List of justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia

Last updated

This is a list of past and present judges of the Supreme Court of Virginia. The court's name was the Supreme Court of Appeals until it was changed in 1971. [1] Members were titled Judge until a 1928 constitutional amendment changed the title to Justice and designated the presiding member Chief Justice. [2]

Contents

Current justices

The court presently is made up of seven justices, [3] each elected by a majority vote of both houses of the General Assembly for a term of twelve years. [4] To be eligible for election, a candidate must be a resident of Virginia and must have been a member of the Virginia State Bar for at least five years. [4] Vacancies on the court occurring between sessions of the General Assembly may be filled by the Governor for a term expiring thirty days after the commencement of the next session of the General Assembly. [4] The Chief Justice presently is chosen by a vote of the seven justices for a term of four years. [5] There is no statutory limit to the number of four-year terms to which a Chief Justice may be elected. However, the Court has stated that the justices internally adopted a two-term limit. [6]

State law requires justices, like all Virginia jurists, to retire no later than twenty days after the commencement of the next regular session of the General Assembly following their seventy-third birthday. [7] The court may designate up to five retired justices to serve as senior justices, each for a renewable one-year term. [8] Senior justices may sit with the court either to hear petitions for appeal or to hear cases on the merits, particularly to replace any of the seven active justices who may be recused from hearing a specific case. In addition, a retired justice who has not been designated as a senior justice may sit with the court by special designation. [8]

Active justices

JusticeBornFirst term beganCurrent term endsChief
S. Bernard Goodwyn February 23, 1961 (age 61)October 10, 2007 [9] January 31, 2032 [10] January 1, 2022 – present [11]
Cleo E. Powell January 12, 1957 (age 65)August 1, 2011 [12] July 31, 2023 [13] ——
D. Arthur Kelsey October 9, 1961 (age 60)February 1, 2015 [14] January 31, 2027 [14] ——
Stephen R. McCullough February 15, 1972 (age 50)March 3, 2016 [15] March 2, 2028 [15] ——
Teresa M. Chafin October 4, 1955 (age 66)September 1, 2019 [16] August 31, 2031 [17] ——
Wesley G. Russell Jr. 1970 (age 5152)July 1, 2022 [18] June 30, 2034 [18] ——
Thomas P. Mann 1965 (age 5657)August 1, 2022 [18] July 31, 2034 [18] ——

Senior justices

JusticeFirst term beganActive service ended Senior status began
Charles S. Russell March 1, 1982 [19] July 1, 1991 [20] January 1, 2004 [21]
Lawrence L. Koontz Jr. August 16, 1995 [22] February 1, 2011 [23] February 1, 2011 [23]
LeRoy F. Millette Jr. August 19, 2008 [24] July 31, 2015 [25] July 31, 2015 [25]

Former justices

Members ex officio (1778–88)

The Constitution of 1776 provided for a Supreme Court of Appeals but did not specify its structure, leaving the General Assembly to organize the court by statute. [26] The first such statute was enacted at the October 1778 legislative session. From that time until 1788, no one was appointed or elected specifically to serve on the Supreme Court of Appeals. Rather, the court was made up of the three judges of the High Court of Chancery, the five judges of the General Court, and the three judges of the Court of Admiralty, each of whom was elected by the General Assembly to life terms on those courts and served on the Supreme Court of Appeals ex officio. [27]

The following judges were members of the court by virtue of having been elected judges of the High Court of Chancery, the General Court, and the Court of Admiralty, in the courts' order of precedence under the statute. [27] The terms listed below run from each member's accession to those respective courts, which were created in 1776 and 1777, before the Supreme Court of Appeals was created. Ex officio membership ended on December 24, 1788, when the Supreme Court of Appeals became a separate body with five judges. [28]

The High Court of Chancery: [29]

The General Court: [31]

The Court of Admiralty: [32]

Members since 1788

In December 1788, within the broad authority provided by the Constitution of 1776, the General Assembly re-organized the Supreme Court of Appeals as a separate court with five judges elected by the legislature to life terms. [28] The General Assembly elected two incumbent judges of the High Court of Chancery and three incumbent judges of the General Court as the first judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals in their own right. [30] While the court has remained separate ever since, the number of seats has varied. In January 1807, while one of the five seats was vacant, the General Assembly reduced the number to four with the provision that it be further reduced to three upon the next vacancy. [33] The number was restored to five in January 1811. [34]

The next significant alteration to the court came with the Constitution of 1851. It provided for the popular election of judges to the court, one from each of five districts, and imposed a twelve-year term. [35] As the Emancipation Proclamation became effective in Virginia during the American Civil War (particularly after the Commonwealth surrendered in April 1865 and 13th Amendment became effective in December 1865), the 1851 Constitution's authorization of slavery became illegal under federal law. Thus, Virginia needed a new Constitution.

