Rhapsody in Blue

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Rhapsody in Blue
by George Gershwin
Rhapsody in Blue cover.jpg
Cover of the original sheet music of the two-piano version of Rhapsody in Blue
ISWC T-070.126.537-3
Genre Orchestral jazz
Form Rhapsody
Composed1924
Premiere
DateFebruary 12, 1924
Location Aeolian Hall, New York City, New York, US
Conductor Paul Whiteman
Performers George Gershwin (piano)

Rhapsody in Blue is a 1924 musical composition by the American composer George Gershwin for solo piano and jazz band, which combines elements of classical music with jazz-influenced effects.

George Gershwin American composer and pianist

George Jacob Gershwin was an American composer and pianist whose compositions spanned both popular and classical genres. Among his best-known works are the orchestral compositions Rhapsody in Blue (1924) and An American in Paris, the songs Swanee (1919) and Fascinating Rhythm (1924), the jazz standard I Got Rhythm (1930), and the opera Porgy and Bess (1935) which spawned the hit Summertime.

Piano musical instrument

The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, which is a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings.

Jazz band musical ensemble that plays jazz music

A jazz band is a musical ensemble that plays jazz music. Jazz bands vary in the quantity of its members and the style of jazz that they play but it is common to find a jazz band made up of a rhythm section and a horn section.

Contents

The composition was commissioned by the bandleader Paul Whiteman. It was orchestrated by Ferde Grofé several times, including the original 1924 scoring, the 1926 "theater orchestra" setting, and the 1942 symphony orchestra scoring, though completed earlier. The piece received its premiere in the concert, An Experiment in Modern Music, which was held on February 12, 1924, in Aeolian Hall, New York City, by Whiteman and his band with Gershwin playing the piano.

Paul Whiteman American jazz musician and radio personality

Paul Samuel Whiteman was an American bandleader, composer, orchestral director, and violist.

Ferde Grofé American composer, arranger, pianist and instrumentalist

Ferde Grofé was an American composer, arranger, pianist and instrumentalist. During the 1920s and 1930s, he went by the name Ferdie Grofé.

Orchestra large instrumental ensemble

An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello, and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments.

The editors of the Cambridge Music Handbooks opined that "The Rhapsody in Blue (1924) established Gershwin's reputation as a serious composer and has since become one of the most popular of all American concert works." [1]

History

Commission

After the success of an experimental classical-jazz concert held with the Canadian singer Éva Gauthier at Aeolian Hall in New York City on November 1, 1923, the bandleader Paul Whiteman decided to attempt something more ambitious. [2] He asked George Gershwin to contribute a concerto-like piece for an all-jazz concert he would give in Aeolian Hall in February 1924. Whiteman became interested in featuring such an extended composition by Gershwin in the concert after he had collaborated with Gershwin in the Scandals of 1922 , impressed by the original performance of the one-act opera Blue Monday , which was nevertheless a commercial failure. Gershwin declined on the grounds that, as there would certainly be need for revisions to the score, he would not have enough time to compose the new piece. [3]

Éva Gauthier mezzo-soprano, voice teacher

Ida Joséphine Phoebe Éva Gauthier was a Canadian-American mezzo-soprano and voice teacher. She performed and popularised songs by contemporary composers throughout her career and sang in the American premieres of several works by Erik Satie, Maurice Ravel and Igor Stravinsky, including the title role in the latter's Perséphone.

Aeolian Hall (Manhattan) building in New York City

Aeolian Hall was a concert hall in midtown Manhattan in New York City, located on the third floor of 29-33 West 42nd Street across the street from Bryant Park. The Aeolian Building was built in 1912 for the Aeolian Company, which manufactured pianos. Located on the site of the former Latting Tower, which during the 19th century was a popular observatory, the 18-story building contained the 1,100-seat Aeolian Hall. The building stands next to the Grace Building.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in both the state of New York and the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Late on the evening of January 3, at the Ambassador Billiard Parlor at Broadway and 52nd Street in Manhattan, while George Gershwin and Buddy De Sylva were playing billiards, his brother Ira Gershwin was reading the January 4 edition of the New York Tribune . [3] [4] An article entitled "What Is American Music?" about the Whiteman concert caught his attention, in which the final paragraph claimed that "George Gershwin is at work on a jazz concerto, Irving Berlin is writing a syncopated tone poem, and Victor Herbert is working on an American suite."

