The Quebec referendum on the prohibition of alcohol, held on April 10, 1919,considered the legalization of the sale of beer, cider and wine in the province of Quebec, Canada. The 'yes' side won with 78.62% of the votes.
Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation.
Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples. Cider is popular in the United Kingdom and Ireland, especially in the West Country, and widely available. The UK has the world's highest per capita consumption, as well as its largest cider-producing companies. Cider is also popular in many Commonwealth countries, such as India, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Aside from the UK and its former colonies, cider is popular in other European countries including Portugal, France, northern Italy, and Spain. Central Europe also has its own types of cider with Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse producing a particularly tart version known as Apfelwein. In the U.S. and parts of Canada, varieties of fermented cider are often called hard cider to distinguish alcoholic cider from non-alcoholic "cider" or "sweet cider", also made from apples.
Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, and the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine. These typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, cherry, pomegranate, currant and elderberry.
The question asked in English on the ballot paper was: "Should sale of light beer, cider and wines be allowed?"
In French, the question was: "Êtes-vous d'opinion que la vente des bières, cidres et vins légers, tels que définis par la loi, devrait être permise?"
178,112 persons (78.62%) voted in favor of the proposal, while 48,433 (21.38%) voted against; proposal was therefore passed with a majority of 129,679 votes. The analysis of the vote by riding reveals that all voted in favour except for seven: Pontiac, Compton, Dorchester, Huntingdon, Brome, Stanstead and Richmond.
An electoral district in Canada, also known as a "constituency" or a "riding", is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based. It is officially known in Canadian French as a circonscription, but frequently called a comté (county).
Pontiac is a provincial electoral district in the Outaouais region of Quebec, Canada that elects members to the National Assembly of Quebec. It includes the Aylmer sector of the city of Gatineau as well as the municipalities of Pontiac, Shawville, Fort Coulonge, Sheenboro, Bryson and Waltham.
Compton was a former provincial electoral district in the Estrie region of Quebec, Canada. It elected members to the National Assembly of Quebec.
The result of the vote was that the subsequent prohibition law which became effective on May 1, 1919 only applied to spirits. The victory of the "moderate" prohibitionists over the "radicals" did not have immediate repercussion on the legal sale of alcohol for in 1919, 90% of Quebec municipalities were prohibiting its sale locally.Indeed, Trois-Rivières, Lévis, Lachine, Sainte-Agathe, Louiseville, Sainte-Rose and Terrebonne had voted for local prohibition in 1915, while Quebec City had done the same on October 4, 1917. All these regulations had to be rescinded, one municipality at a time.
Trois-Rivières is a city in the Mauricie administrative region of Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Saint-Maurice and Saint Lawrence rivers, on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River across from the city of Bécancour. It is part of the densely populated Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and is approximately halfway between Montreal and Quebec City. Trois-Rivières is the economic and cultural hub of the Mauricie region. The settlement was founded by French colonists on July 4, 1634, as the second permanent settlement in New France, after Quebec City in 1608.
Lévis is a city in eastern Quebec, Canada, located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, opposite Quebec City. A ferry links Old Quebec with Old Lévis, and two bridges, the Quebec and the Pierre Laporte, connect western Lévis with Quebec City.
Lachine is a borough (arrondissement) within the city of Montreal on the Island of Montreal in southwestern Quebec, Canada. It was an autonomous city until 2002.
Prohibition was finally abolished on May 1, 1921 when the Alcoholic Beverages Act creating the Commission des liqueurs du Québec entered into force.
The Société des alcools du Québec, often abbreviated and referred to as SAQ, is a provincial Crown corporation in Quebec responsible for the trade of alcoholic beverages within the province.
Blainville is an off-island suburb of Montreal located in southwestern Quebec, Canada. Blainville forms part of the Thérèse-De Blainville Regional County Municipality within the Laurentides region of Quebec. The town sits at the foot of the Laurentian Mountains and is located 35 kilometres (22 mi) northwest of downtown Montreal.
Mirabel is an off-island suburb of Montreal, located in southern Quebec.
The French term l'État québécois, literally translated, is "the Quebec State". "State" can refers to public authority, or a state apparatus, )as in société d'État "a state-owned enterprise, federal crown corporations "). It may be used to contrast the provincial government of Quebec with the private sector, or the federal government, known as l'État fédéral or l'État canadien.
