|Infraclass:|| Euthyneura |
Johann Wilhelm Spengel, 1881
|over 30000 species|
Euthyneura is a taxonomic clade of snails and slugs, which includes species from freshwater, marine, aquatic and terrestrial gastropod mollusks in the clade Heterobranchia.
Euthyneura are considered the crown group of Gastropoda, and are characterised by several autapomorphies, but are named for euthyneury. They are considered to be the most successful and diverse group of Gastropoda. Within this taxon, the Gastropoda have reached their peak in species richness and ecological diversity. This obvious evolutionary success can probably be attributed to several factors. Marine Opisthobranchia, e.g., have evolved several clades specialised on less used food resources such as sponges or cnidarians. A key innovation in the evolution of Pulmonata was the colonization of freshwater and terrestrial habitats.
Various phylogenetic studies focused on Euthyneura: Dayrat et al. (2001),Dayrat & Tillier (2002) and Grande et al. (2004). Morphological analyses by Dayrat and Tillier (2002) demonstrated the need to explore new datasets in order to critically analyse the phylogeny of this controversial group of gastropods. Klussmann-Kolb et al. (2008) traced an evolutionary scenario regarding colonisation of different habitats based on phylogenetic hypothesis and they showed that traditional classification of Euthyneura needs to be reconsidered.
Jörger et al. (2010)have redefined major groups within the Heterobranchia and a cladogram showing phylogenic relations of Euthyneura is as follows:
Cladogram showing phylogenic relations of Euthyneura sensu Wägele et al. (2014):
Kano et al. (2016) proposed a new taxon Ringipleura and classified Ringiculoidea as sister group to Nudipleura:
Opisthobranchs is now an informal name for a large and diverse group of specialized complex gastropods which used to be united in the subclass Opisthobranchia. That taxon is no longer considered to represent a monophyletic grouping.
Heterobranchia, the heterobranchs, is a taxonomic clade of snails and slugs, which includes marine, aquatic and terrestrial gastropod mollusks.
The clade Cephalaspidea, also known as the headshield slugs and bubble snails, is a major taxon of sea slugs and bubble snails, marine gastropod mollusks within the larger clade Euopisthobranchia. Bubble shells is another common name for these families of marine gastropods, some of which have thin bubble-like shells. This clade contains more than 600 species.
Acteonoidea is a superfamily of sea snails, or bubble snails, marine gastropod mollusks.
Amphiboloidea is a taxonomic superfamily of air-breathing land snails.
Smeagol is a genus of small air-breathing sea slugs of the upper intertidal zone. They are pulmonate gastropod mollusks related to land slugs and snails.
Lower Heterobranchia, also known as the Allogastropoda, is a group of rather specialized, highly evolved sea slugs and sea snails, within the clade Heterobranchia. Although the great majority of Lower Heterobranchs are indeed marine, a few have succeeded in making the transition to freshwater.
Nudipleura are a clade of sea snails and sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks within the large clade Heterobranchia.
Siphonaria pectinata, common name the striped false limpet, is a species of air-breathing sea snail or false limpet, a marine heterobranch gastropod mollusc in the family Siphonariidae, the false limpets.
Acochlidiacea, common name acochlidians, are a taxonomic clade of very unusual sea snails and sea and freshwater slugs, aquatic gastropod mollusks within the large clade Heterobranchia. Acochlidia is a variant spelling.
Umbraculoidea is a superfamily of unusual false limpets with a thin soft patelliform shell, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Umbraculida, within the clade Euopisthobranchia.
Runcinoidea is a taxonomic superfamily or a clade Runcinaecea of sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Euopisthobranchia.
The Glacidorbidae is a taxonomic family of freshwater snails.
†Heteroneritidae is an extinct taxonomic family of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamilia Pyramidelloidea.
This overview lists proposed changes in the taxonomy of gastropods at the family level and above since 2005, when the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) was published. In other words, these are recent updates in the way various groups of snails and slugs are classified.
Aiteng is a genus of two species of sea slugs, marine gastropod molluscs and one terrestrial species. Aiteng is the only genus in the family Aitengidae. The generic name Aiteng is derived from the name of a black puppet Ai Theng, which is one of the shadow play puppets in southern Thailand.
Panpulmonata is a taxonomic clade of snails and slugs in the clade Heterobranchia within the clade Euthyneura.
Euopisthobranchia is a taxonomic clade of snails and slugs in the clade Heterobranchia within the clade Euthyneura.
Architectibranchia is a clade of marine snails, gastropod molluscs.
Aiteng mysticus is a species of sea slug in the family Aitengidae, found around Hisamatsu, Miyako-jima, Okinawa, Japan. Morphologically it clearly belongs to the Aitengidae, but it shows differences to Aiteng ater at genus or species level. Its affinity to Aiteng ater is confirmed by comparison of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences.
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