Federal authorities in occupied areas called a convention with delegates from occupied areas only, which proclaimed the Constitution of 1864. Although voters statewide never were asked to authorize it in a referendum, it came into (disputed) effect, until a new state Constitution was adopted by popular referendum, then undisputedly came into effect in 1870. Federal military authorities allowed voters statewide to elect delegates to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1868. Virginia voters overwhelmingly ratified that document the following year, except for certain provisions penalizing former Confederates, which failed. The Constitution of 1864 had ended popular election of judges, instead providing (for the first time) that the General Assembly would elect the judges from candidates nominated by the Governor. [36] It also reduced the court to three judges. [37] On June 3, 1869, during Congressional Reconstruction, Major General John Schofield (who governed Virginia as Military District No. 1 and also led efforts to allow separate votes on the proposed Constitution and anti-Confederate provisions), dismissed all three elected judges because a new federal law required removal of officials in Texas and Virginia with any record of service to the Confederacy. On June 9, Schofield appointed three Union sympathizers (whom he had previously appointed judges of lower courts, where they had performed satisfactorily) as their replacements. Those three judges served (and issued binding rulings) until the new state Constitution came into effect and legislators elected replacements. [38]

The post-Reconstruction Constitution of 1870 eliminated the short-lived provision for gubernatorial nominations, as well as restored the court to five judges. [39] None of the three Union men was elected to the Court by the General Assembly. Legislators did elect two of the three judges elected by voters, and three additional judges. Legislation also allowed the court's members to elect their President, and in March 1870, the new Court elected R.C.L. Moncure (who had the most seniority) their President (the third man to hold that title). [38]

The Constitution of 1902 staggered the five seats by requiring that at the next election of judges, one judge would be elected to a term of 4 years, one to a term of 6 years, one to a term of 8 years, one to a term of 10 years, and one to a term of 12 years. [40] It perpetuated this staggering by providing that any new judge elected to fill a vacancy would serve only the unexpired portion of his predecessor's term. [41]

In 1906, the General Assembly re-elected each of the five incumbent judges, whose terms were all due to expire the following January 1, to fill the newly staggered seats. An amendment ratified in 1928 increased the number of seats to seven but it did not stagger the two new seats. The Constitution of 1971 eliminated the staggering of seats by providing that any new judge elected to fill a vacancy serve a full twelve-year term. [4]

These are the former members of the court from 1788, in order of their accession to office. Those who served as presiding officer are designated by italics.

Succession of seats between 1895 and 2022

In 1895, for the first time, the General Assembly elected a full bench of five new judges. [114] Consequently, any line of succession between a specific justice of the current court and a judge elected before 1895 necessarily would be arbitrary. However, when the General Assembly re-elected the incumbent judges in 1906 to fill the staggered seats created by the Constitution of 1902, it elected a specific judge to each seat: it re-elected Judge Cardwell for 4 years, Judge Whittle for 6, Judge Buchanan for 8, Judge Keith for 10, and Judge Harrison for 12. [115] It therefore was possible to trace the line of succession of each of these seats, and the two new seats created in 1928, to its successive occupants.

