clause in the contract between the ghostwriter and the credited author that obligates the former to remain anonymous. Sometimes the ghostwriter is acknowledged by the author or publisher for their writing services, euphemistically called a "researcher" or "research assistant", but often the ghostwriter is not credited.
Creative nonfiction is a genre of writing that uses literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives. Creative nonfiction contrasts with other nonfiction, such as academic or technical writing or journalism, which are also rooted in accurate fact though not written to entertain based on prose style. Many writers view creative nonfiction as overlapping with the essay.
An autobiographical comic is an autobiography in the form of comic books or comic strips. The form first became popular in the underground comix movement and has since become more widespread. It is currently most popular in Canadian, American and French comics; all artists listed below are from the U.S. unless otherwise specified.
Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit is a novel by Jeanette Winterson published in 1985 by Pandora Press. It is a coming-of-age story about a lesbian girl who grows up in an English Pentecostal community. Key themes of the book include transition from youth to adulthood, complex family relationships, same-sex relationships, organised religion and the concept of faith.
Fannie Hurst was an American novelist and short-story writer whose works were highly popular during the post-World War I era. Her work combined sentimental, romantic themes with social issues of the day, such as women's rights and race relations. She was one of the most widely read female authors of the 20th century, and for a time in the 1920s she was one of the highest-paid American writers. Hurst also actively supported a number of social causes, including feminism, African American equality, and New Deal programs.
Fiction writing is the composition of non-factual prose texts. Fictional writing often is produced as a story meant to entertain or convey an author's point of view. The result of this may be a short story, novel, novella, screenplay, or drama, which are all types of fictional writing styles. Different types of authors practice fictional writing, including novelists, playwrights, short story writers, radio dramatists and screenwriters.
Inspirational fiction is a sub-category within the broader categories of "inspirational literature" or "inspirational writing." It has become more common for booksellers and libraries to consider inspirational fiction to be a separate genre, classifying and shelving books accordingly. Reasons for this include the increased popularity of inspirational fiction in recent years, and the appeal of inspirational fiction beyond readers of the genre that these books would otherwise be classified in.
The non-fiction novel is a literary genre which, broadly speaking, depicts real historical figures and actual events woven together with fictitious conversations and uses the storytelling techniques of fiction. The non-fiction novel is an otherwise loosely defined and flexible genre. The genre is sometimes referred to using the slang term "faction", a portmanteau of the words fact and fiction.
In literary criticism, autofiction is a form of fictionalized autobiography.
Miracles of Life is an autobiography written by British writer J. G. Ballard and published in 2008.
Fiction is any creative work, chiefly any narrative work, portraying individuals, events, or places in ways that are imaginary or inconsistent with history, fact, or plausibility. In a narrow sense, "fiction" refers to written narratives in prose – often referring specifically to novels, novellas, and short stories. More broadly, however, fiction encompasses imaginary narratives expressed in any medium, including not just writings but also live theatrical performances, films, television programs, radio dramas, comics, role-playing games, and video games.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, typically written in prose and published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian: novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin: novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Some novelists, including Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Ann Radcliffe, John Cowper Powys, preferred the term "romance" to describe their novels.
The term Bible fiction refers to works of fiction which use characters, settings and events taken from the Bible. The degree of fictionalization in these works varies and, although they are often written by Christians or Jews, this is not always the case.
When studying literature, biography and its relationship to literature is often a subject of literary criticism, and is treated in several different forms. Two scholarly approaches use biography or biographical approaches to the past as a tool for interpreting literature: literary biography and biographical criticism. Conversely, two genres of fiction rely heavily on the incorporation of biographical elements into their content: biographical fiction and autobiographical fiction.
Autobiografiction is a literary fiction genre that blends autobiography with fiction; it fictionalizes autobiographical experiences, often by altering them, attributing them to fictional characters or reinventing them into other experiences. The concept of autobiografiction was invented by Stephen Reynolds in 1906, and then researched and described in depth by Max Saunders in 2010.