Brake run

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A brake run on a roller coaster is any section of track meant to slow or stop a roller coaster train. [1] Brake runs may be located anywhere along the circuit of a coaster and may be designed to bring the train to a complete halt or to simply adjust the train's speed. Contrary to some belief, the vast majority of roller coasters do not have any form of braking on the train itself, but rather forms of braking that exist on track sections. One notable exception is the Scenic Railway roller coaster, which relies on an operator to manually control the speed of the train.

Contents

On most roller coasters, the brakes are controlled by a computer system. Some older coasters have manually operated friction or skid brakes, some with a pneumatic assist. These are either engaged at the control panel or operated by pulling or pushing large levers in the station.

Trim brakes

Trim brakes are sections of brakes which are intended to adjust a train's speed during its course rather than bring the train to a complete stop. They may be engineered into a ride at its design stages at certain anticipated troubled spots, or later retrofitted once it is discovered that trains traverse certain areas at higher-than-anticipated speeds. Trim brakes are often either added for safety reasons, to lower g-forces in certain areas, or for maintenance/mechanical reasons, to lower the cost of wear-and-tear damage (especially on wooden roller coasters) caused by the trains traveling at faster than normal speeds. Usually, a proximity sensor precedes the trim brake in order to identify the current speed of the passing train. From this, the trim will then grab the train's brake fins to reduce the train's speed to that set by the control system.

Block brakes

Block brakes are sections of brakes located on any roller coaster wherever more than one train is intended to run. They act as virtual barriers between the trains running on the roller coaster, preventing collisions should one train stop along the course for any reason. Block brakes must be capable of completely stopping the train (should a vehicle preceding the block stop) and starting a train (after it has been stopped). Block brake sections usually start the train again either by using a slight downward slope to let gravity take its course, or by using drive tires to push the train out of the block. Like trim brakes, block brakes can also be used to control the speed of the train. These are usually known as mid-course brake runs. An example of a mid-course brake run is on Titan at Six Flags Over Texas, which consists of such a brake run (which slows the train down drastically, almost to the point of stopping) due to the severe G-forces in its downward 540-degree helix following the brake run. Mid-course brake runs give more time for another train to be loaded. Quite often, mid-course brake runs give so much time that another train can be fitted onto the track without the worry of bumping.

Types of brakes

Various types of braking exist when dealing with roller coasters, some of which have been recently developed due to technological advancements in design.

Skid brakes are common on older wooden roller coasters, such as Thunderbolt at Kennywood Tbolt-skidbrakes.jpg
Skid brakes are common on older wooden roller coasters, such as Thunderbolt at Kennywood

Skid brakes

Skid brakes essentially involve a long piece of material, often ceramic-covered, situated in the middle of the track parallel to the rails. When the brake is engaged, the skid raises and friction against the underside of the train causes the train to slow and eventually stop. Skid brakes were one of the first advancements in roller coaster braking and are typically not utilized in modern creations with the exception of Twister at Knoebels Amusement Resort in Elysburg, PA and the Matterhorn at Disneyland in California.

Side mounted brakes are common on Schwarzkopf roller coasters, such as Scorpion at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay Scorpionbrakerun.jpg
Side mounted brakes are common on Schwarzkopf roller coasters, such as Scorpion at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay
Friction brakes on Speed: No Limits at Oakwood Theme Park Frictionbrakes.jpg
Friction brakes on Speed: No Limits at Oakwood Theme Park

Fin brakes

Fin brakes involve a metal fin being attached to the underside of a train. The track is fitted with two computer-controlled squeezing mechanisms which upon closing, squeeze the fin and either slow or stop the train. Fin brakes are the most common form of brakes on roller coasters today. Sometimes they are thick metal box beams (mostly on Bolliger & Mabillard roller coasters); others are thin metal plates. They slide between pairs of friction pads similar to automotive brake pads. Fin brakes are designed to be fail-safe, so that a loss of power will cause them to engage. Brakes are constructed according to a certain measure of redundancy, meaning the ride is usually fitted with one extra set of brakes to bring the train to a hold even if one brake fails. Opening is done by a bellows type of air-operated actuator. Each set of brakes is fitted with its own air supply system controlled by supply valves which open the brake when it is safe to do so. A heavy spring, usually made of steel, is used to hold the brake closed by default.

