A R68 train on the D at Bay Parkway
Interior of an R68 car
|Manufacturer||Westinghouse-Amrail Company (aka Francorail):|
Westinghouse, ANF Industrie (all cars)
Jeumont Schneider (2500-2724)
|Number in service||425 (360 in revenue service during rush hours)|
|Formation||2500–2915 (416 cars) are linked into 4 car units|
2916–2924 (9 cars) remain as single units with OPTO switches added
|Operator(s)||New York City Subway|
|Depot(s)|| Concourse Yard (268 cars)|
Coney Island Yard(157 cars)
– 40 cars (5 trains, PM rush)
– 224 cars (28 trains, PM rush)
|Car body construction||Stainless steel with fiberglass end bonnets|
|Train length||2 car train: 150 feet (46 m)|
4 car train: 300 feet (91 m)
8 car train: 600 feet (180 m)
|Car length||74 ft 8.5 in (22.77 m) (over anticlimbers)|
|Width||10 ft (3,048 mm) (over threshold)|
|Height||12.08 ft (3,682 mm)|
|Platform height||3.76 ft (1.15 m)|
|Doors||8 sets of 50 inch wide side doors per car|
|Maximum speed||55 mph (89 km/h)|
|Weight||92,720 lb (42,057 kilograms)|
|Traction system||AdTranz E-Cam Propulsion with Westinghouse 1447J motors 115 hp (85.8 kW) on all axles|
|Prime mover(s)||electric motor|
|Acceleration||2.5 mph/s (4.0 km/(h⋅s))|
|Deceleration||3.0 mph/s (4.8 km/(h⋅s)) (Full Service) |
3.2 mph/s (5.1 km/(h⋅s)) (Emergency)
|Electric system(s)||600 V DC Third rail|
|Current collection method||Contact shoe|
|Braking system(s)||New York Air Braking (NYAB) GSX23 Newtran "SMEE" braking system, NYAB tread brake rigging model TBU190|
|Safety system(s)||dead man's switch, tripcock|
|Coupling system||Westinghouse H2C|
|Headlight type||halogen light bulbs|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
The R68 is a B Division New York City Subway car order consisting of 425 cars built by the Westinghouse-Amrail Company (aka Francorail), a joint venture of Westinghouse, ANF Industrie, Jeumont Schneider, and Alsthom. The cars were built in France from 1986 to 1988 and shipped through New York Harbor. Of the cars in the fleet, 416 are arranged in four-car sets while the other nine are single cars.
The R68 was the third R-type contract to be built with 75-foot (22.86 m) cars (the previous two being the R44 and R46). The first R68 train entered service on June 20, 1986. The R68's manufacturers suffered from significant system integration problems, and the fleet became known as a "lemon" in its early years, but its performance was improved following modifications by the New York City Transit Authority. The R68s are scheduled to remain in service until at least 2025-2030. In the 2010s, a small number of R68s received experimental upgrades.
The R68 was the third R-type contract to be built with 75-foot (22.86 m) cars (the previous two being the R44 and R46), which have more room for sitting and standing passengers per car than the 60-foot (18.29 m) cars that were used previously and afterward. Like the R44s and R46s which are also 75 feet long, they are prohibited from running on the BMT Eastern Division lines (J, L, M & Z trains) because of tight curves. This order was evolved from the R55, a proposed car that was considered in the early 1980s, but never left the drawing board, or purchased due to a lack of funding. Instead, more attention was paid to replacing the R12, R14, R15, and R17 fleets of the A Division, which were over 30 years old and worn-out at the time.
The cars, numbered 2500–2924, cost about $1 million each. They replaced many R10s dating from 1948, all remaining 6300-series R16s dating from 1954 to 1955, and some R27s and R30s dating from 1960 to 1962. The cars are built with stainless steel, and are graffiti-resistant.
The R68s are currently based in the Concourse Yard in the Bronx and the Coney Island Complex in Brooklyn and assigned to the B, D, G, N, Q, W and Franklin Avenue Shuttle. The R68s on the shuttle remain as single units with OPTO switches added while the rest of the fleet were reconfigured into sets of four.
On October 15, 1982, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority announced that it would purchase 225 cars from Westinghouse-Amrail. The cars were built in France from 1986 to 1988 and shipped through New York Harbor. The first of the 225 cars were initially scheduled to arrive in January 1985, with the entire order complete in May 1986. The projected cost of the order was $210 million, or about $933,000 per car.
