House of Montefeltro

Last updated
Coat of Arms of the Montefeltro family Coat of arms of the House of Montefeltro.svg
Coat of Arms of the Montefeltro family

Da Montefeltro is the name of an historical Italian family who ruled Urbino and Gubbio and became Dukes of Urbino in 1443. The family extinguished in the male line in 1508 and the duchy was inherited by the Della Rovere family.

Italy republic in Southern Europe

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Italian Alps and surrounded by several islands. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean sea and traversed along its length by the Apennines, Italy has a largely temperate seasonal climate. The country covers an area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares open land borders with France, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial exclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in the Tunisian Sea (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the fourth-most populous member state of the European Union.

Urbino Comune in Marche, Italy

Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482. The town, nestled on a high sloping hillside, retains much of its picturesque medieval aspect. It hosts the University of Urbino, founded in 1506, and is the seat of the Archbishop of Urbino. Its best-known architectural piece is the Palazzo Ducale, rebuilt by Luciano Laurana.

Gubbio Comune in Umbria, Italy

Gubbio is a town and comune in the far northeastern part of the Italian province of Perugia (Umbria). It is located on the lowest slope of Mt. Ingino, a small mountain of the Apennines.

Contents

History

San Leo on the rock mons feretrius (Montefeltro) San Leo I.jpg
San Leo on the rock mons feretrius (Montefeltro)
Palazzo Ducale, Urbino Urbino, palazzo ducale visto dal mercatale 02.JPG
Palazzo Ducale, Urbino
Portrait of Federico III da Montefeltro, by Piero della Francesca Federico da Montefeltro.jpg
Portrait of Federico III da Montefeltro, by Piero della Francesca

The family was a branch of the Lords of Carpegna, just like its longtime opponents, the House of Malatesta, the signori of Rimini. Around 1140, Antonio (d. 1184?), by distribution among heirs with his brothers, received the castle of Montecopiolo and later acquired the castle of San Leo (situated on the rock mons feretrius that gave its name to the region of Montefeltro).

Carpegna Comune in Marche, Italy

Carpegna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Pesaro e Urbino in the Italian region Marche, located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of Ancona and about 50 kilometres (31 mi) southwest of Pesaro.

House of Malatesta Italian family

The House of Malatesta was an Italian family that ruled over Rimini from 1295 until 1500, as well as other lands and towns in Romagna.

A signoria was the governing authority in many of the Italian city states during the medieval and renaissance periods.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, made Antonio imperial vicar for the town of Urbino in 1155, thus claiming it to be a fief of the Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) although the Papal States had an older claim to it. Antonio's son, Montefeltrano I (c. 1135-1202), also vicar of Urbino, became count of Montefeltro. In 1226 the latter's sons Buonconte I and Taddeo da Montefeltro were appointed Counts of Urbino by emperor Frederick II. During the struggles between papal and imperial followers (Guelphs and Ghibellines), the Montefeltro brothers and their descendants became leaders of the Ghibellines of the Marche and the Romagna while the Malatesta family took the lead of the Guelphs.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor German Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick I, also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 2 January 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152. He was crowned King of Italy on 24 April 1155 in Pavia and emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155 in Rome. Two years later, the term sacrum ("holy") first appeared in a document in connection with his empire. He was later formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He was named Barbarossa by the northern Italian cities which he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means "red beard" in Italian; in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbart, which has the same meaning.

Fief system of economic and politic governance for the land concessed by a lord to a vassal during the Middle Age in Europe

A fief was the central element of feudalism. It consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty. The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure: these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including governmental office, rights of exploitation such as hunting or fishing, monopolies in trade, and tax farms.

Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) Medieval kingdom on the Apennine Peninsula between 962 and 1024

The Kingdom of Italy, also commonly Imperial Italy or Kingdom of Lombardy, was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy. It comprised northern and central Italy, but excluded the Republic of Venice and the Papal States. Its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century.

Buonconte I was succeeded by Montefeltrano II (1214–1255), and Guido I (1255–1286 and 1293–1296), who was captain of Forlì during wars with the French and papal armies. Pope Boniface VIII absolved him from censures for his actions in those wars, and employed him against Palestrina and the Colonna.

Montefeltrano II da Montefeltro was an Italian condottiero, who was lord of Urbino from 1242 until his death. He was also count of Montefeltro and Pietrarubbia.

Guido da Montefeltro was an Italian military strategist and lord of Urbino. He became a monk late in life, and was condemned by Dante Alighieri in his Divine Comedy for giving false or fraudulent counsel.

Forlì Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Forlì is a comune (municipality) and city in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, and is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena. It is the central city of Romagna.

Guido's successor, Federico I (1296–1322), increased his domains by taking Fano, Osimo, Recanati, Gubbio, Spoleto and Assisi from the Holy See. He was murdered after levying high taxes and Urbino fell under papal control. In 1323, however, Frederico's son Nolfo (1323–1359) was proclaimed lord of Urbino. In 1355, as a papal legate, Cardinal Albornoz travelled through Italy restoring papal authority and Urbino once more came under the control of the Holy See. Nolfo's son, Federico II, was left without any authority, but his son, Antonio II (1377–1403), took advantage of the rebellion of the Marche and Umbria against the Holy See (1375) to restore his authority in Urbino.

Fano Comune in Marche, Italy

Fano[ˈfaːno] is a town and comune of the province of Pesaro and Urbino in the Marche region of Italy. It is a beach resort 12 kilometres southeast of Pesaro, located where the Via Flaminia reaches the Adriatic Sea. It is the third city in the region by population after Ancona and Pesaro.