Broadway (Manhattan) street in Manhattan

Broadway is a road in the U.S. state of New York. Broadway runs from State Street at Bowling Green for 13 mi (21 km) through the borough of Manhattan and 2 mi (3.2 km) through the Bronx, exiting north from the city to run an additional 18 mi (29 km) through the municipalities of Yonkers, Hastings-On-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry, Irvington, and Tarrytown, and terminating north of Sleepy Hollow in Westchester County.

52nd Street (Manhattan) street traveling west to east across Midtown Manhattan, New York City

52nd Street is a 1.9-mile (3.1 km) long one-way street traveling west to east across Midtown Manhattan, New York City. A short section of it was known as the city's center of jazz performance from the 1930s to the 1950s.

Manhattan Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States

Manhattan, often referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.

In a phone call to Whiteman next morning, Gershwin was told that Whiteman's rival Vincent Lopez was planning to steal the idea of his experimental concert and there was no time to lose. [5] Gershwin was finally persuaded to compose the piece.

Vincent Lopez American musician

Vincent Lopez was an American bandleader, actor, and pianist.

Composition

Since there were only five weeks left, Gershwin hastily set about composing a piece, and on the train journey to Boston, the ideas of Rhapsody in Blue came to his mind. He told his first biographer Isaac Goldberg in 1931:

It was on the train, with its steely rhythms, its rattle-ty bang, that is so often so stimulating to a composer – I frequently hear music in the very heart of the noise. ... And there I suddenly heard, and even saw on paper – the complete construction of the rhapsody, from beginning to end. No new themes came to me, but I worked on the thematic material already in my mind and tried to conceive the composition as a whole. I heard it as a sort of musical kaleidoscope of America, of our vast melting pot, of our unduplicated national pep, of our metropolitan madness. By the time I reached Boston I had a definite plot of the piece, as distinguished from its actual substance. [6] [7]

Gershwin began his work on January 7 as dated on the original manuscript for two pianos. [2] The piece was titled American Rhapsody during composition. The title Rhapsody in Blue was suggested by Ira Gershwin after his visit to a gallery exhibition of James McNeill Whistler paintings, which bear titles such as Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket and Arrangement in Grey and Black (better known as Whistler's Mother ). [8] After a few weeks, Gershwin finished his composition and passed the score to Whiteman's arranger Ferde Grofé, who orchestrated the piece, finishing it on February 4, only eight days before the premiere. [9]

Premiere

Rhapsody in Blue premiered in an afternoon concert on Tuesday, February 12, 1924, held by Paul Whiteman and his band, the Palais Royal Orchestra, titled An Experiment in Modern Music, which took place in Aeolian Hall in New York City. [10] Many important and influential musicians of the time were present, including Sergei Rachmaninoff, Igor Stravinsky, Fritz Kreisler, Leopold Stokowski, John Philip Sousa, and Willie "The Lion" Smith. [11] The event has since become historic specifically because of its premiere of the rhapsody.

The purpose of the experiment, as told by Whiteman in a pre-concert lecture in front of many classical music critics and highbrows, was "to be purely educational". It would "at least provide a stepping stone which will make it very simple for the masses to understand, and therefore, enjoy symphony and opera". The program was long, including 26 separate musical movements, divided into 2 parts and 11 sections, bearing titles such as "True form of jazz" and "Contrast: legitimate scoring vs. jazzing". Gershwin's latest composition was the second to last piece (before Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1 ). [12] Many of the numbers sounded similar and the ventilation system in the concert hall was broken. People in the audience were losing their patience, until the clarinet glissando that opened Rhapsody in Blue was heard. [13]

The rhapsody was performed by Whiteman's band, with an added section of string players, and George Gershwin on piano. Gershwin decided to keep his options open as to when Whiteman would bring in the orchestra and he did not write down one of the pages for solo piano, with only the words "Wait for nod" scrawled by Grofé on the band score. Gershwin improvised some of what he was playing, and he did not write out the piano part until after the performance, so it is unknown exactly how the original rhapsody sounded.