The delivery of the first R68 was made on February 4, 1986, but it failed to pass a sharp curve on the South Brooklyn Railway trackage on 38th Street in Brooklyn, and as a result the curve had to be rebuilt and the radius eased somewhat, and the delivery took place on February 26, 1986. The 30-day acceptance test for the R68s began on the Brighton Line on April 13, 1986. The R68s' first entry to revenue service was on June 20, 1986, on the Brooklyn half of the divided D train with the first fleet consisting of cars 2500–2507.There were two contracts to supply the R68 fleet. The primary order consisted of cars 2500-2724 while the option order consisted of cars 2725-2924. The R68, therefore, became the first subway fleet to have an option order.
The R68's manufacturers suffered from significant system integration problems. Poor communication and coordination between the carbody builder (ANF Industrie) and the chassis assembler (Westinghouse) led to operational failures. Due to this, the R68s became known as a "lemon". During the beginning of service, the R68s had problems with malfunctioning doors, faulty wiring, electrical controls that suddenly lost power, and malfunctioning air brakes. In addition, the fleet had a high breakdown rate.Another problem occurred on November 11, 1986, when a train of R68s failed to climb the grade on the Manhattan Bridge. However, extensive work performed by the New York City Transit Authority provided solutions to the fleet's many problems.
The MTA was given a second option order of an additional 200 subway cars from Westinghouse-Amrail. However, due to problems from the manufacturer, the MTA awarded it to Kawasaki.Westinghouse-Amrail offered to have the 200 cars built for $1,012,000 each, while Kawasaki agreed to have them built for $958,000 per car. This order became the R68A.
The R68s are scheduled to remain in service until at least 2025-2030.In 2010, the MTA proposed mid-life technological upgrades for the R68s, including LED destination signs and automated announcements.
LED lights from CRRC (China Railway Rolling Stock Corporation) were tested on cars 2860–2867. LED lights, door chimes (similar to those on the R142, R142A and R179) and PA systems from SEPSA : Società per l'Esercizio di Pubblici Servizi Anonima; an Italian railroad company) were tested on 2892–2895. Public Address and Intercom, LED displays, LCD displays and CCTV as well as Train Operator displays from CSiT (CSinTrans Inc.) were tested on cars 2844 and 2846. Display screens from Melco were tested on cars 2804-2807. LED lights and surveillance cameras were tested on 2792-2795. Each program gave out the date and time and all retrofitted cars ran on the G. However, none of the displays indicated the next stops along the routes. All the upgrades were later removed, and it is unlikely that further technological improvements will be implemented in the near future.(Italian
The R32 was a New York City Subway car model built by the Budd Company from 1964 to 1965 for the IND/BMT B Division. A total of 600 R32s were built, numbered 3350–3949, though some cars were re-numbered. The R32 contract was divided into two subcontracts of 300 cars each: R32 and R32A ; the former was paid by the city's capital budget and the latter was paid through a revenue bond. All were arranged as married pairs. The R32s were the first mass-produced stainless steel cars built for the New York City Subway.
The R142 is the first successful model class of the newest generation or new technology (NTT) A Division cars for the New York City Subway. It was built by Bombardier in La Pocatiere, Quebec and Barre, Vermont with final assembly performed at Plattsburgh, New York, from 1999 to 2003. There are 880 cars numbered 6301–7180 and another 150 cars numbered 1101–1250, for a total of 1,030 cars, all arranged as five-car sets. They replaced the Redbird trains, including the R26, R28, R29, R33, R33S, and R36.
The R142A is the second order of new technology cars (NTTs) for the A Division of the New York City Subway. These cars were built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Japan. They replaced the Redbird trains, including the R26, R28, R29, R33, R33S, and R36. The R142A fleet initially comprised 600 cars, arranged as five-car units.
The R46 is a New York City Subway car model that was built by the Pullman Standard Company from 1975 to 1978 for the IND/BMT B Division. They replaced all remaining Arnine cars and GE-powered R16s, and some R10s. The R46 order initially consisted of 754 single cars, each 75 feet (23 m) long, and was the largest single order of passenger cars in United States railroad history at the point of the fleet's completion. The R46 was the second order of 75-foot cars to be ordered for the New York City Subway, after the R44s.
The R44 is a New York City Subway car model built by the St. Louis Car Company from 1971 to 1973 for the B Division and the Staten Island Railway. The cars replaced many R1-R9 series cars and all remaining 1925 Standard Steel built SIRTOA ME-1 trains, providing Staten Island with a new fleet of railcars. The R44 fleet originally consisted of 352 cars, of which 61 remain in service, all on the Staten Island Railway.