Seat 1
Designated for a 4-year term in 1906
MemberAccededVacated
Richard H. Cardwell Jan. 1, 1895Nov. 16, 1916
Robert R. Prentis Dec. 16, 1916Nov. 25, 1931
Joseph W. Chinn Dec. 3, 1931Aug. 16, 1936
Claude V. Spratley Aug. 27, 1936Sept. 30, 1967
Albertis Harrison Oct. 23, 1967Dec. 31, 1981
Charles S. Russell Mar. 1, 1982July 1, 1991
Barbara Milano Keenan July 2, 1991Mar. 12, 2010
William C. Mims April 1, 2010Mar. 31, 2022
Thomas P. Mann [116] [117] [118] Aug. 1, 2022
Seat 2
Designated for a 6-year term in 1906
MemberAccededVacated
John W. Riely Jan. 1, 1895Aug. 20, 1900
Archer Allen Phlegar Oct. 1, 1900Jan. 1901
Stafford G. Whittle Mar. 1901Dec. 31, 1919
Edward W. Saunders Mar. 9, 1920Dec. 16, 1921
Jesse F. West Feb. 1, 1922Oct. 25, 1929
Louis S. Epes Nov. 20, 1929Feb. 14, 1935
John W. Eggleston Feb. 26, 1935Oct. 1, 1969
George M. Cochran [119] Oct. 1, 1969Apr. 20, 1987
Henry H. Whiting Apr. 30, 1987Aug. 12, 1995
Lawrence L. Koontz Jr. Aug. 16, 1995Feb. 1, 2011
Elizabeth A. McClanahan [120] Aug. 1, 2011Sept. 1, 2019
Teresa M. Chafin [16] Sept. 1, 2019
Seat 3
Designated for an 8-year term in 1906
MemberAccededVacated
John A. Buchanan Jan. 1, 1895Jan. 12, 1915
Joseph L. Kelly Jan. 12, 1915Jan. 31, 1924
Preston W. Campbell Jan. 31, 1924Oct. 1, 1946
Archibald C. Buchanan Oct. 1, 1946Oct. 1, 1969
Alexander Harman [119] Oct. 1, 1969Dec. 31, 1979
William Carrington Thompson Feb. 19, 1980Mar. 2, 1983
John Charles Thomas Apr. 25, 1983Nov. 1, 1989
Leroy R. Hassell Sr. Dec. 28, 1989Feb. 9, 2011
Cleo Powell [120] Aug. 1, 2011
Seat 4
Designated for a 10-year term in 1906
MemberAccededVacated
James Keith Jan. 1, 1895June 10, 1916
Frederick W. Sims June 12, 1916Feb. 8, 1925
Joseph L. Kelly Mar. 10, 1925Apr. 14, 1925
Richard Henry Lee Chichester June 1, 1925Feb. 3, 1930
George L. Browning Feb. 19, 1930Aug. 26, 1947
Abram Penn Staples Oct. 7, 1947Jan. 15, 1951
Lemuel F. Smith Feb. 15, 1951Oct. 15, 1956
Harold Fleming Snead Jan. 14, 1957Sept. 30, 1974
Christian Compton Oct. 1, 1974Feb. 2, 2000
Donald W. Lemons Mar. 16, 2000Feb. 1, 2022
Wesley G. Russell Jr. [116] [117] [118] July 1, 2022
Seat 5
Designated for a 12-year term in 1906
MemberAccededVacated
George Moffett Harrison Jan. 1, 1895Mar. 6, 1917
Martin P. Burks Mar. 22, 1917Apr. 30, 1928
Henry W. Holt June 1, 1928Oct. 4, 1947
Willis D. Miller Nov. 17, 1947Dec. 20, 1960
Harry L. Carrico Jan. 30, 1961Jan. 31, 2003
G. Steven Agee Mar. 1, 2003June 30, 2008
LeRoy F. Millette Jr. Aug. 19, 2008July 31, 2015
Jane Marum Roush Aug. 1, 2015Feb. 12, 2016
Stephen R. McCullough Mar. 3, 2016
Seat 6
Created June 19, 1928
MemberAccededVacated
Herbert B. Gregory Feb. 1, 1930Mar. 9, 1951
Kennon C. Whittle Mar. 14, 1951Feb. 1, 1965
Thomas C. Gordon Feb. 17, 1965May 31, 1972
Richard Harding Poff Aug. 31, 1972Dec. 31, 1988
Elizabeth B. Lacy Jan. 4, 1989Aug. 16, 2007
S. Bernard Goodwyn Oct. 10, 2007
Seat 7
Created June 19, 1928
MemberAccededVacated
Edward W. Hudgins Feb. 1, 1930July 29, 1958
Lawrence W. I'Anson Sept. 3, 1958Jan. 31, 1981
Roscoe B. Stephenson Jr. Mar. 2, 1981July 1, 1997
Cynthia D. Kinser July 8, 1997Dec. 31, 2014
D. Arthur Kelsey Feb. 1, 2015