The opening clarinet glissando came into being during rehearsal when, "... as a joke on Gershwin, [Ross] Gorman (Whiteman's virtuoso clarinettist) played the opening measure with a noticeable glissando, adding what he considered a humorous touch to the passage. Reacting favourably to Gorman's whimsy, Gershwin asked him to perform the opening measure that way at the concert and to add as much of a 'wail' as possible." [14]

Responses

By the end of 1927, Whiteman's band had played Rhapsody in Blue eighty-four times, and its recording sold a million copies. [15] To get the whole piece onto two sides of a 12-inch record it had to be played at a faster speed than it would usually have in concert, which gave it a hurried feel and some rubato was lost. Whiteman later adopted the piece as his band's theme song and opened his radio programs with the slogan "Everything new but the Rhapsody in Blue."

The piece received mixed reviews from mainstream critics. Olin Downes, reviewing the concert in The New York Times :

This composition shows extraordinary talent, as it shows a young composer with aims that go far beyond those of his ilk, struggling with a form of which he is far from being master. ... In spite of all this, he has expressed himself in a significant and, on the whole, highly original form. ... His first theme ... is no mere dance-tune ... it is an idea, or several ideas, correlated and combined in varying and contrasting rhythms that immediately intrigue the listener. The second theme is more after the manner of some of Mr. Gershwin's colleagues. Tuttis are too long, cadenzas are too long, the peroration at the end loses a large measure of the wildness and magnificence it could easily have had if it were more broadly prepared, and, for all that, the audience was stirred and many a hardened concertgoer excited with the sensation of a new talent finding its voice. ... There was tumultuous applause for Gershwin's composition. [10]

Another reviewer, Lawrence Gilman, a Richard Wagner specialist who later wrote a devastating review of Gershwin's Porgy and Bess , commenting on the rhapsody in the New York Tribune on February 13, 1924, said:

How trite, feeble and conventional the tunes are; how sentimental and vapid the harmonic treatment, under its disguise of fussy and futile counterpoint! ... Weep over the lifelessness of the melody and harmony, so derivative, so stale, so inexpressive! [16]

Some critics described the piece as formless, and claimed that Gershwin only glued his melodic segments together into one piece. Pitts Sanborn wrote that the music "runs off into empty passage-work and meaningless repetition". [17] In an article in Atlantic Monthly in 1955, Leonard Bernstein, who nevertheless admitted that he loved the piece, wrote:

The Rhapsody is not a composition at all. It's a string of separate paragraphs stuck together. The themes are terrific, inspired, God-given. I don't think there has been such an inspired melodist on this earth since Tchaikovsky. But if you want to speak of a composer, that's another matter. Your Rhapsody in Blue is not a real composition in the sense that whatever happens in it must seem inevitable. [Bernstein quoting himself in what he regards to be Beethoven's specialty—his inevitability—from his "Why Beethoven".] You can cut parts of it without affecting the whole. You can remove any of these stuck-together sections and the piece still goes on as bravely as before. It can be a five-minute piece or a twelve-minute piece. And in fact, all these things are being done to it every day. And it's still the Rhapsody in Blue.

Orchestration

Gershwin had agreed that Ferde Grofé, Whiteman's pianist and chief arranger, was the key figure in enabling the piece to be successful, and critics have praised the orchestral color. Grofé confirmed in 1938 that Gershwin did not have sufficient knowledge of orchestration in 1924. [18] After the premiere, Grofé revised the score and made new orchestrations in 1926 and 1942, each time for larger orchestras. [19] Until 1976, when Michael Tilson Thomas recorded the original jazz band version for the very first time, the 1942 version was the arrangement usually performed and recorded.

The 1924 orchestration was developed for solo piano and Whiteman's band, which consists of three woodwind players doubling one oboe, one clarinet, one sopranino saxophone in E, two soprano saxophones in B, two alto saxophones in E, one tenor saxophone in B, one baritone saxophone in E; two trumpets in B, two French horns in F, two trombones, and one tuba (doubling on double bass); a percussion section that includes a drum set, timpani, and a glockenspiel; one piano; one tenor banjo; and violins. [20]

Grofé's familiarity with the Whiteman band's strengths is a key factor in the scoring. [21] This original version, with its unique instrumental requirements, had lain dormant until its revival in reconstructions beginning in the mid-1980s, owing to the popularity and serviceability of the later scorings, described below.

