Baritone saxophone

Last updated

Baritone saxophone
Baritone saxophone.jpg
Woodwind instrument
Classification
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 422.212-71
(Single-reed aerophone with keys)
Inventor(s) Adolphe Sax
Developed28 June 1846 [1]
Playing range
Baritone saxophone
Baritone saxophone in E♭ sounds an octave and a major sixth lower than written. Many models have keys for low C (written low A) and high F♯.
Related instruments
Military band saxophones: Orchestral saxophones: Other saxophones:
Musicians
List of saxophonists
More articles or information
Saxophone

The baritone saxophone is a member of the saxophone family of instruments, larger (and lower-pitched) than the tenor saxophone, but smaller (and higher-pitched) than the bass. It is the lowest-pitched saxophone in common use - the bass, contrabass and subcontrabass saxophones are relatively uncommon. Like all saxophones, it is a single-reed instrument. It is commonly used in concert bands, chamber music, military bands, big bands, and jazz combos. It can also be found in other ensembles such as rock bands and marching bands. Modern baritone saxophones are pitched in E.

Contents

History

The baritone saxophone was created in 1846 by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax as one of a family of 14 instruments. Sax believed these instruments would provide a useful tonal link between the woodwinds and brasses. The family was divided into two groups of seven saxophones each, from the soprano to the contrabass. Though a design for an F baritone saxophone is included in the C and F family of saxophones, no known F baritones exist. [2] The family consisting of saxophones in the keys of B and E was more successful because of their popularity in military bands. [3]

All saxophones were originally keyed to low B, but a low B mechanism was patented in 1887 [4] and by 1910 this was standard for most saxophones including baritones. This low B is a concert D on baritone saxophone, and players began creating 'low A pipes' to insert into the bell to extend the range to the very useful concert C just below that (low A on the baritone sax). This made the low B inaccessible and low B out of tune. [5] This method is still used today by some players. [6] From the 1930s through the 1950s, manufacturers experimented with extending the bell to add a low A key to the instrument. The simplest way was to add a cylindrical section between the bell and bow to provide the extra length and tone hole, and some makers produced and sold instruments built this way, but these horns generally suffer from intonation problems in the lowest few notes and players often consider their tone poor as well. Selmer Paris began producing low A versions of the Mark VI baritone saxophone in the late 1950s which had a bell that had been designed separately from the low B version (such a bell may have been a custom-order option before this time), and these instruments do not generally suffer from the same intonation problems as horns with a cylindrical extension. In the 1970s, Yamaha's YBS-61 was keyed to low A with no low B option, and by the 1980s most baritones were being manufactured with a low A bell. In modern times, only a few manufacturers still produce low B instruments, as the low A is considered standard and is often written in sheet music for the instrument.

In its original form, the baritone saxophone's highest keyed note was high E, but instruments keyed to high F became standard during the 1920s. High F became a rare option starting in the 1950s and slowly became more common, but as with other modern saxophones, most baritones are now manufactured with a high F key.

Description

The baritone saxophone, like other saxophones, is a conical tube of thin brass. It has a wider end, flared to form a bell, and a smaller end connected to a mouthpiece. The baritone saxophone uses a single reed mouthpiece like that of a clarinet. There is a loop in the top of the body (sometimes also known as the 'pigtail') in two U-shaped pieces of tube called the upper bow and spit bow, to reduce it to a practical height.

Baritone saxophones are typically found in two versions with one ranging to low A and the other to low B. [7] Despite the ubiquity of the low A horn, some players still prefer to use B horns because of the added weight of a low A bell [6] or because of personal preference for a particular vintage instrument. Some also believe low A horns sound inferior in the low range, [6] however this is the subject of debate among players.

The baritone saxophone's relatively large mass (11 to 20 pounds or 5.0 to 9.1 kilograms, depending on the manufacturer's choice of material and structural designs, and whether it has a low A key) has led to the development of harness-style alternatives to neckstraps which distribute the instrument's weight across the user's shoulders. [8] Several different kinds exist which each distribute weight differently across the saxophonist's neck, clavicle, and shoulder blades. Many marching saxophonists prefer this style for its ability to decrease fatigue. Those who mainly perform seated, on the other hand, may dislike the decreased ability to move one's upper body with a harness. [8] Some modern instruments are also produced with mounts for floor pegs to reduce weight on the player's neck when seated, similar to those found on bass clarinets.

Transposition

It is a transposing instrument in the key of E, pitched an octave plus a major sixth lower than written. It is one octave lower than the alto saxophone. Modern baritones with a low A key and high F key have a range from C2 to A4.