Magnetic brakes

Magnetic brakes are a relatively new technology that are beginning to gain popularity due to their high degree of safety. Rather than slowing a train via friction (such as fin or skid brakes), which can often be affected by various elements such as rain, magnetic brakes rely completely on certain magnetic properties and resistance. In fact, magnetic brakes never come in contact with the train.

Magnetic brakes are made up of one or two rows of neodymium magnets. When a metal fin (typically copper or a copper/aluminum alloy) passes between the rows of magnets, eddy currents are generated in the fin, which creates a magnetic force opposing the fin's motion. The resultant braking force is directly proportional to the speed at which the fin is moving through the brake element. This very property, however, is also one of magnetic braking's disadvantages in that the eddy force itself can never completely hold a train in ideal condition. It is then often necessary to hold the train in place with an additional set of fin brakes or "kicker wheels" which are simple rubber tires that make contact with the train and effectively park it.

Magnetic brakes can be found in two configurations:

Magnetic brakes are silent and are much smoother than friction brakes, gradually increasing the braking power so that the people on the ride do not experience rapid changes in deceleration. Many modern roller coasters, especially those being manufactured by Intamin, have utilized magnetic braking for several years. Another major roller coaster designer implementing these brakes is Bolliger & Mabillard in 2004 on their Silver Bullet inverted coaster, making it the first inverted roller coaster to feature magnetic brakes, and again used them on their newer projects, such as Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland. These later applications have proven effectively comfortable and relevant for these inverted coasters which often give the sense of flight. There also exist third party companies such as Magnetar Technologies Corp. which provide various configurations of the technology to be used to replace and retrofit braking systems on existing roller coasters to increase safety, improve rider comfort, and lower maintenance costs and labor.

Magnetic brakes on Speed, located before the friction brakes. These track-mounted fins can be retracted to allow the train to pass without slowing it down. Magneticbrakes.jpg
Magnetic brakes on Speed, located before the friction brakes. These track-mounted fins can be retracted to allow the train to pass without slowing it down.

A disadvantage of magnetic brakes is that they cannot completely stop a train, and as such cannot be used as block brakes. They also cannot be conventionally disengaged like other types of brakes. Instead, the fins or magnets must be retracted so that the fins no longer pass between the magnets. Accelerator Coasters, for example, have a series of magnetic brake fins located on the launch track. When the train is launched, the brakes are retracted to allow the train to reach its full speed. After the train is launched, the brake fins are raised to safely slow the train down in the event of a rollback. This is currently in place at the Top Thrill Dragster of Cedar Point and Kingda Ka of Six Flags Great Adventure, where magnets on the track lower during launch and raise to slow the train in such event.

Related Research Articles

Roller coaster Ride developed for amusement parks

A roller coaster is a type of amusement ride that employs a form of elevated railroad track designed with tight turns, steep slopes, and sometimes inversions. People ride along the track in open cars, and the rides are often found in amusement parks and theme parks around the world. LaMarcus Adna Thompson obtained one of the first known patents for a roller coaster design in 1885, related to the Switchback Railway that opened a year earlier at Coney Island. The track in a coaster design does not necessarily have to be a complete circuit, as shuttle roller coasters demonstrate. Most roller coasters have multiple cars in which passengers sit and are restrained. Two or more cars hooked together are called a train. Some roller coasters, notably Wild Mouse roller coasters, run with single cars.

Top Thrill Dragster steel accelerator roller coaster at Cedar Point

Top Thrill Dragster is a steel accelerator roller coaster located at Cedar Point in Sandusky, Ohio. Manufactured by Intamin, it was the sixteenth roller coaster to be built at the park since Blue Streak in 1964. It opened in 2003 as the tallest roller coaster in the world and the first full-circuit roller coaster to exceed 400 feet (120 m) in height. Its height record was later surpassed by Kingda Ka at Six Flags Great Adventure in 2005. Top Thrill Dragster, along with Kingda Ka, are the only strata coasters in existence. It was the second hydraulically launched roller coaster built by Intamin, following Xcelerator at Knott's Berry Farm. The tagline for Top Thrill Dragster is "Race for the Sky".