Osimo Comune in Marche, Italy

Osimo is a town and comune of the Marche region of Italy, in the province of Ancona. The municipality covers a hilly area located approximately 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of the port city of Ancona and the Adriatic Sea. As of 2015, Osimo had a total population of 35,037.

Recanati Comune in Marche, Italy

Recanati is a town and comune in the Province of Macerata, in the Marche region of Italy. Recanati was founded around 1150 AD from three pre-existing castles. In 1290 it proclaimed itself an independent republic and, in the 15th century, was famous for its international fair. In March 1798 it was conquered by Napoleon Bonaparte.

Guidantonio (1403–1443) was appointed ruler of the Duchy of Spoleto by Pope Martin V (1419) and carried on war against Braccio da Montone with varying fortune. His son, Oddo Antonio, was assassinated after only a few months in power. The Urbinese then offered the lordship to Federico III (1444–1482), the illegitimate son of Guidantonio, a pupil of Vittorino da Feltre's school and a lover of art. Under him Urbino became a cultural center of the Renaissance. He was implicated in the wars against Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, René of Anjou, and Florence. Pope Sixtus IV conferred on him the title of Duke of Urbino (1474).

Guidantonio da Montefeltro was count of Urbino in Italy from 1403 until his death.

Pope Martin V pope

Pope Martin V, born OttoColonna, was Pope from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431. His election effectively ended the Western Schism (1378–1417).

Braccio da Montone Italian condottiero

Braccio da Montone, born Andrea Fortebracci, and also known as Braccio Fortebraccio, was an Italian condottiero.

Guidobaldo I (1492–1508) was forced to flee Urbino to escape the armies of Cesare Borgia. He adopted Francesco Maria della Rovere (1508–38), his sister's child, thus uniting the signoria of Sinigaglia with Urbino. He aided Julius II in reconquering the Romagna. Pope Leo X deprived him of his territory, which was given to Lorenzo de' Medici, and later to Francesco Maria della Rovere. The Rovere family ruled the duchy until its extinction in 1631, when it returned to the Papal States.

See also

Coat of arms of the Duchy of Urbino, with the Montefeltro arms, the imperial eagle and the papal Keys of Heaven Coat of arms of Federico and Guidobaldo da Montefeltro.svg
Coat of arms of the Duchy of Urbino, with the Montefeltro arms, the imperial eagle and the papal Keys of Heaven

Related Research Articles

Della Rovere noble family

The Della Rovere family was a noble family of Italy. It had humble origins in Savona, in Liguria, and acquired power and influence through nepotism and ambitious marriages arranged by two Della Rovere popes: Francesco Della Rovere, who ruled as Sixtus IV from 1471 to 1484) and his nephew Giuliano, who became Julius II in 1503. Sixtus IV built the Sistine Chapel, which is named for him. The Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli in Rome is the family church of the Della Rovere. Members of the family were influential in the Church of Rome, and as dukes of Urbino; that title was extinguished with the death of Francesco Maria II in 1631, and the family died out with the death of his grand-daughter Vittoria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany.

Federico da Montefeltro Most successful condottieri of the Italian Renaissance, and lord of Urbino

Federico da Montefeltro, also known as Federico III da Montefeltro KG, was one of the most successful condottieri of the Italian Renaissance, and lord of Urbino from 1444 until his death. A renowned intellectual Humanist and civil leader in Urbino on top of his impeccable reputation for martial skill and honor, he commissioned the construction of a great library, perhaps the largest of Italy after the Vatican, with his own team of scribes in his scriptorium, and assembled around him a large humanistic court in the Ducal Palace, Urbino, designed by Luciano Laurana and Francesco di Giorgio Martini.

Fossombrone Comune in Marche, Italy

Fossombrone is a town and comune in the province of Pesaro e Urbino, Marche, central Italy.

Coriano Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Coriano is a comune in the province of Rimini. This town is known for being the city of the Motorcycle World Champion, in 250cc class, Marco Simoncelli.

Duchy of Urbino former Italian state (1213–1625)

The Duchy of Urbino was a sovereign country in central-northern Italy.

Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Duke of Urbino Italian noble

Francesco Maria I della Rovere was an Italian condottiero, who was Duke of Urbino from 1508 to 1516 and, after retaking the throne from Lorenzo II de' Medici, from 1521 to 1538.

Guidobaldo da Montefeltro Italian condottiero and Duke of Urbino

Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, also known as Guidobaldo I, was an Italian condottiero and the Duke of Urbino from 1482 to 1508.

Oddantonio da Montefeltro Italian duke

Oddantonio da Montefeltro was the first duke of Urbino in Italy.

Pandolfo I Malatesta, son of Malatesta da Verucchio, was an Italian condottiero and Lord of Rimini from 1317.

Malatesta II Malatesta, best known as Guastafamiglia was an Italian condottiero and lord of Rimini.

Alessandro Sforza was an Italian condottiero and lord of Pesaro, the first of the Pesaro line of the Sforza family.

The War of Urbino (1517) was a secondary episode of the Italian Wars.

Nolfo da Montefeltro was count of Montefeltro from 1323 to 1360. He was the son of Federico I da Montefeltro, who had been slain by the people of the city in revolt against him.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Gubbio diocese of the Catholic Church

The Italian Catholic Diocese of Gubbio is in the province of Perugia, in Umbria, central Italy.

Giovanni della Rovere Italian condottiero

Giovanni della Rovere was an Italian condottiero. He was a nephew of Pope Sixtus IV, and the brother of Giuliano della Rovere (1443–1513), Pope Julius II from 1503.

Antonio II da Montefeltro (1348–1404) was an Italian condottiero and count of Urbino.

Antonio da Montefeltro (1445–1508) was an illegitimate son of Federico III da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino.

References

Wikisource-logo.svg  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Archdiocese of Urbino"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton.