Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve

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Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve
IUCN category II (national park)

Arequipa Salinas and Aguada Blanca National Reserve.jpg

Rock formations at Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve

Location of the national reserve Salinas and Aguada Blanca in Peru.svg

Location of Salinas y Aguada Blanca in Peru
LocationFlag of Peru.svg  Peru
Arequipa and Moquegua
Nearest city Arequipa
Area 3,669.36 km2 (1,416.75 sq mi)
Established 09 August 1979
Governing body SERNANP
Website Reserva Nacional Salinas y Aguada Blanca

Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve is a protected area located in the regions of Arequipa and Moquegua; Peru. The main purpose of this area is to protect the local flora, fauna and landscape formations. [1]

Peru republic in South America

Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.

Flora inventory of plant species in a given region

Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life. The corresponding term for animal life is fauna. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Sometimes bacteria and fungi are also referred to as flora, as in the terms gut flora or skin flora.

Fauna set of animal species in any particular region and time

Fauna is all of the animal life present in a particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the "Sonoran Desert fauna" or the "Burgess Shale fauna". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages, which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils. The study of animals of a particular region is called faunistics.

Contents

History

The area was declared a national reserve on 9 August 1979 by decree N° 070-79-AA. [1] Lake Salinas and Lake Del Indio, both located inside the reserve, were designated as a Ramsar sites in 2003. [2] [3]

Lake Salinas salt lake in Peru

Lake Salinas is a salt lake in the Arequipa Region in Peru. It is situated in the Arequipa Province, Tarucani District.

A Ramsar site is a wetland site designated to be of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.

Guanacos with Misti volcano in the background at Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve. Salinas and Aguada Blanca Misti guanacos.jpg
Guanacos with Misti volcano in the background at Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve.

Geography

Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve is located in the provinces of Caylloma and Arequipa in the region of Arequipa; and a small part in the province of Sanchez Cerro in the region of Moquegua. [1] It spans an area of 366,936 hectares (3,669.36 km2) [1] which covers the headwaters of important local rivers like Yura and Chili. [4]

Caylloma Province Province in Arequipa, Peru

Caylloma Province is the largest of eight provinces in the Arequipa Region of Peru.

Arequipa Province Province in Arequipa, Peru

Arequipa is a province in the Arequipa Region, Peru. Its capital, Arequipa, is Peru's third most populous province of Peru. It borders the provinces of Islay, Camaná, Caylloma, and the Cusco and Puno regions. According to INEI in the year 2014 it has a population of 958.351 people.

The landscape features high Andean plateaus dotted by lakes and meadows; and surrounded by volcanoes like Ubinas, Misti, Pichu Pichu and Chachani in the southwest and by mounts Chuccura and Huarancante in the north. [1] Although initially declared an area with the aim to protect local camelids, flamingoes and Andean forests, it has since become a protected water source for the city of Arequipa. [1] Precipitation carried by the eastern winds is captured by the local vegetation and stored in the lakes, meadows and soil; thus giving a valuable environmental service to the region. [1]

Ubinas volcano in Peru

Ubinas is a stratovolcano in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru, 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 5,672 metres (18,609 ft) above sea level. The volcano's summit is cut by a 1.4-kilometre (0.87 mi) wide and 150-metre (490 ft) deep caldera, which itself contains a smaller crater. Below the summit, Ubinas has the shape of an upwards-steepening cone with a prominent notch on the southern side. The gently sloping lower part of the volcano is also known as Ubinas I and the steeper upper part as Ubinas II; they represent different stages in the geologic history of Ubinas.

Misti volcano in Peru

Misti, also known as Putina or Guagua Putina is a stratovolcano of andesite, dacite and rhyolite located in southern Peru near the city of Arequipa. With its seasonally snow-capped, symmetrical cone, Misti stands at 5,822 metres (19,101 ft) above sea level and lies between mount Chachani and Pichu Pichu volcano. Its last eruption was in 1985, 198 years after its previous documented eruption.