An arrangement for theatre orchestra, also prepared by Grofé, was published in 1926. [22] It is an adaptation of the original for a more standard "pit" orchestra, which includes one flute, one oboe, two clarinets, one bassoon, three saxophones; two French horns, two trumpets, and two trombones; as well as the same percussion and strings complement as the later 1942 version. [23]

The orchestration published in 1942 for full symphony orchestra is scored for solo piano and an orchestra consisting of two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets in B and A, one bass clarinet, two bassoons, two alto saxophones in E, one tenor saxophone in B; three French horns in F, three trumpets in B, three trombones, one tuba; a percussion section that includes timpani, one suspended cymbal, one snare drum, one bass drum, one tam-tam, one triangle, Glockenspiel, and cymbals; one tenor banjo; and strings.

Grofe's other settings of the piece include those done for Whiteman's 1930 film, King of Jazz , and the concert band setting (playable without piano) completed by 1938 (published 1942).

The prominence of the saxophones in the later orchestrations is somewhat reduced, and the banjo part can be dispensed with, as its mainly rhythmic contribution is provided by the inner strings.

Gershwin also made versions of the piece for solo piano as well as two pianos.

Gershwin's intent to eventually do an orchestration of his own is documented in 1936–37 correspondence from publisher Harms ("reissuance of The Rhapsody in Blue re-scored by yourself for large symphony orchestra"). [24]

Recordings

Late 1930s reissue of the 1927 "electrical" release of Rhapsody in Blue as Victor 35822A by Paul Whiteman and His Concert Orchestra with George Gershwin on piano. 1974 Grammy Hall of Fame inductee. Rhapsody in Blue Paul Whiteman 1927.jpg
Late 1930s reissue of the 1927 "electrical" release of Rhapsody in Blue as Victor 35822A by Paul Whiteman and His Concert Orchestra with George Gershwin on piano. 1974 Grammy Hall of Fame inductee.

Two audio recordings exist of Gershwin performing an abridged version of the work with Whiteman's orchestra: an acoustic recording made for the Victor Talking Machine Company on June 10, 1924, and running 8 minutes and 59 seconds (this recording includes the original clarinetist, Ross Gorman, playing the glissando) and a Victor electrical recording made April 21, 1927, running 9 minutes and 1 second (about half the length of the complete work). This 1927 version was also dubbed onto an RCA Victor 33 13-rpm Program Transcription in 1932. The latter version was actually conducted by Nathaniel Shilkret after an argument between Gershwin and Whiteman. [25] A 1925 piano roll captured Gershwin's performance in a two-piano version. [26] Whiteman's orchestra also performed a shortened version of the piece in the 1930 film The King of Jazz featuring Roy Bargy on piano. Whiteman re-recorded the piece on both sides of a 12-inch Decca 78 rpm (29051) recorded on October 23, 1938. The first complete recording, with pianist Jesús María Sanromá and Arthur Fiedler conducting the Boston Pops Orchestra, was issued by RCA Victor in 1935.

Since the mid-20th century, the 1942 version has usually been performed by classical orchestras playing the expanded arrangement. In this form, it has become a staple of the concert repertoire. It has direct popular appeal while also being regarded respectfully by classical musicians.

On August 21, 1945, a recording by Oscar Levant with the Philadelphia Orchestra (conducted by Eugene Ormandy) entered at its peak position of number 23 on the Cash Box survey (Columbia Masterworks 251).

In 1973, the piece was recorded by jazz-rock artist Eumir Deodato on his album Deodato 2 . The single reached Billboard peak positions number 41 Pop, number 10 Easy Listening. A disco arrangement was recorded by French pianist Richard Clayderman in 1978 and is one of his signature pieces.

In the late 1970s, interest in the original arrangement was revived. On February 14, 1973, it received its first performance since the 1920s: Kenneth Kiesler secured needed permissions and led with work with pianist Paul Verrette on his University of New Hampshire campus. [27] Reconstructions of it have been recorded by Michael Tilson Thomas and the Columbia Jazz Band in 1976, and by Maurice Peress with Ivan Davis on piano as part of a 60th-anniversary reconstruction of the entire 1924 concert. [28] André Watts (1976), Marco Fumo (1974), and Sara Davis Buechner (2005) released recordings of the work for solo piano as did Eric Himy (2004) in a version that featured the uncut original short score. Meanwhile, such two-piano teams as José Iturbi and Amparo Iturbi, France Veri and Michael Jamanis, and Katia and Marielle Labèque, also recorded the piece. Michel Camilo recorded the piece in 2006, winning a Latin Grammy award.

