Newfoundland dog

Last updated

Newfoundland dog Smoky.jpg
Common nicknamesNewf, Newfy
Origin Island of Newfoundland, modern-day Canada
Height Males 71 cm (28 in) [1]
Females 66 cm (26 in) [1]
Weight Males 65–80 kg (143–176 lb) [1]
Females 55–65 kg (121–143 lb) [1]
Coat Thick and straight
Colour Black, white with black patches ("Landseer"), brown (not in Canadian standard), and grey (only in US standard, not recognized by other standards)
Litter size 4–12 pups
Life span 9.67 years
Kennel club standards
Fédération Cynologique Internationale standard
NotesProvincial mammal of Newfoundland
Dog ( domestic dog )

The Newfoundland is a large breed of working dog. They can be black, grey, brown, or black and white. However, in the Dominion of Newfoundland, before it became part of the confederation of Canada, only black and Landseer (white-and-black) coloured dogs were considered to be proper members of the breed. [2] They were originally bred and used as working dogs for fishermen in Newfoundland. [3] [4]


They excel at water rescue/lifesaving because of their muscular build, thick double coat, webbed paws, and swimming abilities.



Newfoundlands typically have dark brown eyes, but lighter eye colors are common for the brown or grey coated Dragon-eyes.jpg
Newfoundlands typically have dark brown eyes, but lighter eye colors are common for the brown or grey coated

Newfoundlands ('Newfs' or 'Newfies') have webbed paws and a water-resistant coat. [5] Males normally weigh 65–80 kg (143–176 lb), and females 55–65 kg (121–143 lb), placing them in the "Giant" weight range; but some Newfoundlands have been known to weigh over 90 kg (200 lb) — and the largest on record weighed 120 kg (260 lb) and measured over 1.8 m (6 ft) from nose to tail, ranking it among the largest of dog breeds. They may grow up to 56–76 cm (22–30 in) tall at the shoulder. [6]

The American Kennel Club (AKC) standard colours of the Newfoundland are black, brown, grey, and white-and-black (sometimes referred to as a Landseer). Other colours are possible but are not considered rare or more valuable. The Kennel Club (KC) permits only black, brown, and white/black; the Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) permits only black and white/black. The "Landseer" pattern is named after the artist, Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, who featured them in many of his paintings. Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) consider the ECT Landseer ("European Continental Type") to be a separate breed. It is a taller, more narrow white dog with black markings not bred with a Newfoundland. [6]

The Newfoundland's extremely large bones give it mass, while its large musculature gives it the power it needs to take on rough ocean waves and powerful tides. These dogs have huge lung capacity for swimming extremely long distances and a thick, oily, and waterproof double coat which protects them from the chill of icy waters. [7]


A survey in the UK of breed club members found the Newfoundland to have an average life expectancy of 9.67 years. The most common cause of death was cancer at 27% of deaths. [8]

Several conditions the Newfoundland is predisposed to include: acral lick dermatitis, allergic skin disease, hypothyroidism, ichthyosis, and primary seborrhoea. [9]

A study of referrals to a veterinary clinic in the US found the Newfoundland to be predisposed to dilated cardiomyopathy, with 1.3% of dogs having the condition. [10] A Swedish study found 16% of Newfoundlands with DCM to have ventricular ectopy. [11] An English study found 77% of Newfoundlands with DCM to have atrial fibrillation. [12]

An American study reviewing over a million cases presented to 27 veterinary teaching hospitals in North America found the Newfoundland to be the most prediposed to canine hip dysplasia, with 17.16% of dogs having the condition compared to 3.52% overall. This same study found the Newfoundland to also have the highest prevalence of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency (CCLD) with 8.9% of dogs having the condition compared to an overall rate of 2.55%. For dogs diagnosed with both conditions the Newfoundland once again had the highest prevalence with 2.86% having both hip dysplasia and CCLD compared to 0.3% overall. [13] Another American study of over a million and a quarter of a million hip and elbow evaluation records in dogs over the age of 2 years found a prevalence of 24.8% for hip dysplasia — the highest in the study — and 22.7% for elbow dysplasia. [14]

The Newfoundland is predisposed to gastric dilation volvulus (GDV). [15] In a survey of breed club members in the UK it was found that 10% of Newfoundland deaths were due to GDV compared to the overall rate of 2.5% [16] Although it should be noted the study reported bias due to its voluntary nature and small sample size. [15]



Genome analysis indicates that Newfoundlands are related to the Irish water spaniel, Labrador Retriever, and Curly-Coated Retriever. [17]

The Newfoundland was originally bred and used as a working dog for fishermen in Newfoundland. [3] [4]

J. M. Barrie with his Newfoundland dog Luath, model of Nana. 1904-Barrie with Luath.jpg
J. M. Barrie with his Newfoundland dog Luath, model of Nana.

In the early 1880s, fishermen and explorers from Ireland and England travelled to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, where they described two main types of working dogs. One was heavily built, large with a longish coat, and the other medium-sized in build – an active, smooth-coated water dog. The heavier breed was known as the greater Newfoundland, or Newfoundland. The smaller breed was known as the lesser Newfoundland, or St. John's water dog. The St. John's water dog became the founding breed of modern retrievers. Both breeds were used as working dogs to pull fishnets, with the Greater Newfoundland also being used to haul carts and other equipment. [18]

It has also been proposed that the original Newfoundland that lived on the island was smaller; [19] [20] in theory, the smaller landrace was bred with mastiffs when sold to the English, and the English version was popularized to become what is thought of as a Newfoundland today. [21]


The breed's working role was varied. Many tales have been told of the courage displayed by Newfoundlands in adventuring and lifesaving exploits. Over the last two centuries, this has inspired a number of artists, who have portrayed the dogs in paint, stone, bronze, and porcelain. One famous Newfoundland was named Seaman, one of the most traveled dogs in human history, who accompanied American explorers Lewis and Clark on their expedition from the Mississippi to the Pacific and back, a journey that took three years. A statue of him is included in many Lewis and Clark monuments. Many children's books have been written about him.[ citation needed ]

The breed prospered in the United Kingdom, until 1914 and again in 1939, when its numbers were almost fatally depleted by wartime restrictions. Since the 1950s there has been a steady increase in numbers and popularity, despite the fact that the Newfoundland's great size and fondness for mud and water makes it unsuitable as a pet for many households. [22]

Water rescue

During the Discovery Channel's second day of coverage of the American Kennel Club Eukanuba National Championship on December 3, 2006, anchor Bob Goen reported that Newfoundlands exhibit a very strong propensity to rescue people from water. Goen stated that one Newfoundland alone aided the rescue of 63 shipwrecked sailors. Today, kennel clubs across the United States host Newfoundland Rescue Demonstrations, as well as offering classes in the field. Many harbour boat tours in St John's have a dog on board for local charm as well as for passenger safety.[ citation needed ]

Further evidence of Newfoundlands' ability to rescue or support life-saving activities was cited in a 2007 article by the BBC. [26]

Relationship to other breeds

The Newfoundland shares many physical traits with mastiffs and Molosser-type dogs, such as the St. Bernard and English Mastiff, including stout legs, massive heads with very broad snouts, a thick bull-like neck, and a very sturdy bone structure. [27] Many St. Bernards have Newfoundlands in their ancestry.[ citation needed ] Newfoundlands were brought and introduced to the St. Bernard breed in the 18th century when the population was threatened by an epidemic of canine distemper. They share many characteristics of many livestock guardian dog breeds, such as the Great Pyrenees.

Because of their strength, Newfoundlands were part of the foundation stock of the Leonberger (which excelled at water rescue and was imported by the Canadian government for that purpose); and the now-extinct Moscow Water Dog, a failed attempt at creating a lifesaving dog by the Russian state kennel—the unfortunate outcross with the Caucasian Shepherd Dog begat a dog more adept at biting than rescuing.[ citation needed ]

Famous Newfoundlands

Napoleon the Wonder Dog

A famous all-black Newfoundland performed as the star attraction in Van Hare's Magic Circus from 1862 and for many years thereafter in one of England's founding circus acts, traveling throughout Europe. The circus dog was known as the "Thousand Guinea Dog Napoleon" or "Napoleon the Wonder Dog." The circus owner, G. Van Hare, trained other Newfoundland dogs to perform a steeplechase routine with baboons dressed up as jockeys to ride them. Nonetheless, his "wizard dog" Napoleon was his favourite and held a special position in the Magic Circus. Napoleon would compete at jumping against human rivals, leaping over horses from a springboard, and dancing to music. [28] [29]