Kingda Ka Roller coaster at Six Flags Great Adventure

Kingda Ka is a launched roller coaster located at Six Flags Great Adventure in Jackson, New Jersey. Designed by Werner Stengel, Kingda Ka is an Accelerator Coaster model from Intamin that opened as the tallest and fastest roller coaster in the world on May 21, 2005. It is also the second-ever strata coaster, a roller coaster taller than 400 feet (120 m); Top Thrill Dragster was the first and previously held both records. Intamin subcontracted Stakotra to assist with construction.

Incredicoaster

Incredicoaster is a steel roller coaster located at Disney California Adventure in Anaheim, California. Manufactured by Intamin, the ride opened to the public as California Screamin' on February 8, 2001. It is the only roller coaster at the Disneyland Resort with an inversion, and it is the fastest at the park with a top speed of 55 miles per hour (89 km/h). At 6,072 feet long, Incredicoaster is the longest inverting roller coaster in the world, as of 2020. At 122 feet high, it is the tallest roller coaster in all Disney resorts.

Bolliger & Mabillard, officially Bolliger & Mabillard Consulting Engineers, Inc. and often abbreviated as B&M, is a roller coaster design consultancy based in Monthey, Switzerland. The company was founded in 1988 by Walter Bolliger and Claude Mabillard, both of whom had worked for Giovanola, who supplied rides for Intamin.

Launched roller coaster modern form of roller coaster

The launched roller coaster is a modern form of roller coaster. A launched coaster initiates a ride with high amounts of acceleration via one or a series of linear induction motors (LIM), linear synchronous motors (LSM), catapults, tires, chains, or other mechanisms employing hydraulic or pneumatic power. This mode of acceleration powers many of the fastest rollercoasters in the world.

Eddy current brake

An eddy current brake, also known as an induction brake, electric brake or electric retarder, is a device used to slow or stop a moving object by dissipating its kinetic energy as heat. Unlike friction brakes, where the drag force that stops the moving object is provided by friction between two surfaces pressed together, the drag force in an eddy current brake is an electromagnetic force between a magnet and a nearby conductive object in relative motion, due to eddy currents induced in the conductor through electromagnetic induction.

Rollback (roller coaster)

A rollback appears on some launched roller coasters when the train is not launched fast enough to reach the top of the tower or hill, It will roll backwards down the tower, and will be stopped by brakes on the launch track. Any roller coaster on which it is possible for a rollback to occur will have these brakes. Intamin, a manufacturer of roller-coasters, refers to the "rollback" as a "short shot".

Launch track segment of roller coaster track

The launch track is the section of a launched roller coaster in which the train is accelerated to its full speed in a matter of seconds. A launch track is always straight and is usually banked upwards slightly, so that a train would roll backwards to the station in the event of a loss of power.

Rolling Thunder (roller coaster) amusement ride

Rolling Thunder was a wooden racing roller coaster located at Six Flags Great Adventure in Jackson Township, New Jersey. Rolling Thunder was the park's first wooden coaster and opened in 1979 during the park's fifth anniversary season. It closed in 2013 to make room for the construction of Zumanjaro: Drop of Doom, which opened in 2014.

Steel Dragon 2000

Steel Dragon 2000 is a steel roller coaster located at Nagashima Spa Land amusement park in Mie Prefecture, Japan. Built by Morgan Manufacturing, Steel Dragon opened to the public on August 1, 2000, taking its name from Chinese astrology and zodiac calendars where the year 2000 represents the dragon. It set several world records in its debut, becoming the longest roller coaster in the world with a track length of 2,479 metres (8,133 ft), as well as the tallest and fastest among complete-circuit coasters. It remains the longest, and with a maximum speed of nearly 153 km/h (95 mph), it is one of the fastest that uses a traditional lift hill.

Xcelerator Launched roller coaster at Knotts Berry Farm

Xcelerator is a steel launched roller coaster at Knott's Berry Farm in Buena Park, California. It was Intamin's first hydraulically launched coaster, while also the fourth Intamin installation at Knott's, alongside The Sky Cabin, Bigfoot Rapids and Perilous Plunge.