Pichu Pichu volcano in Peru

Pichu Pichu or Picchu Picchu is an inactive eroded volcano in the Andes of Peru. It is located in the Arequipa Region, Arequipa Province, on the border of Pocsi and Tarucani districts. Pichu Pichu reaches a height of 5,664 metres (18,583 ft) and is part of Salinas and Aguada Blanca National Reserve.

The reserve is populated to some extent; most of its territory belongs to thirteen peasant communities and more than 100 private smallholders recognized by law. [1]

Ecology

The area is representative of the puna ecosystem. [4]

Puna grassland

The Puna grassland ecoregion, of the montane grasslands and shrublands biome, is found in the central Andes Mountains of South America. It is considered one of the eight Natural Regions in Peru, but extends south, across Bolivia, as far as northern Argentina and Chile. The term puna encompasses diverse ecosystems of the high Central Andes above 3200–3400 m.

Flora

A total of 358 plant species in 155 genera and 47 families have been found in the area, mostly shrubs and herbs; only one species is a tree ( Polylepis sp.) which forms pure stands. [1] [4] Some plants found in the reserve are: Jarava ichu, Nassella depauperata, Lepidophyllum quadrangulare, Parastrephia lepidophylla, Festuca ortophylla, Nassella mexicana, Azorella compacta, Pycnophyllum molle, Werneria paposa, Calamagrostis curvula, Baccharis buxifolia, Alchemilla pinnata, Distichia muscoides, Ranunculus flagelliformis, Myrosmodes sp., among others. [4]

Fauna

Flamingoes at Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve. Vuelo de Parihuanas.jpg
Flamingoes at Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve.

Some mammals native to the reserve are: the llama, the alpaca, the vicuña, the guanaco, the taruca, the vizcacha, the puma, the Andean mountain cat, the colocolo and the Andean fox. [1]

Among the birds native to the reserve are: the Andean goose, the crested duck, the Andean flamingo, James's flamingo, the Tamarugo conebill, the silvery grebe and the giant coot. [4]

Two threatened species of amphibians, Telmatobius arequipensis and Rhinella spinulosa , inhabit the reserve. [4]

Activities

Biking and trekking can be done in the numerous paths inside the reserve, [1] while enjoying the landscape enmarked by the volcanoes of the area where mountaineering can be practiced. [1] [5] It is possible to visit volcanic and geothermal land features like the Chucura volcanic crater and the Umalaso hot springs. [1]

Related Research Articles

Andean flamingo species of bird

The Andean flamingo is one of the rarest flamingos in the world. It lives in the Andes mountains of South America. Until 2014, it was classified in genus Phoenicopterus. It is closely related to James's flamingo, and the two make up the genus Phoenicoparrus. The Chilean flamingo, Andean flamingo, and James's flamingo are all sympatric, and all live in colonies.

Salinas may refer to:

Junín National Reserve protected area

Junín National Reserve is a protected area located in the region of Junín, Peru. One of its main purposes is to protect the ecosystem and biodiversity of Lake Junín and the surrounding Central Andean wet puna.

Lagunas de Mejía National Sanctuary

Lagunas de Mejía National Sanctuary is a protected area on the coastal plain of Peru, in Islay Province, Arequipa, in the mouth of the Tambo River. It is a sanctuary for migratory and resident birds, and was designated a Ramsar site in 1992.

Nevado Tres Cruces National Park

Nevado Tres Cruces National Park Located in the Atacama Region of Chile at 93.2 miles from Copiapó. It includes Laguna Santa Rosa, Laguna del Negro Francisco, and a part of the Salar de Maricunga. The park is divided into two zones, the northern zone encompassing the southern portion of Salar de Maricunga and Laguna Santa Rosa, and the southern area the Laguna del Negro Francisco. The park is named after Nevado Tres Cruces, which dominates the landscape of the area. The Nevado Tres Cruces National Park is managed by CONAF, which offers two refuges in the area: one at the south of Negro Francisco Lagoon and other at the west of Santa Rosa Lagoon. The administration charges a fee to enter the park which is $2.000 CLP and $500 CLP for children.The park is open from October to April from 8 in the morning to 6 in the afternoon.