Napoleon the Wonder Dog became a wildly popular act in London from his debut at the Pavilion Theatre on April 4, 1862, and onward until his untimely death many years later when he slipped and fell during a circus practice session. At the peak of his fame, his performance was described in London's Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review as follows: "Synopsis of his entertainment:— He spells his own name with letters, also that of the Prince of Wales; and when he is asked what he would say of her Most Gracious Majesty, he puts down letters to form 'God save the Queen.' He plays any gentleman a game of cards and performs the celebrated three-card trick upon which his master backs him at 100 to 1. Also 'The Disappearance,' a la Robin. He performs in a circus the same as a trick horse, en liberté, giving the Spanish trot to music, also leaping over bars, through balloons, with numerous other tricks of a most interesting character." [30]

When Napoleon the Wonder Dog died at the age of 12 years old, his death was announced in a number of British newspapers, including the Sheffield Daily Telegraph, which mentioned the loss on May 5, 1868, as follows: "DEATH OF A CELEBRATED FOUR-FOOTED ARTISTE. — Mr. Van Hare's renowned dog, Napoleon, designated 'The Wizard Dog,' died on 24th ult., aged twelve years. He was a noble specimen of the Newfoundland breed (weighing near 200 lbs.) for which he took the prize at the first Agricultural Hall Dog Show. Besides his magnificent appearance and symmetry, he was the most extraordinary sagacious and highly-trained animal ever known. He is now being preserved and beautifully mounted by the celebrated naturalist, Mr. Edwin Ward. — Era." [31]

Other famous Newfoundlands

Left to right, Black man York, Seaman, Lewis, Clark, Sacagawea, and her baby Pompey. Statue by Robert Scriver, in the Lewis and Clark National Historic Interpretative Center, Great Falls, Montana. Lewis, Clark, York, Sacagawea, and dog Seaman.jpg
Left to right, Black man York, Seaman, Lewis, Clark, Sacagawea, and her baby Pompey. Statue by Robert Scriver, in the Lewis and Clark National Historic Interpretative Center, Great Falls, Montana.
The greatest traveller of my species.
My name is SEAMAN,
the dog of captain Meriwether Lewis,
whom I accompanied to the Pacifick [sic] ocean
through the interior of the continent of North America [43]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Beagle</span> Breed of small scent hound

The beagle is a breed of small scent hound, similar in appearance to the much larger foxhound. The beagle was developed primarily for hunting hare, known as beagling. Possessing a great sense of smell and superior tracking instincts, the beagle is the primary breed used as a detection dog for prohibited agricultural imports and foodstuffs in quarantine around the world. The beagle is a popular pet due to its size and good temper.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chow Chow</span> Dog breed

The Chow Chow is a spitz-type of dog breed originally from Northern China. The Chow Chow is a sturdily built dog, square in profile, with a broad skull and small, triangular, erect ears with rounded tips. The breed is known for a very dense double coat that is either smooth or rough. The fur is particularly thick in the neck area, giving it a distinctive ruff or mane appearance. The coat may be shaded/self-red, black, blue, cinnamon/fawn, or cream.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Labrador Retriever</span> British breed of retriever gun dog

The Labrador Retriever or simply Labrador is a British breed of retriever gun dog. It was developed in the United Kingdom from St. John's water dogs imported from the colony of Newfoundland, and was named after the Labrador region of that colony. It is among the most commonly kept dogs in several countries, particularly in the European world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">German Shepherd</span> German breed of shepherd dog

The German Shepherd, also known in Britain as an Alsatian, is a German breed of working dog of medium to large size. The breed was developed by Max von Stephanitz using various traditional German herding dogs from 1899.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vizsla</span> Dog breed

The Vizsla, also known as Hungarian Vizsla, Magyar Vizsla or Hungarian Pointer, is a dog breed from Hungary and belongs to the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) group 7, the Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) group 1, and the American Kennel Club. The Hungarian or Magyar Vizsla or Smooth-Haired Vizsla are sporting dogs and loyal companions. The Vizsla's medium size is one of the breed's most appealing characteristics. As a hunter of fowl and upland game, the Vizsla has held a prominent position among sporting dogs – that of household companion and family dog.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chesapeake Bay Retriever</span> Dog breed

The Chesapeake Bay Retriever is a large breed of dog belonging to the retriever, gundog, and sporting breed groups. The breed was developed in the United States Chesapeake Bay area during the 19th century. Historically used by local market hunters to retrieve waterfowl, pull fishing nets, and rescue fishermen, it is today primarily a family pet and hunting companion, known for a bright and happy disposition; courage; willingness to work; alertness; intelligence; love of water; and hunting capabilities. The Chesapeake is a medium- to large-sized dog similar in appearance to the Labrador Retriever, but with a wavy coat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rottweiler</span> Dog breed

