Bir al-Maksur

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Bir al-Maksur

  • בִּיר אל-מַכְּסוּר
  • بئر المكسور
Hebrew transcription(s)
   ISO 259 Bir ˀel-Makksur (Jara'zia)
  Also spelledBir el-Maksur (official)
Beer al-Maksura (unofficial)
Bir el maxur.jpg
Bir al-Maksur, 2010
Israel outline northwest.png
Red pog.svg
Bir al-Maksur
Coordinates: 32°46′38″N35°13′15″E / 32.77722°N 35.22083°E / 32.77722; 35.22083 Coordinates: 32°46′38″N35°13′15″E / 32.77722°N 35.22083°E / 32.77722; 35.22083
Grid position170/242 PAL
District Northern
Founded1950s
Government
  Type Local council (from 1990)
  Head of MunicipalityKhaled Hujerat
Area
  Total4,554  dunams (4.554 km2 or 1.758 sq mi)
Population
(2017) [1]
  Total9,118
  Density2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)
Name meaningThe Broken Well

Bir al-Maksur or Beer el-Maksura (Arabic : بئر المكسور; Hebrew : בִּיר אל-מַכְּסוּר) is an Arab Bedouin [2] local council in the Northern District of Israel located 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north-west of Nazareth. In 2017 its population was 9,118. [1] The villagers belong to the Arab el-Hujeirat Bedouin tribe, settled there in the 1950s.[ citation needed ]

Hebrew language Semitic language native to Israel

Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel; the modern version of which is spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.

Arab citizens of Israel ethnic group

Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens who are Arab. Many Arab citizens of Israel self-identify as Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Palestinians, According to a 2017 survey, only 16% of the Arab population prefers the term "Israeli Arab", while the largest and fastest growing proportion prefers "Palestinian in Israel". A notable percentage prefers Palestinian Arab, rejecting entirely the identity of "Israeli". The traditional vernacular of most Arab citizens, irrespective of religion, is Levantine Arabic, including Lebanese Arabic in the North of Israel, Palestinian dialect of Arabic in Central Israel and Bedouin dialects across the Negev desert; having absorbed much Hebrew loanwords and phrases, the modern dialect of Arab citizens of Israel is defined by some as the Israeli Arabic dialect. Most Arab citizens of Israel are functionally bilingual, their second language being Modern Hebrew. By religious affiliation, most are Muslim, particularly of the Sunni branch of Islam. There is a significant Arab Christian minority from various denominations as well as the Druze, among other religious communities.

Bedouin group of Arab nomads who have historically inhabited the Arabian and Syrian Deserts

The Bedouin or Bedu are a grouping of nomadic Arab people who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant. The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic badawī, which means "desert dweller", and is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people. Bedouin territory stretches from the vast deserts of North Africa to the rocky sands of the Middle East. They are traditionally divided into tribes, or clans, and share a common culture of herding camels and goats. The vast majority of Bedouin adhere to Islam.

Contents

History

Flint from the Mousterian culture, made with the Levallois technique, in addition to remains from Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B have been excavated here. [3] [4]

Flint Cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz

Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert. It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones. Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white or brown in colour, and often has a glassy or waxy appearance. A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is usually different in colour, typically white and rough in texture. From a petrological point of view, "flint" refers specifically to the form of chert which occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Similarly, "common chert" occurs in limestone.

Mousterian European Middle Paleolithic culture

The Mousterian is a techno-complex of flint lithic tools associated primarily with the earliest anatomically modern humans in North Africa and West Asia, as well as with the Neanderthals in Europe. The Mousterian largely defines the latter part of the Middle Paleolithic, the middle of the West Eurasian Old Stone Age. It lasted roughly from 160,000 to 40,000 BP. If its predecessor, known as Levallois or "Levallois-Mousterian" is included, the range is extended to as early as c. 300,000–200,000 BP.

Levallois technique

The Levallois technique is a name given by archaeologists to a distinctive type of stone knapping developed by precursors to modern humans during the Palaeolithic period.

Sherds from Iron age I, and possibly Iron age II have been found here. [2]

Sherd Historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery

In archaeology, a sherd, or more precisely, potsherd, is commonly a historic or prehistoric fragment of pottery, although the term is occasionally used to refer to fragments of stone and glass vessels, as well.

A burial cave, with ceramics and artefacts dating to the late Roman era, that is, third–fourth centuries CE, have been excavated here. [5]

Roman Empire period of Imperial Rome following the Roman Republic (27 BC–395 AD)

The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. It had a government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, and West Asia. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome. The Roman Empire was then divided between a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and later Ravenna, and an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and later Constantinople, and it was ruled by multiple emperors.

In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine noted at Kh.el Maksur: "Heaps of stones." [6] [7]

Palestine Exploration Fund organization

The Palestine Exploration Fund is a British society based in London. It was founded in 1865 and is the oldest known organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant region, also known as Palestine. Often simply known as the PEF, its initial object was to carry out surveys of the topography and ethnography of Ottoman Palestine with a remit that fell somewhere between an expeditionary survey and military intelligence gathering. Consequently, it had a complex relationship with Corps of Royal Engineers, and its members sent back reports on the need to salvage and modernise the region.

Notable residents

Mohammad Ghadir Israeli footballer

Mohammed Ghadir is an Arab-Israeli professional football (soccer) player who plays for Bnei Sakhnin.

Hapoel Beer Sheva F.C. football club in Israel

Hapoel Beer-Sheva Football Club is an Israeli football club from the city of Be'er Sheva, that competes in the Israeli Premier League. The club was established in 1949, and since 2007 it has been run by businesswoman Alona Barkat, who serves as the club's owner. The club also includes youth teams, boys and children, and a football school.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
  2. 1 2 Gal, 1992, p. 21
  3. Malinski-Buller and Aladjem, 2011, Bir el-Maksur Preliminary Report
  4. Yaroshevich, 2013, Bir el-Maksur Final Report
  5. Zidan and Mitler, 2014, Bir el-Maksur
  6. Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 314
  7. meaning: The ruin of the broken one, according to Palmer, 1881, p. 112

Bibliography