Notes

  1. The Constitution of 1971 designated the court only as the Supreme Court. Article VI, Section 1 of the Constitution of Virginia  (November 3, 1970) All prior constitutions, beginning with the Constitution of 1776, designated the court as the Supreme Court of Appeals.
  2. Article VI, Section 88 of the Constitution of Virginia  (July 10, 1902), as amended June 19, 1928.
  3. Article VI, Section 2 of the Constitution of Virginia  (November 3, 1970)
  4. 1 2 3 4 Article VI, Section 7 of the Constitution of Virginia  (November 3, 1970)
  5. "Va. Code § 17.1–300" . Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  6. Green, Frank (2010-05-12). "Hassell to step down as the state's chief justice". Times-Dispatch. Richmond, Virginia. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  7. "Va. Code § 51.1–305(B1)" . Retrieved February 28, 2015. In 2015, the General Assembly increased the mandatory retirement age from 70 to 73. "House Bill 1984, 2015 Regular Session" . Retrieved 2015-02-28. "Senate Bill 1196, 2015 Regular Session" . Retrieved 2015-02-28.
  8. 1 2 "Va. Code § 17.1–302" . Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  9. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,274Va.iii(2007).
  10. "House Resolution 29, 2020 Regular Session" . Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  11. "Press Release" (PDF). 2021-12-20. Retrieved December 20, 2021.
  12. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,282Va.v(2011).
  13. "House Resolution 530, 2011 Special Session" . Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  14. 1 2 "House Resolution 208, 2015 Regular Session" . Retrieved January 20, 2015.
  15. 1 2 "Senate Resolution 74, 2016 Regular Session" . Retrieved March 10, 2016.
  16. 1 2 Wilson, Patrick (2019-02-14). "General Assembly elects Judge Teresa Chafin to Va. Supreme Court after brother backs her bid". Times-Dispatch. Richmond, Virginia. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  17. "House Resolution 286, 2019 Regular Session" . Retrieved September 26, 2019. Justice Chafin will reach the mandatory retirement age before the expiration of her term; she will have to retire or take senior status no later than January 30, 2029.
  18. 1 2 3 4 "House Resolution 779, 2022 Special Session I" . Retrieved June 17, 2022.
  19. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,223Va.iii(1982).
  20. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,242Va.v(1991).
  21. Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,267Va.iii(2004).
  22. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,250Va.v(1995).
  23. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,281Va.v(2011).
  24. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,276Va.v(2008).
  25. 1 2 Vieth, Peter (2015-04-28). "Millette to retire from Va. Supreme Court". Virginia Lawyers Weekly. Richmond, Virginia. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
  26. "Virginia Constitution of 1776" . Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  27. 1 2 Hening, William Waller, ed. (1821), "October Session, 1778 ch. XII", The Statutes at Large, vol. 9, Richmond, Virginia: J. & G. Cochran, pp. 522–525. This statute was repealed and replaced the following year but the material provisions of the replacement statute were the same. Hening, William Waller, ed. (1822), "May Session, 1779 ch. XXII", The Statutes at Large, vol. 10, Richmond, Virginia: George Cochran, pp. 89–92.
  28. 1 2 Hening, William Waller, ed. (1823), "October Session, 1788 ch. LXVIII", The Statutes at Large, vol. 12, Richmond, Virginia: George Cochran, pp. 764–766. This statute was superseded in 1791, Hening, William Waller, ed. (1823), "October Session, 1792 ch. XI", The Statutes at Large, vol. 13, Philadelphia: Thomas Desilver, p. 405, and 1818, Leigh, Benjamin Watkins, ed. (1819), "ch. 64", Revised Code of 1819, vol. 1, Richmond, Virginia: Thomas Richie, p. 184, but the material provisions were unchanged.
  29. Hening, ed. (1821), "October Session, 1778 ch. XV", The Statutes at Large, vol. 9, pp. 388–399.
  30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Brief Sketch of the Courts of this Commonwealth,Va. (2 Va. Cas.)unpaginated front matter (1826).
  31. Hening, ed. (1821), "October Session, 1778 ch. XVII", The Statutes at Large, vol. 9, pp. 401–419.
  32. Hening, ed. (1821), "October Session, 1776 ch. XV", The Statutes at Large, vol. 9, pp. 202–206.
  33. Hening, William Waller; Munford, William, eds. (1808), "ch. CII", Acts of the General Assembly of Virginia since 1801, vol. 2, Richmond, Virginia: Samuel Pleasants, p. 127.
  34. Munford, William; Hay Jr., William, eds. (1812), "ch. LVIII", Acts of the General Assembly of Virginia since 1807, Richmond, Virginia: Samuel Pleasants, p. 64. This statute was superseded in 1791, Hening, William Waller, ed. (1823), "October Session, 1792 ch. XI", The Statutes at Large, vol. 13, Philadelphia: Thomas Desilver, p. 405, and 1818, Leigh, Benjamin Watkins, ed. (1819), "ch. 64", Revised Code of 1819, vol. 1, Richmond, Virginia: Thomas Richie, p. 184, but the material provisions were unchanged.
  35. Article VI, Section 10 of the Constitution of Virginia  (August 1, 1851).
  36. Article VI, Section 1 of the Constitution of Virginia  (April 11, 1864).
  37. Article VI, Section 10 of the Constitution of Virginia  (April 11, 1864).
  38. 1 2 "A Short History of the Supreme Court of Virginia". 6 May 2014.
  39. Article VI, Section 2 of the Constitution of Virginia  (July 6, 1869).
  40. Article VI, Section 91 of the Constitution of Virginia  (July 10, 1902)
  41. Article VI, Section 102 of the Constitution of Virginia  (July 10, 1902)
  42. Biographical Sketch of the Judges of the Court of Appeals,8Va. (4 Call)unpaginated front matter (1827).
  43. 1 2 Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,23Va. (2 Rand.)unpaginated front matter (1824).
  44. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Annotation ,16Va. (2 Munf.)xx(1811).
  45. 1 2 Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,22Va. (1 Rand.)unpaginated front matter (1823).