Accelerator Coaster

An Accelerator Coaster is a hydraulically launched roller coaster model from Intamin. The model usually consists of a long, straight launch track, a top hat tower element, and magnetic brakes that smoothly stop the train without making contact. The technology was developed by Intamin engineers as an alternative to electromagnetic launch systems, such as the Linear Induction Motor (LIM) and Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM), that are found on earlier launched roller coasters like the Flight of Fear and The Joker's Jinx. Unlike the earlier linear induction motors, the Accelerator Coaster's launch system exhibits constant acceleration and is capable of reaching greater speeds.

Storm Runner roller coaster

Storm Runner is a launched roller coaster located at Hersheypark in Hershey, Pennsylvania. Manufactured by Intamin and situated in the Pioneer Frontier section of the park, the Accelerator Coaster opened to the public on May 8, 2004. It reaches a height of 150 feet (46 m) and catapults riders from 0 to 72 mph (116 km/h) in two seconds. Storm Runner features a top hat element, three inversions, a dual loading station and a magnetic braking system. In addition, it was designed to interact with three other Hersheypark rides: Dry Gulch Railroad, the Monorail, and Trailblazer.

Dive Coaster type of steel roller coaster manufactured by Bolliger & Mabillard

The Dive Coaster is a steel roller coaster model developed and engineered by Bolliger & Mabillard. The design features one or more near-vertical drops that are approximately 90 degrees, which provide a moment of free-falling for passengers. The experience is enhanced by unique trains that seat up to ten riders per row, spanning only two or three rows total. Unlike traditional train design, this distinguishing aspect gives all passengers virtually the same experience throughout the course of the ride. Another defining characteristic of Dive Coasters is the holding brake at the top of the lift hill that holds the train momentarily right as it enters the first drop, suspending some passengers with a view looking straight down and releasing suddenly moments later.

Silver Star (roller coaster) roller coaster in Europa Park, Germany

Silver Star is a steel roller coaster located at Europa-Park, a theme park in Rust, Germany. The coaster has a height of 73 metres (240 ft) and a drop of 67 meters, placing it in the hyper coaster category. Although it is one of Bolliger & Mabillard's tallest coasters, it was surpassed as the tallest in Europe by Shambhala: Expedición al Himalaya at PortAventura Park in 2012. Silver Star has 3 trains which seat 36 people each, giving an hourly capacity of 1,750 passengers. This hypercoaster is situated in the French area of Europa Park and is sponsored by Mercedes-Benz.

Roller coaster elements are the individual parts of roller coaster design and operation, such as a track, hill, loop, or turn. Variations in normal track movement that add thrill or excitement to the ride are often called "thrill elements".

Diving Machine G5 amusement ride

Diving Machine G5 is a roller coaster at Janfusun Fancyworld in Taiwan. It was built in 2000 by Swiss manufacturers Bolliger & Mabillard and was the second dive coaster model to be built, the first being Oblivion at Alton Towers in the United Kingdom. It is located in the Sky Plaza section of the park. It is a nearly mirror image of Oblivion.

Intimidator (roller coaster) Roller coaster

Intimidator is a steel roller coaster built by Bolliger & Mabillard at Carowinds in Charlotte, North Carolina. The roller coaster is located in the Celebration Plaza section of the park. Intimidator is the thirteenth roller coaster installed at Carowinds and is located on the site of the former Carowinds River Adventure near the entrance of the theme park. It is currently one of the tallest, fastest and longest roller coasters in the Southeast with a 232-foot (71 m) lift hill, a top speed of 75 mph (121 km/h) and a track length of 5,316 feet (1,620 m). It was announced on August 26, 2009 and opened March 27, 2010. The roller coaster's name comes from the nickname of NASCAR driver Dale Earnhardt.

Wild Eagle roller coaster at Dollywood

Wild Eagle is a steel Wing Coaster built by Bolliger & Mabillard at the Dollywood amusement park in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee. It is the first of its kind in the United States and opened to the media on March 23, 2012 before opening to the public on March 24, 2012. The roller coaster reaches a height of 210 feet (64 m) and reaches speeds of 61 miles per hour (98 km/h). In September 2012, the ride was voted as the best new ride of 2012 in Amusement Today's Golden Ticket Awards.

References

  1. "Roller Coasters | Glossary". Ultimaterollercoaster.com. Retrieved 2010-10-18.