The R42 was a New York City Subway car model built by the St. Louis Car Company between 1969 and 1970 for the IND/BMT B Division. There were 400 cars in the R42 fleet, numbered 4550–4949. It was the last 60-foot (18.29 m) B Division car built for the New York City Subway until the R143 in 2001, and the last car model class to be built in married pairs.
The R62 is a New York City Subway car model built between 1983 and 1985 by Kawasaki Heavy Industries in Kobe, Japan for the A Division. A total of 325 cars were built, all arranged as five-car sets. The cars replaced the remaining R12s, R14s and R15s, which were all retired by the end of 1984.
The R68A is a B Division New York City Subway car order consisting of 200 cars built between 1988 and 1989 by Kawasaki Rail Car Company in Kobe, Japan, with final assembly done at the Kawasaki plant in Yonkers, New York. A total of 200 cars were built, arranged in four-car sets.
The R110A was a prototype new technology New York City Subway car model built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries in 1992. There were ten cars, arranged as five-car sets. They were designed to test features that would be implemented on future mass-production New Tech Train orders.
The R62A is a New York City Subway car model built between 1984 and 1987 by Bombardier for the A Division. The cars were built in La Pocatière, Quebec, with final assembly done in Auburn, New York and Barre, Vermont under a license from Kawasaki Heavy Industries, manufacturer of the previous R62 order. A total of 825 cars were built, arranged as sets of three, four, or five cars per set. The cars replaced the remaining R17s, R21s, and R22s, which were all retired by early 1988.
The R143 is a class of new technology (NTT) New York City Subway cars built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for the B Division. Delivered between 2001 and 2003, the cars displaced R40/As and R42s that operated on the L service in conjunction with the BMT Canarsie Line's signal system being automated.
The R10 was the first series of post-war New York City Subway cars. They were built by the American Car and Foundry Company from 1948 to 1949 for the IND/BMT B Division. A total of 400 cars were built, arranged as single units. Two versions were manufactured: Westinghouse (WH)-powered cars and General Electric (GE)-powered cars. The R10s introduced many innovations, including an all-welded low-alloy high tensile (LAHT) steel construction, dynamic braking, improved propulsion, and various cosmetic features.
The R21 was a New York City Subway car built by St. Louis Car Company from 1956 to 1957 for the IRT A Division. A total of 250 cars were built, arranged as single units. Two versions were manufactured: Westinghouse (WH)-powered cars and General Electric (GE)-powered cars.
The R33 was a New York City Subway car model that was built by St. Louis Car Company in 1962 and 1963. The cars are a "follow-up" or supplemental stock for the A Division’s R29s and closely resembled them. The cars were also referred to as R33MLs to distinguish them from the R33S's. A total of 500 cars were built, numbered 8806–9305 and arranged in pairs.
The R16 was a New York City Subway car model built by the American Car and Foundry Company from 1954 to 1955 for the IND/BMT B Division. A total of 200 cars were built, arranged as single units. Two versions were manufactured: Westinghouse (WH)-powered cars and General Electric (GE)-powered cars.
The R30 was a New York City Subway car model built by St. Louis Car Company from 1961 to 1962. The cars were a "follow-up" or supplemental stock for the B Division's R27s and closely resembled them. A total of 320 cars were built, arranged in married pairs. Three versions were manufactured: Westinghouse (WH)-powered cars, General Electric (GE)-powered cars, and R30As.
The R160 is a class of New Technology subway cars built for the New York City Subway B Division. Entering service between 2006 and 2010, they replaced all R38, R40/A, and NYCT-operated R44 cars, and most R32 and R42 cars. The R160s are very similar to the R143s, but the two-car types cannot run together in the same train. The biggest difference between them is the FIND system on the R160s in place of static LED maps on the R143s.
The R179 is a class of 318 new technology (NTT) New York City Subway cars built by Bombardier Transportation for the B Division. The cars replaced all remaining R32s and R42s.
The R211 is a future new technology (NTT) New York City Subway car to be built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for the B Division and the Staten Island Railway (SIR). They will replace all R44 cars on the Staten Island Railway and all R46 subway cars. The order is split into three parts: R211A and R211T cars for the subway and R211S cars for the SIR. The R211Ts will employ open gangways between cars, a feature not present on current rolling stock. The base order consists of 535 cars, with options for up to 1,077 additional cars.
New Technology Train (NTT) is the collective term for the modern passenger fleet of the New York City Subway that has entered service since the turn of the 21st century. This includes the current R142, R142A, R143, R160, R179, and R188 models and the planned R211 and R262 models. Two prototypes, the R110A and R110B, were used to test the features that would be found on all NTT trains today.