  46. 1 2 Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,48Va. (7 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1851).
  47. 1 2 3 4 Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,50Va. (9 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1853). This records the judges popularly elected under the Constitution of 1851 but does not specify the date on which the terms of Judge Cabell and Judge Baldwin, who were not elected, expired, or that on which the terms of Judge Lee and Judge Samuels, who were newly elected, began.
  48. Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,29Va. (2 Leigh)unpaginated front matter (1831).
  49. 1 2 Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,32Va. (5 Leigh)unpaginated front matter (1835).
  50. 1 2 Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,35Va. (8 Leigh)unpaginated front matter (1838).
  51. Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,30Va. (3 Leigh)unpaginated front matter (1833).
  52. 1 2 Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,39Va. (12 Leigh)unpaginated front matter (1843). This records that Judge Tucker resigned in summer of 1841 and was replaced by Judge Baldwin, but does not specify when the vacancy was created or filled.
  53. Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,36Va. (9 Leigh)unpaginated front matter (1840).
  54. 1 2 Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,38Va. (11 Leigh)unpaginated front matter (1842).
  55. Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,37Va. (10 Leigh)unpaginated front matter (1841).
  56. 1 2 Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,44Va. (3 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1847).
  57. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,58Va. (17 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1867). This records the judges elected by the General Assembly under the Constitution of 1864 following the reduction of the court from five judges to three but does not specify the date on which the terms of Judge Allen, Judge Daniel, Judge Lee, and Judge Robertson expired, or that on which the terms of Judge Joynes and Judge Thompson, who were newly elected, began. It likewise records that Judge Rives replaced Judge Thompson but not the specific date.
  58. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Chronological list of justices, 1779–present". 21 May 2014.
  59. 1 2 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,76Va.unpaginated front matter (1883).
  60. Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,55Va. (14 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1859).
  61. Judges of the Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,56Va. (15 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1860).
  62. Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,62Va. (21 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1872).
  63. 1 2 3 4 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,61Va. (20 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1871). This records the judges elected under the Constitution of 1870 but does not specify the date on which the term of Judge Rives, who was not elected, vacated his seat. The constitution provided that the terms of judges elected under it would begin the following January 1. Article VI, Section 22 of the Constitution of Virginia  (July 6, 1869)
  64. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,77Va.unpaginated front matter (1883).
  65. Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,63Va. (22 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1873).
  66. Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,68Va. (27 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1877).
  67. Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,69Va. (28 Gratt.)unpaginated front matter (1878). This records that Judge Burks was a member of the court when it sat in November 1876 but does not specify the date he succeeded Judge Bouldin.
  68. 1 2 3 4 5 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,90Va.unpaginated front matter (1895).
  69. 1 2 3 4 5 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,91Va.unpaginated front matter (1896).
  70. 1 2 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,98Va.unpaginated front matter (1900).
  71. 1 2 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,117Va.unpaginated front matter (1915).
  72. 1 2 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,119Va.unpaginated front matter (1916).
  73. 1 2 3 4 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,120Va.unpaginated front matter (1917).
  74. 1 2 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,99Va.unpaginated front matter (1901).
  75. 1 2 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,126Va.unpaginated front matter (1920).
  76. 1 2 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,138Va.unpaginated front matter (1924).
  77. 1 2 3 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,141Va.unpaginated front matter (1925).
  78. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,157Va.unpaginated front matter (1932).
  79. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,150Va.unpaginated front matter (1928).
  80. 1 2 Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,132Va.unpaginated front matter (1922).
  81. 1 2 3 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,153Va.unpaginated front matter (1930).
  82. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,185Va.unpaginated front matter (1947).
  83. Judges of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,142Va.unpaginated front matter (1925).
  84. 1 2 3 4 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,186Va.unpaginated front matter (1947).
  85. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,163Va.unpaginated front matter (1933).
  86. 1 2 3 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,154Va.unpaginated front matter (1930).
  87. 1 2 3 4 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,192Va.unpaginated front matter (1951).
  88. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,200Va.unpaginated front matter (1959).
  89. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,166Va.unpaginated front matter (1936).
  90. 1 2 3 4 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,210Va.unpaginated front matter (1970).
  91. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,208Va.unpaginated front matter (1968).
  92. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,202Va.unpaginated front matter (1961).
  93. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,198Va.unpaginated front matter (1957).
  94. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Appeals During the Time of These Reports,205Va.unpaginated front matter (1965).
  95. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,215Va.unpaginated front matter (1975).
  96. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,221Va.unpaginated front matter (1986).
  97. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,265Va.v(2003).
  98. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,213Va.unpaginated front matter (1973).
  99. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,220Va.unpaginated front matter (1980).
  100. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,233Va.v(1987).
  101. 1 2 3 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,238Va.iii(1989).
  102. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,259Va.v(2000).
  103. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,225Va.iii(1983).
  104. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,254Va.v(1997).
  105. Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,239Va. front matter (1990).
  106. Memorial Statement,281Va.xxix(2011).
  107. 1 2 Justices of the Supreme Court of Virginia During the Time of These Reports,279Va.iii(2010).
  108. Elkins, Deborah (2014-08-18). "Lemons elected new chief justice". Virginia Lawyers Weekly. Richmond, Virginia. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
  109. Bowes, Mark (2021-12-23). "Supreme Court of Virginia's chief justice to retire Feb. 1". Times-Dispatch. Richmond, Virginia. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
  110. "House Resolution 32, 2010 Regular Session" . Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  111. Cain, Andrew (2019-01-25). "Virginia Supreme Court Justice Elizabeth A. McClanahan announces Sept. 1 retirement". Times-Dispatch. Richmond, Virginia. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  112. Jackman, Tom (2015-07-27). "Fairfax judge Jane Marum Roush named to Virginia Supreme Court". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  113. Under the Constitution of Virginia, Justice Roush's original interim appointment by Governor Terry McAuliffe was to expire thirty days after the commencement of the next session of the Virginia General Assembly, unless the legislature elected her to a full twelve-year term. Article VI, Section 7 of the Constitution of Virginia  (November 3, 1970) On August 17, 2015, the General Assembly convened in special session but failed to elect anyone to the full twelve-year term before the Senate of Virginia purported to adjourn sine die. Portnoy, Jenna (2015-08-20). "Virginia Republicans escalate fight with McAuliffe over Supreme Court judge". The Virginian-Pilot. Norfolk, Virginia. Retrieved August 20, 2015. The Constitution prohibits one chamber of the legislature from adjourning for more than three days without the consent of the other chamber. Article IV, Section 6 of the Constitution of Virginia  (November 3, 1970) The Senate and the governor claim that this provision applies only to regular sessions of the General Assembly; the House of Delegates and most Senate Republicans claim it applies to special sessions as well, and that the Senate's adjournment was invalid because the House did not consent. Because there is legal uncertainty about whether the legislature was still in session, it is unclear whether the governor could fill the vacancy created when Justice Roush's original interim appointment expired on September 16, 2015. Nevertheless, the governor announced his view that the legislature was not in session and purported to reappoint her for a second interim term. Cain, Andrew (2015-09-15). "McAuliffe to reappoint Roush today". The Richmond Times-Dispatch. Richmond, Virginia. Retrieved September 15, 2015. Whether this second interim appointment was valid or invalid has not been determined. If valid, the second interim appointment expired on February 12, 2016, thirty days after the regular session of the General Assembly began on January 13, because the legislature did not elect her to a full twelve-year term.
  114. Preface ,91Va.xx(1895).
  115. Senate Journal, 1906 Regular Session. pp. 210–213, 217–218.
  116. 1 2 Wilson, Patrick. "General Assembly elects two Supreme Court justices". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved August 4, 2022.
  117. 1 2 "General Assembly Elects Two New Justices to Supreme Court". Virginia State Bar. June 22, 2022.
  118. 1 2 Sarah Rankin and Denise Lavoie, "Virginia legislators elect 2 Supreme Court justices", Newport News Daily Press (June 19, 2022), p. A3.
  119. 1 2 Although Cochran and Harman each joined the Court on the same day, Governor Godwin reported to the General Assembly that he had appointed Cochran to succeed Eggleston and Harman to succeed Buchanan. Senate Journal, 1970 Regular Session. p. 45.
  120. 1 2 Although McClanahan and Powell each joined the Court on the same day, only Powell was interviewed for the vacancy created by the unexpected death of Justice Hassell. "Judicial Interviews, House Judicial Panel Schedule, April 5, 2011" (PDF). Division of Legislative Services. Retrieved September 26, 2013. The vacancy created by the mandatory retirement of Justice Koontz had been widely anticipated and McClanahan had already been interviewed for it. "Judicial Interviews, House Judicial Panel Schedule, December 10, 2010" (PDF). Division of Legislative Services. Retrieved September 26, 2013.

Related Research Articles

Virginia General Assembly Legislative branch of the state government of Virginia

The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia, the oldest continuous law-making body in the Western Hemisphere, the first elected legislative assembly in the New World, and was established on July 30, 1619. The General Assembly is a bicameral body consisting of a lower house, the Virginia House of Delegates, with 100 members, and an upper house, the Senate of Virginia, with 40 members. Combined, the General Assembly consists of 140 elected representatives from an equal number of constituent districts across the commonwealth. The House of Delegates is presided over by the Speaker of the House, while the Senate is presided over by the Lieutenant Governor of Virginia. The House and Senate each elect a clerk and sergeant-at-arms. The Senate of Virginia's clerk is known as the "Clerk of the Senate".

Supreme Court of Virginia Highest court in the U.S. state of Virginia

The Supreme Court of Virginia is the highest court in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It primarily hears direct appeals in civil cases from the trial-level city and county circuit courts, as well as the criminal law, family law and administrative law cases that are initially appealed to the Court of Appeals of Virginia. It is one of the oldest continuously active judicial bodies in the United States. It was known as the Supreme Court of Appeals until 1970, when it was renamed the Supreme Court of Virginia because it has original as well as appellate jurisdiction.

The Court of Appeals of Virginia, established January 1, 1985, is an intermediate appellate court of 17 judges that hears appeals from decisions of Virginia's circuit courts and the Virginia Workers' Compensation Commission. The Court sits in panels of at least three judges, and sometimes hears cases en banc. Appeals from the Court of Appeals go to the Supreme Court of Virginia.

The Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia is the state supreme court of the state of West Virginia, the highest of West Virginia's state courts. The court sits primarily at the West Virginia State Capitol in Charleston, although from 1873 to 1915, it was also required by state law to hold sessions in Charles Town in the state's Eastern Panhandle. The court also holds special sittings at various locations across the state.

Code of Virginia

The Code of Virginia is the statutory law of the U.S. state of Virginia, and consists of the codified legislation of the Virginia General Assembly. The 1950 Code of Virginia is the revision currently in force. The previous official versions were the Codes of 1819, 1849, 1887, and 1919, though other compilations had been printed privately as early as 1733, and other editions have been issued that were not designated full revisions of the code.

Peter Lyons (Virginia judge) American judge

Peter Lyons was a Virginia lawyer and judge. He was elected as one of the first justices to serve on the Virginia Court of Appeals, and he later became the second President and chief justice of the Court.

Harry L. Carrico American judge

Harry Lee Carrico was a member, Chief Justice, and Senior Justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia. His tenure as an active Justice of the Court, at more than 42 years, was the longest of any justice excluding William Fleming, who served nearly 44 years, from 1780-1824. Because current law requires active judges and Justices in Virginia to retire or take senior status on or shortly after their seventieth birthdays, Justice Carrico's longevity record likely will not be challenged.

William Brockenbrough (judge) American judge

William Brockenbrough was a Virginia lawyer, planter, politician and judge, including on what became the Supreme Court of Virginia.

