Enteric redmouth disease

Last updated

Enteric redmouth disease, or simply redmouth disease is a bacterial infection of freshwater and marine fish caused by the pathogen Yersinia ruckeri . It is primarily found in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other cultured salmonids. The disease is characterized by subcutaneous hemorrhaging of the mouth, fins, and eyes. It is most commonly seen in fish farms with poor water quality. Redmouth disease was first discovered in Idaho rainbow trout in the 1950s. [1] The disease does not infect humans. [1]

Fish vertebrate animal that lives in water and (typically) has gills

Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods. Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification.

Yersinia ruckeri is a species of Gram-negative bacteria, known for causing enteric redmouth disease in some species of fish. Strain 2396-61 is its type strain.

Rainbow trout species of trout

The rainbow trout is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead is an anadromous (sea-run) form of the coastal rainbow trout(O. m. irideus) or Columbia River redband trout (O. m. gairdneri) that usually returns to fresh water to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean. Freshwater forms that have been introduced into the Great Lakes and migrate into tributaries to spawn are also called steelhead.

Contents

Distribution of disease

Some fish species serve as vectors for the disease and have subsequently spread the pathogen to other parts of the world. [1] An example is the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) which is responsible for the spread of redmouth disease to trout in Europe. [2] Other vectors include the goldfish (Carassius auratus), Atlantic and Pacific salmon (Salmo salar), the emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), and farmed whitefish (Coregonus spp.). Infections have also occurred in farmed turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), and seabream (Sparus auratus). [1] It can now be found in North and South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia, as well as Europe.

Vector (epidemiology) agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism

In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent who carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.

Fathead minnow species of fish

The fathead minnow is a species of temperate freshwater fish belonging to the genus Pimephales of the cyprinid family. The natural geographic range extends throughout much of North America, from central Canada south along the Rockies to Texas, and east to Virginia and the Northeastern United States. This minnow has also been introduced to many other areas via bait bucket releases. Its golden, or xanthic, strain, known as the rosy-red minnow, is a very common feeder fish sold in the United States and Canada. This fish is best known for producing Schreckstoff.

Goldfish freshwater fish, common in aquariums

The goldfish is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes. It is one of the most commonly kept aquarium fish.

Clinical signs and diagnosis

Infection can cause subcutaneous haemorrhage that presents as reddening of the throat, mouth, gill tips, and fins, and eventual erosion of the jaw and palate. Hemorrhaging also occurs on internal organs, and in the later stages of the disease, the abdomen becomes filled with a yellow fluid - giving the fish a "pot-bellied" appearance. The fish often demonstrate abnormal behavior and anorexia. Mortality rates can be high.

Subcutaneous tissue lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates

The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates. The types of cells found in the hypodermis are fibroblasts, adipose cells, and macrophages. The hypodermis is derived from the mesoderm, but unlike the dermis, it is not derived from the dermatome region of the mesoderm. In arthropods, the hypodermis is an epidermal layer of cells that secretes the chitinous cuticle. The term also refers to a layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis of plants.

Ascites

Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen. Technically, it is more than 25 mL of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Symptoms may include increased abdominal size, increased weight, abdominal discomfort, and shortness of breath. Complications can include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

A presumptive diagnosis can be made based in the history and clinical signs, but definitive diagnosis requires bacterial culture and serological testing such as ELISA and latex agglutination.

ELISA assay

The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a commonly used analytical biochemistry assay, first described by Engvall and Perlmann in 1972. The assay uses a solid-phase enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to detect the presence of a ligand in a liquid sample using antibodies directed against the protein to be measured. The ELISA has been used as a diagnostic tool in medicine, plant pathology, and biotechnology, as well as a quality control check in various industries.

A latex fixation test, also called a latex agglutination assay or test, is an assay used clinically in the identification and typing of many important microorganisms. These tests use the patient's antigen-antibody immune response. This response occurs when the body detects a pathogen and forms an antibody specific to an identified antigen present on the surface of the pathogen.

Treatment and control

Several antibiotics are available for the treatment of redmouth disease in fish. Vaccines can also be used in the treatment and prevention of disease. Management factors such as maintaining water quality and a low stocking density are essential for disease prevention.

Related Research Articles

Pelvic inflammatory disease infection of uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries or the inner surface of pelvis

Pelvic inflammatory disease, also known as pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID), is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system, namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis. Often, there may be no symptoms. Signs and symptoms, when present, may include lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, fever, burning with urination, pain with sex, bleeding after sex, or irregular menstruation. Untreated PID can result in long-term complications including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and cancer.

Infection invasion of a host by disease-causing organisms

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection.

Ehrlichiosis (; also known as canine rickettsiosis, canine hemorrhagic fever, canine typhus, tracker dog disease, and tropical canine pancytopenia is a tick-borne disease of dogs usually caused by the organism Ehrlichia canis. Ehrlichia canis is the pathogen of animals. Humans can become infected by E. canis and other species after tick exposure. German Shepherd Dogs are thought to be susceptible to a particularly severe form of the disease, other breeds generally have milder clinical signs. Cats can also be infected.

<i>Ichthyophthirius multifiliis</i> species of protozoan

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an ectoparasite of freshwater fish which causes a disease commonly known as white spot disease, or Ich. Ich is one of the most common and persistent diseases in fish. It appears on the body, fins and gills of fish as white nodules of up to 1 mm, that look like white grains of salt. Each white spot is an encysted parasite. It is easily introduced into a fish pond or home aquarium by new fish or equipment which has been moved from one fish-holding unit or pond to another. When the organism gets into a large fish culture facility, it is difficult to control due to its fast reproductive cycle and its unique life stages. If not controlled, there is a 100% mortality rate of fish. With careful treatment, the disease can be controlled but the cost is high in terms of lost fish, labor, and cost of chemicals.

Filariasis Parasitic disease caused by a family of nematode worms

Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type. These are spread by blood-feeding diptera as black flies and mosquitoes. This disease belongs to the group of diseases called helminthiases.

Fin rot is a symptom of disease or the actual disease in fish. This is a disease which is most often observed in aquaria and aquaculture, but can also occur in natural populations.

Vector control Methods to limit or eradicate the mammals, birds, insects etc. which transmit disease pathogens

Vector control is any method to limit or eradicate the mammals, birds, insects or other arthropods which transmit disease pathogens. The most frequent type of vector control is mosquito control using a variety of strategies. Several of the "neglected tropical diseases" are spread by such vectors.

Lymphocystis is a common viral disease of freshwater and saltwater fish. The virus that cause this disease belong to the genus Lymphocystivirus of the family Iridoviridae.

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia Human disease

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is a deadly infectious fish disease caused by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). It afflicts fish of over 50 species of freshwater and marine fish in several parts of the northern hemisphere. VHS is caused by viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), different strains of which occur in different regions, and affect different species. There are no signs that the disease affects human health. VHS is also known as "Egtved disease," and VHSV as "Egtved virus."

Medical microbiology medical specialty

Medical microbiology , the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of infectious protein called prion.

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), is a negative-sense single-stranded, bullet-shaped RNA virus that is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family, and from the genus Novirhabdovirus. It causes the disease known as infectious hematopoietic necrosis in salmonid fish such as trout and salmon. The disease may be referred to by a number of other names such as Chinook salmon disease, Coleman disease, Columbia River sockeye disease, Cultus Lake virus disease, Oregon sockeye disease, Sacramento River Chinook disease and sockeye salmon viral disease. IHNV is commonly found in the Pacific Coast of Canada and the United States, and has also been found in Europe and Japan. The first reported epidemics of IHNV occurred in the United States at the Washington and the Oregon fish hatcheries during the 1950s. IHNV is transmitted following shedding of the virus in the feces, urine, sexual fluids, and external mucus and by direct contact or close contact with surrounding water. The virus gains entry into fish at the base of the fins.

<i>Nanophyetus salmincola</i> species of worm

Nanophyetus salmincola is a food-borne intestinal trematode parasite prevalent on the Pacific Northwest coast. The species may be the most common trematode endemic to the United States.

<i>Aeromonas salmonicida</i> species of bacterium

Aeromonas salmonicida is a pathogenic bacterium that severely impacts salmonid populations and other species. It was first discovered in a Bavarian brown trout hatchery by Emmerich and Weibel in 1894. Aeromonas salmonicida's ability to infect a variety of hosts, multiply, and adapt, make it a prime virulent bacterium. A. salmonicida is an etiological agent for furunculosis, a disease that causes septicemia, haemorrhages, muscle lesions, inflammation of the lower intestine, spleen enlargement, and death in freshwater fish populations. It is found worldwide with the exception of South America. The major route of contamination is poor water quality; however, it can also be associated stress factors such as overcrowding, high temperatures, and trauma. Spawning and smolting fish are prime victims of furunculosis due to their immunocompromised state of being.

<i>Streptococcus iniae</i> species of bacterium

Streptococcus iniae is a species of Gram-positive, sphere-shaped bacterium belonging to the genus Streptococcus. Since its isolation from an Amazon freshwater dolphin in the 1970s, S. iniae has emerged as a leading fish pathogen in aquaculture operations worldwide, resulting in over US$100M in annual losses. Since its discovery, S. iniae infections have been reported in at least 27 species of cultured or wild fish from around the world. Freshwater and saltwater fish including tilapia, red drum, hybrid striped bass, and rainbow trout are among those susceptible to infection by S. iniae. Infections in fish manifest as meningoencephalitis, skin lesions, and septicemia.

Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a bacterial disease of salmonid fish. It is caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The disease typically occurs at temperatures below 13⁰C, and it can be seen in any area with water temperatures consistently below 15⁰C. Salmon are the most commonly affected species. This disease is not zoonotic.

Diseases and parasites in salmon

This article is about diseases and parasites in salmon, trout and other salmon-like fishes of the Salmonidae family.

Lactococcus garvieae is a known fish pathogen affecting saltwater fish in the Far East, specifically in rainbow trout, Japanese yellowtail, and grey mullet. This bacteria causes lesions in the vascular endothelium, leading to hemorrhages and petechias at the surface of internal organs. As few as 10 bacterial cells per fish can cause an infection. L. garvieae is isolated in saltwater fish in the Far East and specifically in European Rainbow Trout.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 LSC - Fish Disease Leaflet 82 Archived March 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine .
  2. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). "Pimephales promelas" in FishBase . December 2006 version.
WikiVet

WikiVet is a wiki of veterinary content based on the MediaWiki platform. The project is a collaborative initiative involving veterinary schools between UK and international veterinary schools. It provides a comprehensive online knowledge base which covers the entire veterinary curriculum, and is a reliable reference source for veterinary students, nurses and graduates anywhere in the world. The WikiVet project is now part of the WikiVet Educational Foundation which was established in February 2015.