The Rottweiler is a breed of domestic dog, regarded as medium-to-large or large. The dogs were known in German as Rottweiler Metzgerhund, meaning Rottweil butchers' dogs, because their main use was to herd livestock and pull carts laden with butchered meat to market. This continued until the mid-19th century when railways replaced droving. Although still used to herd stock in many parts of the world, Rottweilers are now also used as search and rescue dogs, guard dogs, and police dogs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barbet (dog breed)</span> Dog breed

The Barbet is a medium-sized breed of French water dog. It is a rare breed. The breed's name comes from the French word barbe, meaning 'beard'.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Labradoodle</span> Crossbreed dog

A labradoodle is a crossbreed dog created by crossing a Labrador Retriever and a Standard or Miniature Poodle. Labradoodles were intended to be a good choice for people with canine dander allergies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Poodle</span> Dog breed

The Poodle, called the Pudel in German and the Caniche in French, is a breed of water dog. The breed is divided into four varieties based on size, the Standard Poodle, Medium Poodle, Miniature Poodle and Toy Poodle, although the Medium Poodle is not universally recognised. They have a distinctive thick, curly coat that comes in many colors and patterns, with only solid colors recognized by breed registries. Poodles are active and intelligent, and are particularly able to learn from humans. Poodles tend to live 10–18 years, with smaller varieties tending to live longer than larger ones.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">St. Bernard (dog breed)</span> Dog breed

The St. Bernard or Saint Bernard is a breed of very large working dog from the Western Alps in Italy and Switzerland. They were originally bred for rescue work by the hospice of the Great St Bernard Pass on the Italian-Swiss border. The hospice, built by and named after the Alpine monk Saint Bernard of Menthon, acquired its first dogs between 1660 and 1670. The breed has become famous through tales of Alpine rescues, as well as for its large size and gentle temperament.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Portuguese Water Dog</span> Dog breed

The Portuguese Water Dog originated from the Algarve region of Portugal. From there the breed expanded to all around Portugal's coast, where they were taught to herd fish into fishermen's nets, retrieve lost tackle or broken nets, and act as couriers from ship to ship, or ship to shore. Portuguese Water Dogs rode in fishing trawlers as they worked their way from the Atlantic waters of Portugal to the waters off the coast of Iceland fishing for cod.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Old English Sheepdog</span> Dog breed

The Old English Sheepdog is a large breed of dog that emerged in England from early types of herding dog. Obsolete names for the breed include Shepherd's Dog and bob-tailed sheep-dog. The nickname Bob-tail originates from how dogs of the breed traditionally had their tails docked. Old English Sheepdogs can grow very long coats with fur covering the face and eyes and do not shed unless brushed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever</span> Dog breed

The Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever is a medium-sized gundog bred primarily for hunting. It is often referred to as a "toller". It is the smallest of the retrievers, and is often mistaken for a small Golden Retriever. Tollers are intelligent, eager to please, alert, and energetic. The name "toller" is derived from their ability to lure waterfowl within gunshot range. The breed originated in Yarmouth County, Nova Scotia, Canada. The American Kennel Club ranks the toller as the 87th most popular dog breed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pointer (dog breed)</span> An English breed of gundog

The Pointer, sometimes called the English Pointer, is a medium-sized breed of pointing dog developed in England. Pointers are used to find game for hunters, and are considered by gundog enthusiasts to be one of the finest breeds of its type; however, unlike most other hunting breeds, its purpose is to point, not retrieve game.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dobermann</span> Black and tan dog breed from Germany

The Dobermann is a German breed of medium-large domestic dog of pinscher type. It was originally bred in Thuringia in about 1890 by Louis Dobermann, a tax collector. It has a long muzzle and – ideally – an even and graceful gait. The ears were traditionally cropped and the tail docked, practices which are now illegal in many countries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Leonberger</span> Dog breed

The Leonberger is a giant dog breed, whose name derives from the city of Leonberg in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">St. John's water dog</span> Dog breed

The St. John's water dog, also known as the St. John's dog or the lesser Newfoundland, is an extinct landrace of domestic dog from Newfoundland. Little is known of the types that went into its genetic makeup, although it was probably a random-bred mix of old English, Irish and Portuguese working dogs. They were favourite dogs of fishermen because they had extraordinary qualities like good temperament and working behaviour. The number of St. John's water dogs started declining by the beginning of the 20th century. By the early 1980s, the landrace was extinct.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Boykin Spaniel</span> Dog breed