The 2000–2006 municipal reorganization in Quebec resulted in large-scale amalgamation (merging) of smaller municipalities in Quebec into larger cities. It was undertaken by one administration, and modified and partially undone by its successor.
Le Sud-Ouest is a borough (arrondissement) of the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Montreal was one of the cities in Quebec affected by the 2000–2006 municipal reorganization in Quebec. On January 1, 2002, all the municipalities on the island of Montreal were merged into the city of Montreal.
Sainte-Geneviève was a municipality located on the Island of Montreal in southwestern Quebec, Canada. It is now part of the Borough of L'Île-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève in the City of Montreal, created on January 1, 2002.
The province of Quebec is divided into units at the regional, supralocal and local levels. The primary types of subdivision are administrative regions, regional county municipalities (RCMs), metropolitan communities (CMs), the Kativik Regional Government (KRG), unorganized territories (TNOs), agglomerations, northern villages, Cree villages, Naskapi villages, and a variety of local units which may collectively be referred to as local municipalities and boroughs.
An agglomeration, or urban agglomeration, is an administrative subdivision of Quebec at the local level that may group together a number of municipalities which were abolished as independent entities on 1 January 2002 but reconstituted on 1 January 2006.
An Ontario prohibition referendum was held on October 23, 1924 on the repeal of the Ontario Temperance Act. The referendum was brought about by a clause in the Act, which permitted the possible repeal of prohibition by a majority vote.
Quebec wine is Canadian wine made in the province of Quebec. The grape varieties grown in Quebec, both white and red, all have common qualities needed by the harshness of the winter season, including resistance to winter temperatures, resistance to spring freezes and being early ripening. Some 40 varieties are grown in Quebec, with the most commonly planted being Maréchal Foch, Frontenac, De Chaunac, Vidal and Seyval blanc.
Quebec cider is crafted in the apple-producing regions of Montérégie, Eastern Townships, Chaudière-Appalaches, the Laurentides, Charlevoix and Capitale-Nationale, in Canada. The revival of cider is a relatively new phenomenon, since Quebec's alcohol regulating body, the Régie des alcools, des courses et des jeux began issuing permits to produce craft cider only in 1988. In 2008, some 40 cider makers were producing more than 100 apple-based alcoholic beverages.
The Estates General of French Canada were a series of three assizes held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada between 1966 and 1969. Organized by the Ligue d'action nationale and coordinated by the Fédération des Sociétés Saint-Jean-Baptistes du Québec (FSSJBQ), the stated objective of these Estates General was to consult the French-Canadian people on their constitutional future.
A plebiscite on prohibition was held in Canada on 29 September 1898, the first national referendum in the country's history. The Liberal government had made an election promise in 1896 to provide an opportunity for Canadians to register their opinions about the sale of alcohol. The non-binding plebiscite saw 51.3% in favour of introducing prohibition, although turnout was only 44%. A majority voted for its introduction in all provinces except Quebec, where 81.2% opposed it.
The Centre d'histoire de Montréal is a museum in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is located at 335 Place d'Youville in Old Montreal, in the borough of Ville-Marie. The museum is dedicated to the history of Montreal.
Mira Falardeau is a French Canadian historian, professor, and author of comic strips. Falardeau has devoted works to Québec animated films, Québec comic strips and caricatures in Québec, focusing on visual humour in all its forms. She taught as a professor of cinema and communication at Laval University and the University of Ottawa. Falardeau has also curated exhibitions in the visual arts and operated a small publishing house.
The Société québécoise du cannabis or SQDC, is a provincial Crown corporation in Quebec and subsidiary of the Société des alcools du Québec responsible for the trade of recreational cannabis within the province. The act establishing the Crown corporation, Bill 157, was tabled in the National Assembly of Quebec on November 16, 2017 and was officially adopted on June 12, 2018.
Hubert Sacy is a social communications specialist and public figure known for his work in behavioral prevention and education. Since 1990, he has been Director General of Éduc’alcool, an independent, not-for-profit organization. He is well known for creating education and prevention programs in Quebec.