The Malacological Society of London is a British learned society and charitable organisation concerned with malacology, the study of molluscs, a large phylum of invertebrate animals divided into nine or ten taxonomic classes, of which two are extinct.
Founded in 1893, the Society was one of the earliest such national bodies anywhere in the world concerned only with molluscs, although the Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland is older.
The Society was founded in 1893 "to advance education, research and learning for the public benefit in the study of Mollusca from both pure and applied aspects".The Society's first president was Henry Woodward.
On 15 September 1901 the Society lost its Secretary, Martin Fountain Woodward, who was drowned when a boat he was travelling in capsized off the coast of County Galway while he was in temporary charge of the marine biological laboratory of the Fisheries Board for Ireland at Innisbofin.
Founding members included the zoologist and malacologist E. A. Smith, president of the Society from 1901 to 1903,and J. R. le B. Tomlin, who named more than a hundred taxa of gastropod molluscs. Another notable early member was the geologist Caroline Birley, who joined the Society in 1894. Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen (1834–1923), author of The Land and Freshwater Mollusca of India (1882–1887) and George Bond Howes (1853–1905) were early Presidents of the Society, and M. W. K. Connolly, who published some fifty papers on molluscs, was a member of the Society from 1908 to 1938 and was president of the Conchological Society in 1930. The Australian naturalist Charles Hedley was a vice-president of the Society from 1923 until his death in 1926. Ronald Winckworth, a member since 1919, served as the Society's editor and went on to be its president from 1939 to 1942.
Molluscs range in size from cephalopods such as the octopus and giant squid to microscopic gastropod snails, and the Society is concerned with some 85,000 recognised extant species, which include 23 per cent of all named marine organisms as well as molluscs living in freshwater and terrestrial habitats. It is also interested in the species (including those of the two extinct classes of molluscs) preserved as fossils, which creates a relationship with the study of geology.
In association with the Oxford University Press, the Society publishes the Journal of Molluscan Studies , previously called Proceedings of the Malacological Society, and Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London, an international journal to disseminate new research work on molluscs, and also a bulletin, The Malacologist, for its own members, to which there is free access on the Society's web site.
The Society organises meetings and symposia and seeks to advance education about and awareness of molluscs. It gives prizes for contributions in its field and makes awards to students (and also to others who are not employed) to enable them to travel and research malacological subjects.
An annual Malacological Society "Molluscan Forum" takes place at the Natural History Museum, London, with the 14th held in November 2011. An informal event, this is intended to bring together people beginning mollusc research, whether palaeontological, physiological, ecological, morphological, systematic, or molecular, with time for presentations and discussions. Attendance is open to all, at no charge, but those wishing to give presentations should be students engaged on molluscan projects or amateurs with substantial unpublished work.
The Society has been registered with the Charity Commission for England and Wales since 1978, with the registration number 275980.
Membership of the society is open to all by subscription, with three classes of members, student members, ordinary members and honorary members, of whom there can be no more than five at any one time.
The Society's affairs are managed by a council consisting of officers and members elected at annual general meetings. Six elected members of the council, who are called councillors, serve for three years each, with two vacancies arising every year. The officers are a president, two vice-presidents, an honorary secretary and an honorary treasurer, a membership secretary, the editor of the journal and the editor of The Malacologist, an awards officer, and a web manager. Up to four additional members of the council can be co-opted.
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Malacology is the branch of invertebrate zoology that deals with the study of the Mollusca, the second-largest phylum of animals in terms of described species after the arthropods. Mollusks include snails and slugs, clams, octopuses and squid, and numerous other kinds, many of which have shells. One division of malacology, conchology, is devoted to the study of mollusk shells. Malacology derives from Greek μαλακός, malakos, "soft"; and -λογία, -logia.
George Brettingham Sowerby II was a British naturalist, illustrator, and conchologist. Together with his father, George Brettingham Sowerby I, he published the Thesaurus Conchyliorum and other illustrated works on molluscs. He was an elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society on 7 May 1844. He was the father of George Brettingham Sowerby III, also a malacologist.
Conchology is the study of mollusc shells. Conchology is one aspect of malacology, the study of molluscs; however, malacology is the study of molluscs as whole organisms, whereas conchology is confined to the study of their shells. It includes the study of land and freshwater mollusc shells as well as seashells and extends to the study of a gastropod's operculum.
Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot was a British diplomat, colonial administrator and botanist. He served as Commissioner of British East Africa in 1900–1904. He was British Ambassador to Japan in 1919–1925.
Edgar Albert Smith was a British zoologist, a malacologist.
Arthur William Baden Powell was a New Zealand malacologist, naturalist and palaeontologist, a major influence in the study and classification of New Zealand molluscs through much of the 20th century. He was known to his friends and family by his third name, "Baden".
Henry Suter was a Swiss-born New Zealand zoologist, naturalist, palaeontologist, and malacologist.
Rudolph Bergh, full name Ludvig Sophus Rudolph Bergh, was a Danish physician and malacologist. He worked in Copenhagen.
Zenobiellina subrufescens is a species of small air-breathing land snail, a pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Hygromiidae.
Hydrobia acuta neglecta is a European subspecies of small brackish water snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Hydrobiidae.
Auriculinella is a genus of small air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Ellobiidae.
John Read le Brockton Tomlin was a British malacologist. He was one of the founders of the Malacological Society of London and was president of the Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland on two separate occasions.
William B. Rudman, usually known as Bill Rudman, is a malacologist from New Zealand and Australia. In particular he studies sea slugs, opisthobranch gastropod molluscs, and has named many species of nudibranchs.
Goniobranchus bombayanus is a species of colourful sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Chromodorididae.
Matthew William Kemble Connolly was a British army officer and malacologist.
Shintarō Hirase was a professor, author, artist, zoologist, and malacologist from Japan in the early 20th century. With his father, Yoichirō Hirase, he collected shells and helped start formalized malacology in Japan. In honor of their contributions to malacology, numerous species bear the Hirase name.
Bernard Barham Woodward was a British malacologist and author of a catalogue of the works of Carl Linnaeus. He was a member of staff at the British Museum and then the Natural History Museum.
Arthur Erskine Ellis, often known as A.E. Ellis, was a British scientist, biologist and naturalist. Ellis is best known for his large number of malacological publications, including some which became essential texts on the subject of British non-marine malacology. To a lesser extent, Ellis published papers about other land invertebrates and various aspects of the fauna and flora of Britain. In addition Ellis had five ghost stories published.
Goniodoris kolabana is a species of sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Goniodorididae.
Glossodoris semeion is a species of colourful sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Chromodorididae.
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