As with all saxophones, its music is written in treble clef. By coincidence, it is possible to use a trick known as clef substitution to read music written in bass clef at concert pitch (for example most tuba or bassoon parts), by reading as if it were a transposing part in treble clef and pretending there were three more sharps (or three fewer flats) in the key signature. A similar trick allows instruments in B like the tenor saxophone to read concert pitch tenor clef.

In classical music

The baritone saxophone is used as a standard member of saxophone quartets.

It has also been occasionally called for in music for orchestra. Examples include Richard Strauss' Sinfonia Domestica , which calls for a baritone saxophone in F; Béla Bartók's The Wooden Prince ballet music; Charles Ives' Symphony No. 4 , composed in 1910–1916; and Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue [ citation needed ] and An American in Paris . In his opera The Devils of Loudun (Die Teufel von Loudun), Krzysztof Penderecki calls for two baritone saxes. Karlheinz Stockhausen includes a baritone saxophone in Gruppen .

It has a comparatively small solo repertoire although an increasing number of concertos have appeared, one of these being "Concerto for Saxophone Quartet and Orchestra" by American composer Philip Glass. This is a piece that can be played with or without an orchestra that features the baritone sax in the second movement. [9]

In jazz music

A number of jazz performers have used the baritone saxophone as their primary instrument. It is part of standard big band instrumentation (the larger bass saxophone was also occasionally used up until the 1940s). As phrased by Alain Cupper from JazzBariSax.com, "Used a few times in contemporary classical music...it is especially in jazz that this wonderful instrument feels most comfortable." [10] One of the instrument's pioneers was Harry Carney, longtime baritone saxophone player in the Duke Ellington band.

Since the mid-1950s, baritone saxophone soloists such as Gerry Mulligan, Cecil Payne, and Pepper Adams achieved fame, while Serge Chaloff was the first baritone saxophone player to achieve fame as a bebop soloist. In free jazz, Peter Brötzmann is notable.

A noted Scottish performer is Joe Temperley, who has appeared with Humphrey Lyttelton as well as with the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra.

More recent notable performers include Hamiet Bluiett (who has also led a group of baritone saxophone players), John Surman, Scott Robinson, James Carter, Stephen "Doc" Kupka of the band Tower of Power, Nick Brignola, Gary Smulyan, Brian Landrus, and Ronnie Cuber. In the avant-garde scene, Tim Berne has doubled on bari. Jazz/funk player Leo Pellegrino of Lucky Chops and Too Many Zooz has become popular with younger listeners for his aggressive playing style and energetic performances.

In other music

Baritone saxophonist in a military band of the Italian army. Italia military music saxophone.jpg
Baritone saxophonist in a military band of the Italian army.

The baritone sax is an important part of military bands and is common in musical theater. The baritone sax appeared in many early rock-and-roll hits of the 1950s, played a prominent role in many Motown hits of the 1960s, notably by King Curtis, and appeared in the 1970s and beyond in acts such as Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band, played by Clarence Clemons. It is often in the horn sections of funk, blues, Latin, soul bands.

Prominent baritone saxophonists in contemporary American popular music include Stephen Kupka of Tower of Power, Dana Colley of Morphine, Leroi Moore of the Dave Matthews Band, and John Linnell of They Might Be Giants.

Nigerian Afrobeat singer, musician, and bandleader Fela Kuti typically featured two baritone saxophone players in his band.[ citation needed ]

A few modern non-jazz artists have recently begun to incorporate saxophones into their instrumentation. The LA Indie rock band Fitz and the Tantrums featured both an alto and a baritone saxophone in their music—most recently their 2016 song "Handclap" from an album of the same name. Both were played by band member James King. [11] [12] The "Brass house" (experimental jazz/funk) group Too Many Zooz is another group that has popularized the baritone saxophone. Originally a New York City subway band, the trio has released three albums and been featured on a TEDxYouth@Budapest segment. [13] [14]

Lisa Simpson from the cartoon comedy series The Simpsons plays the baritone sax. [15]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Euphonium</span> Brass instrument

The euphonium is a medium-sized, 3 or 4-valve, often compensating, conical-bore, tenor-voiced brass instrument that derives its name from the Ancient Greek word εὔφωνος euphōnos, meaning "well-sounding" or "sweet-voiced". The euphonium is a valved instrument. Nearly all current models have piston valves, though some models with rotary valves do exist.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saxophone</span> Single-reed woodwind instrument

The saxophone is a type of single-reed woodwind instrument with a conical body, usually made of brass. As with all single-reed instruments, sound is produced when a reed on a mouthpiece vibrates to produce a sound wave inside the instrument's body. The pitch is controlled by opening and closing holes in the body to change the effective length of the tube. The holes are closed by leather pads attached to keys operated by the player. Saxophones are made in various sizes and are almost always treated as transposing instruments. Saxophone players are called saxophonists.