Analysis

George Gershwin playing his Rhapsody in Blue, February 24, 1924

Paul Whiteman asked Gershwin to write a "jazz concerto", which became the Rhapsody in Blue; like a concerto, the piece is written for solo piano with orchestra: a rhapsody differs from a concerto in that it features one extended movement instead of separate movements. Rhapsodies often incorporate passages of an improvisatory nature (although written out in a score), and are irregular in form, with heightened contrasts and emotional exuberance; Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue is typical in that it certainly has large contrasts in musical texture, style, and color. The music ranges from intensely rhythmic piano solos to slow, broad, and richly orchestrated sections.

The opening of Rhapsody in Blue is written as a clarinet trill followed by a legato, 17 notes in a diatonic scale. During a rehearsal, Whiteman's virtuoso clarinetist, Ross Gorman, rendered the upper portion of the scale as a captivating (and fully trombone-like) glissando: Gershwin heard it and insisted that it be repeated in the performance. [29] An American Heritage columnist called it the "famous opening clarinet glissando ... that has become as familiar as the start of Beethoven's Fifth". [15] The effect is produced primarily using the tongue and throat muscles to change the resonance of the oral cavity, thus controlling the continuously rising pitch. [30] Many players also gradually open the left-hand tone-holes on the clarinet during the passage from the last concert F (or earlier if possible, thus employing the right hand as well) to the top concert B as well. This effect has now become standard performance practice for the work.

Rhapsody in Blue displays both rhythmic invention and melodic inspiration, and demonstrates Gershwin's ability to write a piece with large-scale harmonic and melodic structure. The piece is characterized by strong motivic interrelatedness. Much of the motivic material is introduced in the first 14 measures. David Schiff identifies five major themes plus a sixth "tag". [31] Of these, two appear in the first 14 measures, and the tag shows up in measure 19. Two of the remaining three themes are rhythmically related to the very first theme in measure 2, which is sometimes called the Glissando theme (after the opening glissando in the clarinet solo) or the Ritornello theme. The remaining theme is the Train theme, which is the first to appear (at rehearsal 9) after the opening material. All of the themes rely on the blues scale, which includes lowered sevenths and a mixture of major and minor thirds. Each theme appears both in orchestrated form and as a piano solo. There are considerable differences in the style of presentation of each theme.

The harmonic structure of the rhapsody is more difficult to analyze. The piece begins and ends in B major, but it modulates towards the sub-dominant direction very early on, returning to B major at the end, rather abruptly. The opening modulates "downward", as it were, through the keys B, E, A, D, G, B, E, and finally to A major. Modulation through the circle of fifths in the reverse direction inverts classical tonal relationships, but does not abandon them. The entire middle section resides primarily in C major, with forays into G major (the dominant relation). Modulations occur freely and easily, though not always with harmonic direction. Gershwin frequently uses a recursive harmonic progression of minor thirds to give the illusion of motion when in fact a passage does not change key from beginning to end. Modulation by thirds was a common element of Tin Pan Alley music.

The influences of jazz and other contemporary styles are certainly present in Rhapsody in Blue. Ragtime rhythms are abundant, as is the Cuban "clave" rhythm, which doubles as a dance rhythm in the Charleston jazz dance. [32]

Gershwin's own intentions were to correct the belief that jazz had to be played strictly in time so that one could dance to it. [31] The rhapsody's tempos vary widely, and there is an almost extreme use of rubato in many places throughout. The clearest influence of jazz is the use of blue notes, and the exploration of their half-step relationship plays a key role in the rhapsody. [32] The use of so-called "vernacular" instruments, such as accordion, banjo, and saxophones in the orchestra, contribute to its jazz or popular style, and the latter two of these instruments have remained part of Grofé's "standard" orchestra scoring. Gershwin incorporated several different piano styles into the work. He utilized the techniques of stride piano, novelty piano, comic piano, and the song-plugger piano style. Stride piano's rhythmic and improvisational style is evident in the "agitato e misterioso" section, which begins four bars after rehearsal 33, as well as in other sections, many of which include the orchestra. Novelty piano can be heard at rehearsal 9 with the revelation of the Train theme. The hesitations and light-hearted style of comic piano, a vaudeville approach to piano made well known by Chico Marx and Jimmy Durante, are evident at rehearsal 22. [31]