Cynthia Dinah Kinser is a Virginia lawyer who served as the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia. Justice Kinser was elected by the Virginia General Assembly to her first 12-year term to the Virginia Supreme Court in 1998, after being appointed by Governor George Allen to fill a 1997 vacancy. Justice Kinser was elected to a second 12-year term during the 2010 session of the General Assembly. Justice Kinser became Chief Justice of the Virginia Supreme Court on February 1, 2011. She is the first woman to hold the office of Chief Justice on the Court.

Donald W. Lemons American judge

Donald Wayne Lemons is a former associate justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia. He served as chief justice from 2015 to 2021. He received both his undergraduate and law degrees from the University of Virginia.

G. Steven Agee American judge

George Steven Agee is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit and a former justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia.

The government of Virginia combines the executive, legislative and judicial branches of authority in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The current governor of Virginia is Glenn Youngkin. The State Capitol building in Richmond was designed by Thomas Jefferson, and the cornerstone was laid by Governor Patrick Henry in 1785. Virginia currently functions under the 1971 Constitution of Virginia. It is Virginia's seventh constitution. Under the Constitution, the government is composed of three branches: the legislative, the executive and the judicial.

John Tyler Sr. American judge

John Tyler Sr. was an American lawyer, planter, politician and judge who served in the Virginia House of Delegates and became 15th Governor of Virginia and later United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Virginia. Nonetheless, he may be best known as the father of President John Tyler.

LGBT rights in Virginia

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in the United States state of Virginia enjoy the same rights as non-LGBT persons. LGBT rights in the state are a recent occurrence, with most improvements in LGBT rights occurring in the 2000s and 2010s. Same-sex marriage has been legal in Virginia since October 6, 2014, when the U.S. Supreme Court refused to consider an appeal in the case of Bostic v. Rainey. Effective since July 1, 2020, there is a statewide law protecting LGBT persons from discrimination in employment, housing, public accommodations, and credit. The state's hate crime laws effective since July 1, 2020, now explicitly include both sexual orientation and gender identity.

NAACP v. Button, 371 U.S. 415 (1963), is a 6-to-3 ruling by the Supreme Court of the United States which held that the reservation of jurisdiction by a federal district court did not bar the U.S. Supreme Court from reviewing a state court's ruling, and also overturned certain laws enacted by the state of Virginia in 1956 as part of the Stanley Plan and massive resistance, as violating the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. The statutes here stricken down by the Supreme Court had expanded the definitions of the traditional common law crimes of champerty and maintenance, as well as barratry, and had been targeted at the NAACP and its civil rights litigation.

The Stanley Plan was a package of 13 statutes adopted in September 1956 by the U.S. state of Virginia. The statutes were designed to ensure racial segregation would continue in that state's public schools despite the unanimous ruling of the U.S. Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that school segregation was unconstitutional. The legislative program was named for Governor Thomas B. Stanley, a Democrat, who proposed the program and successfully pushed for its enactment. The Stanley plan was a critical element in the policy of "massive resistance" to the Brown ruling advocated by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd Sr. The plan also included measures designed to curb the Virginia state chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), which many Virginia segregationists believed was responsible for "stirring up" litigation to integrate the public schools.

The Judiciary of Virginia is defined under the Constitution and law of Virginia and is composed of the Supreme Court of Virginia and subordinate courts, including the Court of Appeals, the Circuit Courts, and the General District Courts. Its administration is headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the Judicial Council, the Committee on District Courts, the Judicial Conferences, the Judicial Inquiry and Review Commission, and various other offices and officers.

Supreme Court of the Republic of Texas

The Supreme Court of the Republic of Texas was the court of last resort for legal matters in the Republic of Texas from the Republic's independence from Mexico in 1836 until its annexation by the United States of America in 1846. The current Supreme Court of Texas was established that year.

Stephen Richard McCullough is a justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia, former judge of the Court of Appeals of Virginia, and former career attorney in the Office of the Attorney General of Virginia. On March 10, 2016, the General Assembly of Virginia elected him to a twelve-year term on the Supreme Court, beginning March 3, 2016. His formal investiture occurred on May 23, 2016.

Supreme Court of the Gambia Highest court in The Gambia

The Supreme Court of the Gambia is a superior court of record and the highest court in The Gambia. Established in 1851, it has appellate and original jurisdiction over any law exceeding the powers conferred by the Constitution or any law upon the National Assembly or any other person or authority.