Saxhorn Family of valved brass instruments

The saxhorn is a family of valved brass instruments that have conical bores and deep cup-shaped mouthpieces. The saxhorn family was developed by Adolphe Sax, who is also known for creating the saxophone family. The sound of the saxhorn has a characteristic mellow tone quality and blends well with other brass.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trombone</span> Brass instrument played with a slide

The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. As with all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player's vibrating lips (embouchure) cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. Most brass instruments use valves to alter the pitch, but trombones have a telescoping slide mechanism instead. Many modern trombone models also have a valve attachment which lowers the pitch of the instrument. Variants such as the valve trombone and superbone have three valves similar to those on the trumpet.

Tuba Brass instrument

The tuba is the lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family. As with all brass instruments, the sound is produced by lip vibration – a buzz – into a mouthpiece. It first appeared in the mid-19th century, making it one of the newer instruments in the modern orchestra and concert band. The tuba largely replaced the ophicleide. Tuba is Latin for "trumpet".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clef</span> Musical symbol used to indicate the pitch of written notes

A clef is a musical symbol used to indicate which notes are represented by the lines and spaces on a musical stave. Placing a clef on a stave assigns a particular pitch to one of the five lines, which defines the pitches on the remaining lines and spaces.

Transposing instrument Musical instrument for which notated pitch differs from sounding pitch

A transposing instrument is a musical instrument for which music notation is not written at concert pitch. For example, playing a written middle C on a transposing instrument produces a pitch other than middle C; that sounding pitch identifies the interval of transposition when describing the instrument. Playing a written C on clarinet or soprano saxophone produces a concert B, so these are referred to as B instruments. Providing transposed music for these instruments is a convention of musical notation. The instruments do not transpose the music; rather, their music is written at a transposed pitch. Where chords are indicated for improvisation they are also written in the appropriate transposed form.

Baritone horn Low-pitched brass instrument

The baritone horn, or sometimes just called baritone, is a low-pitched brass instrument in the saxhorn family. It is a piston-valve brass instrument with a bore that is mostly conical but it has a narrower bore compared to the similarly pitched euphonium. It uses a wide-rimmed cup mouthpiece like that of its peers, the trombone and euphonium. Like the trombone and the euphonium, the baritone horn can be considered either a transposing or non-transposing instrument.

Tenor horn Brass instrument in the saxhorn family

The tenor horn is a brass instrument in the saxhorn family and is usually pitched in E. It has a bore that is mostly conical, like the flugelhorn and euphonium, and normally uses a deep, cornet-like mouthpiece.

Bass clarinet Member of the clarinet family

The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. Like the more common soprano B clarinet, it is usually pitched in B, but it plays notes an octave below the soprano B clarinet. Bass clarinets in other keys, notably C and A, also exist, but are very rare. Bass clarinets regularly perform in orchestras, wind ensembles and concert bands, and occasionally in marching bands, and play an occasional solo role in contemporary music and jazz in particular.

Contrabass clarinet Very low pitched instrument of the clarinet family

The contrabass clarinet and contra-alto clarinet are the two largest members of the clarinet family that are in common usage. Modern contrabass clarinets are pitched in B, sounding two octaves lower than the common B soprano clarinet and one octave lower than the B bass clarinet. Some contrabass clarinet models have a range extending down to low (written) E, while others can play down to low D or even further to low C. This range, C3 – D6, sounds B0 – C4, see the image to the right. Some early instruments were pitched in C; Arnold Schoenberg's Fünf Orchesterstücke specifies a contrabass clarinet in A, but there is no evidence of such an instrument ever having existed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Alto saxophone</span> Type of saxophone

The alto saxophone is a member of the saxophone family of woodwind instruments. Saxophones were invented by Belgian instrument designer Adolphe Sax in the 1840s and patented in 1846. The alto saxophone is pitched in E, smaller than the B tenor but larger than the B soprano. It is the most common saxophone and is used in popular music, concert bands, chamber music, solo repertoire, military bands, marching bands, pep bands, and jazz.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tenor saxophone</span> Type of saxophone

The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the saxophone family, a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s. The tenor and the alto are the two most commonly used saxophones. The tenor is pitched in the key of B (while the alto is pitched in the key of E), and written as a transposing instrument in the treble clef, sounding an octave and a major second lower than the written pitch. Modern tenor saxophones which have a high F key have a range from A2 to E5 (concert) and are therefore pitched one octave below the soprano saxophone. People who play the tenor saxophone are known as "tenor saxophonists", "tenor sax players", or "saxophonists".