As early as 1955, Rhapsody in Blue served as the inspiration for a composition by the noted accordionist/composer John Serry Sr. which was subsequently published in 1957 (see American Rhapsody ). [33]

Rhapsody in Blue inspired a collaboration between blind savant British pianist Derek Paravicini and composer Matthew King on a new concerto, called Blue premiered at the South Bank Centre in London in 2011. [34]

Rhapsody in Blue has been interpreted as a musical portrait of New York City; it is used in this context in a segment from the film Fantasia 2000 , in which the piece is used as the lyrical framing for a stylized animation set drawn in the style of famed illustrator Al Hirschfeld. [35] It was also used in the opening sequence of Woody Allen's 1979 film Manhattan .

Brian Wilson, leader of The Beach Boys, has said on multiple occasions that Rhapsody in Blue is one of his favorite pieces. He first heard it when he was two years old, and recalls that he "loved" it. It was also a heavy influence on his Smile album. He also came to think of "Good Vibrations" as "a smaller, psychedelic version of Rhapsody in Blue". [36]

Rhapsody in Blue was played simultaneously by eighty-four pianists at the opening ceremony of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. [37]

The piece was performed by Herbie Hancock and Lang Lang at the 50th Grammy Awards on February 10, 2008. [38]

The piece is used by United Airlines in their advertisements, in pre-flight safety videos, and in the Terminal 1 underground walkway at O'Hare International Airport. [39] [40]

Rhapsody in Blue was used to dramatically introduce the first appearance of Jay Gatsby in the 2013 film The Great Gatsby . [41]

Rhapsody in Blue was applied as a theme for 2017 Lincoln Continental referring to Rhapsody in Blue. [42]

Preservation status

On September 22, 2013, it was announced that a musicological critical edition of the full orchestral score will be eventually released. The Gershwin family, working in conjunction with the Library of Congress and the University of Michigan, are working to make these scores available to the public. [43] [44] Though the entire Gershwin project may take 30 to 40 years to complete, the Rhapsody in Blue edition will be an early volume. [45] [46]

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References

Footnotes

  1. Schiff 1997, book jacket.
  2. 1 2 Schiff 1997, p. 53.
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Bibliography

Bañagale, Ryan Raul (2014). Arranging Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue and the Creation of an American Icon. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199978373.001.0001. ISBN   978-0-19-997837-3.
Carlin, Peter Ames (2006). Catch a Wave: The Rise, Fall and Redemption of the Beach Boys' Brian Wilson. London: Rodale.
Ferencz, George J. (2011). "Porgy and Bess on the Concert Stage: Gershwin's 1936 Suite (Catfish Row) and the 1942 Gershwin–Bennett Symphonic Picture". The Musical Quarterly. 94 (1–2): 93–155. doi:10.1093/musqtl/gdq019. ISSN   1741-8399.
Greenberg, Rodney (1998). George Gershwin. London: Phaidon Press. ISBN   978-0-7148-3504-4.
Schiff, David (1997). Gershwin: Rhapsody in Blue. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511620201. ISBN   978-0-521-55077-2.
Schneider, Wayne, ed. (1999). The Gershwin Style: New Looks at the Music of George Gershwin. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-509020-8.
Schwartz, Charles (1979). Gershwin: His Life and Music. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN   978-0-306-80096-2.
Slonimsky, Nicolas (2000). Lexicon of Musical Invective: Critical Assaults on Composers Since Beethoven's Time. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN   978-0-393-32009-1.
Wood, Ean (1996). George Gershwin: His Life and Music. London: Sanctuary Publishing. ISBN   978-1-86074-174-6.

Further reading

Reef, Catherine (2000). George Gershwin: American Composer. Greensboro, North Carolina: Morgan Reynolds Publishing. ISBN   978-1-883846-58-9.