The Boykin Spaniel is a medium-sized breed of dog, a Spaniel bred for hunting wild turkeys and ducks in the Wateree River Swamp of South Carolina, in the United States. It is the state dog of South Carolina, where it was discovered and further developed by hunters in the early through mid 1900s. September 1 is Boykin Spaniel Day in South Carolina, originally established in 1984.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Golden Retriever</span> Scottish breed of dog

The Golden Retriever is a Scottish breed of retriever dog of medium size. It is characterised by a gentle and affectionate nature and a striking golden coat. It is commonly kept as a pet and is among the most frequently registered breeds in several Western countries. It is a frequent competitor in dog shows and obedience trials; it is also used as a gun dog and may be trained for use as a guide dog.


Explanatory notes


    1. 1 2 3 4 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    2. "Newfoundland - CKC". Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
    3. 1 2 John Henry Walsh (1878). The dogs of the British Islands: being a series of articles on the points of their various breeds, and the treatment of the diseases to which they are subject. "The Field" Office. p. 173. Archived from the original on June 27, 2014. Retrieved October 4, 2016.
    4. 1 2 William Jardine, Charles Hamilton Smith (January 1, 1999). The Naturalist's Library: Mammalia, Dogs. p. 132. ISBN   978-1-4021-8033-0. Archived from the original on June 27, 2014. Retrieved October 4, 2016.
    5. Newfoundland Breed Standard Archived 2011-11-17 at the Wayback Machine The Kennel Club, 'Exceptionally gentle, docile nature' .. 'webbed' ... 'oily nature, water-resistant'
    6. 1 2 American Kennel Club (January 31, 2006). The complete dog book. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 349–350. ISBN   978-0-345-47626-5. Archived from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved October 4, 2016.
    7. The Complete Dog Book (19 ed.). Foster City, CA: Howell Book House. 1998. pp.  276–277. ISBN   0-87605-047-X.
    8. Adams, V. J.; Evans, K. M.; Sampson, J.; Wood, J. L. N. (October 1, 2010). "Methods and mortality results of a health survey of purebred dogs in the UK". Journal of Small Animal Practice. 51 (10): 512–524. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2010.00974.x. PMID   21029096.
    9. Hnilica, Keith A.; Patterson, Adam P. (September 19, 2016). Small Animal Dermatology. St. Louis (Miss.): Saunders. ISBN   978-0-323-37651-8.
    10. Fox, Philip R.; Sisson, David; Moïse, N. Sydney (1999). Textbook of Canine and Feline Cardiology. Philadelphia: Saunders. ISBN   978-0-7216-4044-0.
    11. Tidholm, A; Jonsson, L (November 1, 1996). "Dilated cardiomyopathy in the Newfoundland: a study of 37 cases (1983-1994)". Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 32 (6). American Animal Hospital Association: 465–470. doi:10.5326/15473317-32-6-465. ISSN   0587-2871. PMID   8906721.
    12. Martin, M. W. S.; Stafford Johnson, M. J.; Celona, B. (2009). "Canine dilated cardiomyopathy: a retrospective study of signalment, presentation and clinical findings in 369 cases". Journal of Small Animal Practice. 50 (1): 23–29. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2008.00659.x. ISSN   0022-4510.
    13. Witsberger, Tige H.; Villamil, J. Armando; Schultz, Loren G.; Hahn, Allen W.; Cook, James L. (June 15, 2008). "Prevalence of and risk factors for hip dysplasia and cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in dogs". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 232 (12). American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA): 1818–1824. doi:10.2460/javma.232.12.1818. ISSN   0003-1488. PMID   18598150.
    14. Oberbauer, A. M.; Keller, G. G.; Famula, T. R. (February 24, 2017). "Long-term genetic selection reduced prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in 60 dog breeds". PLOS ONE. 12 (2). Public Library of Science (PLoS): e0172918. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1272918O. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172918 . ISSN   1932-6203. PMC   5325577 . PMID   28234985.
    15. 1 2 Bell, Jerold S. (2014). "Inherited and Predisposing Factors in the Development of Gastric Dilatation Volvulus in Dogs". Topics in Companion Animal Medicine. 29 (3). Elsevier BV: 60–63. doi:10.1053/j.tcam.2014.09.002. ISSN   1938-9736. PMID   25496921.
