Commonwealth System of Higher Education

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The Commonwealth System of Higher Education is a statutory designation by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania that confers "state-related" status on four universities located within the state. The designation establishes the schools as an "instrumentality of the commonwealth" [1] and provides each university with annual, non-preferred [2] financial appropriations in exchange offering tuition discounts to students who are residents of Pennsylvania and a minority state-representation on each school's board of trustees. Legally, the universities remain separate and private entities, operating under their own charters, governed by independent boards of trustees, and with assets under their own ownership and control, thereby retaining much of the freedom and individuality of private institutions, both administratively and academically. [3] It is the only public-private hybrid system of higher education in the United States that is so constituted, although Cornell University, the University of Delaware, and Rutgers University [4] represent alternative types of public-private university hybrids. [5]

Pennsylvania State in the United States

Pennsylvania, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the Northeastern, Great Lakes, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

Cornell University Private Ivy League research university in Upstate New York

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, and from the theoretical to the applied. These ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."

University of Delaware American university

The University of Delaware is a public research university located in Newark, Delaware. The University of Delaware is the largest university in Delaware. UD currently offers three associate's programs, 148 bachelor's programs, 121 master's programs and 55 doctoral programs across its eight colleges. The main campus is in Newark, with satellite campuses in Dover, Wilmington, Lewes, and Georgetown. It is considered a large institution with approximately 18,500 undergraduate and 4,500 graduate students. UD is a privately governed university which receives public funding for being a land-grant, sea-grant and space-grant state-supported research institution.

Contents

Universities of the Commonwealth System are considered public universities by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching because they offer reduced tuition for citizens of the Commonwealth and therefore are often referred to as "public" universities in publications, by the state, and the schools themselves. Because their annual state allocations that supplement less than 10% of their budgets, universities in the Commonwealth System tend to have higher tuition costs compared to the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education which contains 14 state-owned and operated universities. Because of their independence, universities in the Commonwealth System are exempt from Pennsylvania's Open Records law except for a few minor provisions. [6]

Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching foundation

The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching (CFAT) is a U.S.-based education policy and research center. It was founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1905 and chartered in 1906 by an act of the United States Congress. Among its most notable accomplishments are the development of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA), the Flexner Report on medical education, the Carnegie Unit, the Educational Testing Service, and the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.

Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education Agency that oversees Pennsylvania-owned colleges and universities

The Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) is a state agency of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania that oversees 14 state-owned colleges and universities. Collectively, it is the largest provider of higher education in the commonwealth. It is the 43rd largest university system in the world. The system comprises 14 state-owned schools, all of which are NCAA Division II members in most sports by virtue of being members of the Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference. Several schools also participate in NCAA Division I sports including wrestling and field hockey.

History

Before the creation of the "state-related" legal status in the 1960s, Lincoln University, Temple University, and University of Pittsburgh were fully private universities. [5] Temple and Pitt were granted state-related status by acts of Commonwealth's legislature in 1965 and 1966, respectively. Lincoln University, a historically black university, was designated as a state-related university in 1972. [7]

Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community. During the period of segregation in the United States prior to the Civil Rights Act, the overwhelming majority of higher education institutions were predominantly white and disqualified African Americans from enrollment. For a century after the end of slavery in the United States in 1865, most colleges and universities in the Southern United States prohibited all African Americans from attending, while institutions in other parts of the country regularly employed quotas to limit admissions of blacks.

Although the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) was founded as a private school, it was later designated as the Commonwealth's sole land-grant institution. It was repeatedly defined as a "state-owned university" in numerous official acts and Pennsylvania Attorney General opinions from its creation as a land-grant, then named the Pennsylvania State College, in 1855. It was thus applicable to having its road system and buildings on state campuses constructed using state funding, paying its employees through state-issued checks, and having them eligible to collect state employee retirement system benefits.

Land-grant university institution of higher education in the United States designated by a state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890

A land-grant university is an institution of higher education in the United States designated by a state to receive the benefits of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890.

Penn State was already treated and referred to as a public state-related university by the Commonwealth, including receiving non-preferred appropriations, when the other three universities were designated as state-related institutions by the legislature. In 1989, Penn State asserted a public status in court for the purpose of not having a private bank branch's operations on its University Park campus subject to local county taxes, while simultaneously asserting private status for the purpose of not having to reveal the salaries of its top administrative employees. [8] With the enabling legislation changing the failing Williamsport (PA) Area Community College to the affiliated "Pennsylvania College of Technology" in 1989, Penn State was reaffirmed as a "state-related" institution.

Universities

The following universities (listed with their branch and regional campuses) are members of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education

Lincoln

Lincoln University - University City (Graduate)
Lincoln University - Coatesville

Penn State

Pitt

University of Pittsburgh at Bradford (4-year undergraduate and graduate)
University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg (4-year undergraduate)
University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown (4-year undergraduate)
University of Pittsburgh at Titusville (2-year undergraduate)

Temple

Temple University Ambler (4-year undergraduate and graduate)
Temple University Fort Washington (Graduate)
Temple University Harrisburg (1-year undergraduate and graduate)
Temple University, Japan Campus (4-year undergraduate and graduate)

Rankings of universities

School U.S. News & World Report, Best Colleges 2020 (undergrad) [9] [10] U.S. News & World Report, Best Business Schools 2020 [11] U.S. News & World Report, Best Education Schools 2020 [12] U.S. News & World Report, Best Engineering Schools 2020 [13] U.S. News & World Report, Best Fine Arts Schools 2017 [14] U.S. News & World Report, Best Law Schools 2020 [15] U.S. News & World Report, Best Library & Information Studies Schools, 2018 [16] U.S. News & World Report, Best Medical Schools, Research [17] & Primary Care [18] 2020U.S. News & World Report, Best Nursing Schools, Masters [19] & Doctoral [20] 2020U.S. News & World Report, Best Public Affairs Schools 2020 [21] CMUP, Top Public American Research Universities 2017 [22] Wall Street Journal/THE US College Rankings 2019 [23] Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019 [24] QS World University Rankings 2020 [25]
Lincoln University 119, Regional Universities (North)N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Pennsylvania State University 57th, National Universities (University Park)33rd (Smeal)39th35th69th64th (University Park)
71st (Dickinson)
N/A"unranked"26th & "unranked"82nd
(Harrisburg)
16th-17th104th98th93rd
Temple University 104th, National UniversitiesN/A45th124th15th (Tyler)48th (Beasley)N/A60th & 85th (Katz)N/A & 72ndN/AN/A168th301st-400th651st-700th
University of Pittsburgh 57th, National Universities (Pittsburgh Campus)43rd (Katz)33rd47th (Swanson)N/A77th10th13th & 14th12th & 9th35th13th-15th80th89th140th

Endowment and research

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

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