Contra-alto clarinet Low pitched instrument

The contra-alto clarinet, E♭ contrabass clarinet, or great bass clarinet is a large clarinet pitched a perfect fifth below the B♭ bass clarinet. It is a transposing instrument in E♭ sounding an octave and a major sixth below its written pitch. As it is pitched between the bass clarinet and the B♭ contrabass clarinet, the contra-alto clarinet is the great bass member of the clarinet family.

The soprano saxophone is a higher-register variety of the saxophone, a woodwind instrument invented in the 1840s. The soprano is the third-smallest member of the saxophone family, which consists of the soprillo, sopranino, soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass, contrabass saxophone and tubax. Soprano saxophones are the smallest and thus highest-pitched saxophone in common use.

The bass oboe or baritone oboe is a double reed instrument in the woodwind family. It is essentially twice the size of a regular (soprano) oboe so it sounds an octave lower which is why it's sometimes called a true tenor oboe; it has a deep, full tone somewhat akin to that of its higher-pitched cousin, the English horn. The bass oboe is notated in the treble clef, sounding one octave lower than written. Its lowest note is B2 (in scientific pitch notation), one octave and a semitone below middle C, although an extension w/ an additional key may be inserted between the lower joint and bell of the instrument in order to produce a low B2. The instrument's bocal or crook first curves away from and then toward the player (unlike the bocal/crook of the English horn and oboe d'amore), looking rather like a flattened metal question mark; another crook design resembles the shape of a bass clarinet neckpiece. The bass oboe uses its own double reed, similar to but larger than that of the English horn.

The alto clarinet is a woodwind instrument of the clarinet family. It is a transposing instrument pitched in the key of E, though instruments in F have been made. In size it lies between the soprano clarinet and the bass clarinet. It bears a greater resemblance to the bass clarinet in that it typically has a straight body, but a curved neck and bell made of metal. All-metal alto clarinets also exist. In appearance it strongly resembles the basset horn, but usually differs in three respects: it is pitched a whole step lower, it lacks an extended lower range, and it has a wider bore than many basset horns.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Contrabass saxophone</span> Low pitched instrument in the saxophone family

The contrabass saxophone is the second-lowest-pitched extant member of the saxophone family proper. It is extremely large and heavy, is pitched in the key of E, one octave below the baritone saxophone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bass saxophone</span> Wind instrument in B♭

The bass saxophone is one of the lowest-pitched members of the saxophone family—larger and lower than the more common baritone saxophone. It was likely the first type of saxophone built by Adolphe Sax, as first observed by Berlioz in 1842. It is a transposing instrument pitched in B, an octave below the tenor saxophone and a perfect fourth below the baritone saxophone. A bass saxophone in C, intended for orchestral use, was included in Adolphe Sax's patent, but few known examples were built. The bass saxophone is not a commonly used instrument, but it is heard on some 1920s jazz recordings, in free jazz, in saxophone choirs and sextets, and occasionally in concert bands and rock music.

Leo Pellegrino American musician

Leonardo Pellegrino, also known as Leo P, is a baritone saxophonist based in New York City. He was born June 3, 1991, in the city of Pittsburgh. He is the youngest son of accordionist and composer Stephen Pellegrino.

References

  1. "June 28, 1846: Parisian Inventor Patents Saxophone". Wired.com. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  2. Newton, Bret (7 December 2014). "Saxophones in F and C". Bandestration. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  3. Harrelson, Brad. "The History of the saxophone" . Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  4. "Evette & Schaeffer". Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. 2001. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.52163.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. "How to make a baritone saxophone low A extension". www.shwoodwind.co.uk. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  6. 1 2 3 Hadro, Andrew (18 November 2014). "Brands and Horns". JazzBariSax.com. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  7. Charles, Roger. "The baritone saxophone, past and present". Archived from the original on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  8. 1 2 Schwietert, Adam (28 September 2012). "Saxophone Neck Strap and Harness Study" (PDF). Research. Coordinate Movement. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  9. Schwarm, Betsy. "Concerto for Saxophone Quartet and Orchestra". Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  10. Cupper, Alain. "About the Bari Sax". JazzBariSax.com. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  11. Ellen Degeneres, Fitz and the Tantrums (12 April 2016). Fitz and The Tantrums Perform 'HandClap' (Video (Online)). Burbank, California: TheEllenShow.
  12. "James King". Artist Info. D'Addario Woodwinds. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  13. "Eugene: Cozmic Presents TOO MANY ZOOZ". BestEvents. 24 December 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2016.[ permanent dead link ]
  14. Zaslow, Alexandra (25 March 2014). "Subway Performers Energe from the Underground to Become Viral Rockstars". HuffPost. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  15. Barron, J. (14 January 1996). "7-13 January; A Sax Craze, Inspired by 'The Simpsons'". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2019.