    16. Evans, Katy M.; Adams, Vicki J. (2010). "Mortality and morbidity due to gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in pedigree dogs in the UK". Journal of Small Animal Practice. 51 (7): 376–381. doi:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2010.00949.x. ISSN   0022-4510. PMID   20626784.
    17. Parker, Heidi G.; Dreger, Dayna L.; Rimbault, Maud; Davis, Brian W.; Mullen, Alexandra B.; Carpintero-Ramirez, Gretchen; Ostrander, Elaine A. (April 25, 2017). "Genomic analyses reveal the influence of geographic origin, migration and hybridization on modern dog breed development". Cell Reports. 19 (4): 697–708. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2017.03.079. PMC   5492993 . PMID   28445722.
    18. Newfoundland Club of America. Draft Equipment Guide (PDF). NCA Working Dog Committee.
    19. Watson, James (1906). The dog book: a popular history of the dog. New York: Doubleday, Page & company.
    20. Wolters, Richard (1981). The Labrador Retriever: The History...the People. Petersen Prints.
    21. Richardson, H (1847). Dogs: Their Origin and Varieties, Directions as to Their General Management, and Simple Instructions as to Their Treatment Under Disease. O. Judd & Company.
    22. "The Newfoundland Dog Club UK - Breed History". Archived from the original on May 18, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
    23. Shewmake, Tiffin. Canine Courage: the Heroism of Dogs. [Portage, MI]: PageFree Pub., 2002. p. 75
    24. "Nelson the Newfoundland's dog collar, National Museum of Australia". December 5, 2011. Retrieved September 5, 2023.
    25. "Guard Dogs: Newfoundlands' Lifesaving Past, Present". October 28, 2010. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
    26. Beach rescue dog alerts swimmer Archived 2007-10-11 at the Wayback Machine , August 23, 2007, BBC.
    27. Dan Rice (March 1, 2001). Big dog breeds. Barron's Educational Series. p. 220. ISBN   978-0-7641-1649-0. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014. Retrieved October 4, 2016.
    28. Fifty years of a showman's life, or, The life and travels of Van Hare. [G Van Hare; McManus-Young Collection (Library of Congress)]
    29. "East London Theatre Playbills UK". Archived from the original on April 7, 2012. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
    30. Illustrated Sporting News and Theatrical and Musical Review, Issue #28, September 20, 1862
    31. "Death of a Celebrated Four-Footed Artiste". Sheffield Daily Telegraph. May 5, 1868. p. 6. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
    32. "Lifesaving Sennen beach dog, Bilbo, dies". BBC News . May 21, 2015. Archived from the original on May 21, 2015. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
    33. Wallace, Donald Mackenzie; Prior, Sydney; Martino, Eduardo de (1902). The Web of an Empire: a diary of the imperial tour of their Royal Highnesses the Duke & Duchess of Cornwall & York in 1901. London, New York: Macmillan and Company, Limited. p.  433.
    34. Harvey, Moses (1902). Newfoundland at the Beginning of the 20th Century: A Treatise of History and Development. Newfoundland: South Publishing Company. p. 57. Archived from the original on October 12, 2021. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
    35. "The home-coming of the Duke & Duchess of Cornwall and York". Graphic. Vol. 64 (1667). England. November 9, 1901. p. 605. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
    36. Lady Twylyte (February 27, 1904). "Civil War Company Mascots". Archived from the original on November 26, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
    37. "Gander: Canadian War Hero". Archived from the original on December 21, 2010. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
    38. "'Much loved' Newfoundland dog Sergeant Gander honoured with statue". CBC/Radio-Canada. Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
    39. The animals of the Franklin expedition. Canadian Geographic.
    40. Roobol, M.J. (2019) Franklin's Fate: An investigation into what happened to the lost 1845 expedition of Sir John Franklin. Conrad Press, 368 pages.
    41. Roger Danielsen (April 21, 1912). "Rigel on the Titanic". Archived from the original on April 14, 2011. Retrieved February 19, 2011.
    42. "Did Murdoch have a heroic dog named 'Rigel'?". Retrieved August 18, 2018.
    43. Holmberg, James (February 2000). "SeaMan's Fate? Lewis's Newfoundland dog likely survived the expedition and accompanied his master on his last, fateful journey" (PDF). We Proceeded On : 7–9. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 2, 2021. Retrieved September 7, 2021.

    Further reading