Los Flamencos National Reserve

Los Flamencos National Reserve is a nature reserve located in the commune of San Pedro de Atacama, Antofagasta Region of northern Chile. The reserve covers a total area of 740 square kilometres or 73,986 hectares in the Central Andean dry puna ecoregion and consists of seven separate sections.

Laguna Colorada shallow salt lake in the southwest of the altiplano of Bolivia

Laguna Colorada is a shallow salt lake in the southwest of the altiplano of Bolivia, within Eduardo Avaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve and close to the border with Chile.

San Juan de Tarucani District District in Arequipa, Peru

San Juan de Tarucani District is one of 29 districts of the province Arequipa in Peru.

Eduardo Avaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve

The Eduardo Abaroa Andean Fauna National Reserve is located in Sur Lípez Province. Situated in the far southwestern region of Bolivia, it is the country's most visited protected area. It is considered the most important protected area in terms of tourist influx in the Potosí Department.

Laguna Hedionda (Nor Lípez)

Laguna Hedionda is a saline lake in the Nor Lípez Province, Potosí Department in Bolivia. It is notable for various migratory species of pink and white flamingos.

The Central Andean puna is a montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregion in the Andes of southern Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina.

Tacune mountain in Peru

Tacune is a mountain in the Andes of Peru, about 5,500 metres (18,045 ft) high. It is situated south of Lake Salinas and east of the mountain Pichu Pichu. Tacune is located in the Arequipa Region, Arequipa Province, Tarucani District, and in the Moquegua Region, General Sánchez Cerro Province, Puquina District.

Pirhuane (mountain) mountain in Peru

Pirhuane is a 4,994-metre-high (16,385 ft) mountain in the Moquegua Region in the Andes of Peru. It is situated in the General Sánchez Cerro Province, Ubinas District. Pirwani is situated northeast of the active volcano Ubinas. Like the mountains south of Pirhuane, Pacoorcco and Huitoni, Pirhuane lies on the eastern border of the buffer zone of the Salinas and Aguada Blanca National Reservation.

Puka Saya (Moquegua) mountain in Peru

Puka Saya is a 5,320-metre-high (17,454 ft) mountain in the Andes of Peru. It is situated southeast of the salt lake named Salinas. The mountain is located in the Moquegua Region, General Sánchez Cerro Province, Matalaque District, southwest of the active Ubinas volcano. Puka Saya lies on the southern border of the buffer zone of the Salinas and Aguada Blanca National Reservation.

Huitoni (mountain) mountain in Peru

Huitoni or Wit'uni is a mountain in the Moquegua Region in the Andes of Peru, about 4,800 metres (15,748 ft) high. It is situated in the General Sánchez Cerro Province, Ubinas District. Huitoni lies northeast of the active volcano Ubinas and southwest of Pirhuane and Pacoorcco.

Pukara (Moquegua)

Pukara is a mountain in the Moquegua Region in the Andes of Peru, about 4,400 metres (14,436 ft) high. It is located in the General Sánchez Cerro Province, Ubinas District. Pukara is situated northeast of the active volcano Ubinas and southwest of Wit'uni. The Para River flows along its western slopes.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 "De Salinas y Aguada Blanca - Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado". www.sernanp.gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-11-19.
  2. "Bofedales y Laguna de Salinas | Ramsar Sites Information Service". rsis.ramsar.org. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  3. "Laguna del Indio - Dique de los Españoles | Ramsar Sites Information Service". rsis.ramsar.org. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Plan Maestro de la Reserva Nacional de Salinas y Aguada Blanca 2006-2011 (PDF) (in Spanish). SERNANP. 2006.
  5. Biggar, John (2005). The Andes: A Guide for Climbers. Andes. pp. 155–157. ISBN   9780953608720.

Further reading

Coordinates: 16°06′08″S71°13′08″W / 16.1021°S 71.219°W / -16.1021; -71.219