Misti

Last updated
Misti
Volcan Misti.JPG
Highest point
Elevation 5,822 m (19,101 ft) [1]
Prominence 1,785 m (5,856 ft)
Listing Ultra
Coordinates 16°17′40″S71°24′32″W / 16.29444°S 71.40889°W / -16.29444; -71.40889 Coordinates: 16°17′40″S71°24′32″W / 16.29444°S 71.40889°W / -16.29444; -71.40889 [1]
Geography
Peru physical map.svg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Misti
Peru
Location Arequipa, Peru
Parent range Andes
Geology
Mountain type Stratovolcano
Volcanic arc/belt Central Volcanic Zone
Last eruption 1985

Misti, also known as Putina [2] or Guagua Putina [3] is a stratovolcano of andesite, dacite and rhyolite [4] located in southern Peru near the city of Arequipa. With its seasonally snow-capped, symmetrical cone, Misti stands at 5,822 metres (19,101 ft) above sea level and lies between mount Chachani (6,075 m or 19,931 ft) and Pichu Pichu volcano (5,669 m or 18,599 ft). Its last eruption was in 1985, 198 years after its previous documented eruption. [1]

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Andesite An intermediate volcanic rock

Andesite ( or ) is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture. In a general sense, it is the intermediate type between basalt and rhyolite, and ranges from 57 to 63% silicon dioxide (SiO2) as illustrated in TAS diagrams. The mineral assemblage is typically dominated by plagioclase plus pyroxene or hornblende. Magnetite, zircon, apatite, ilmenite, biotite, and garnet are common accessory minerals. Alkali feldspar may be present in minor amounts. The quartz-feldspar abundances in andesite and other volcanic rocks are illustrated in QAPF diagrams.

Dacite Volcanic rock intermediate in composition between andesite and rhyolite

Dacite is an igneous, volcanic rock. It has an aphanitic to porphyritic texture and is intermediate in composition between andesite and rhyolite. The word dacite comes from Dacia, a province of the Roman Empire which lay between the Danube River and Carpathian Mountains where the rock was first described.

Contents

Description

Misti has three concentric craters. Active fumaroles, or volcanic gas vents, can be seen in the inner crater. [5] Near the inner crater, six Inca mummies and rare Inca artifacts were found in 1998 during a month-long excavation directed by archaeologists Johan Reinhard and Jose Antonio Chavez. These findings are currently stored at the Museo de Santuarios Andinos in Arequipa.

Fumarole opening in or near a volcano, through which hot sulphurous gases emerge

A fumarole is an opening in a planet's crust which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide. The steam forms when superheated water condenses as its pressure drops when it emerges from the ground. The name solfatara is given to fumaroles that emit sulfurous gases.

Mummy Human or animal, whose skin and organs have been preserved

A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. Some authorities restrict the use of the term to bodies deliberately embalmed with chemicals, but the use of the word to cover accidentally desiccated bodies goes back to at least 1615 AD.

Johan Reinhard American anthropologist

Johan Reinhard, is an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. He is also a senior research fellow at The Mountain Institute, West Virginia, a visiting professor at Catholic University, Salta, Argentina, and an honorary professor of Catholic University, Arequipa, Peru.

There are two main climbing routes on the volcano. The Pastores route starts at 3,300 metres (10,800 ft). Usually a camp is made at 4,500 metres (14,800 ft) at Nido de Aguilas. The Aguada Blanca route starts at 4,000 metres (13,100 ft) near the Aguada Blanca reservoir, and a camp is made at 4,800 metres (15,700 ft) at Monte Blanco (the camp is named after Mont Blanc, the summit of which is approximately the same elevation as the camp). Neither climbing route presents technical difficulties, but both are considered strenuous because of the steep loose sand slopes.

Mont Blanc Highest mountain in the Alps (4,809 m)

Mont Blanc, meaning "White Mountain") is the highest mountain in the Alps and the highest in Europe west of the Caucasus peaks of Russia and Georgia. It rises 4,808 m (15,774 ft) above sea level and is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence. The mountain stands in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley, Italy, and Savoie and Haute-Savoie, France. The location of the summit is on the watershed line between the valleys of Ferret and Veny in Italy and the valleys of Montjoie, and Arve in France, in the middle of what is generally considered to be the border between the two countries.

Surrounding area

A long history of eruptions from Misti and its neighbour volcanoes has caused the local soil to be extremely fertile, making the surrounding area one of the most agriculturally productive in Peru. [5] Locals also make extensive use of a white volcanic rock called sillar , which is strong but easily workable. [5] The city of Arequipa has a significant number of buildings constructed with sillar, resulting in the nickname la ciudad blanca, or "the white city". [5]

Sillar A variety of rhyolite containing fragments of andesite

Sillar is a variety of rhyolite, which is a type of volcanic rock. Although sillar is of rhyolitic composition, it has been erupted from volcanoes which mostly erupt andesite lava, and sillar contains small fragments of andesite. A pink variety of sillar owes its colour to crystals of hematite within the rock. A white variety lacks these hematite crystals. Sillar is found as pyroclastic flow deposits of tuff near volcanoes in southern Peru, for example the now-extinct Chachani volcano which erupted flows of sillar during the Pleistocene epoch.

Arequipa Region capital in Peru

Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru. It is Peru's second most populous city with 861,145 inhabitants, as well as its second most populous metropolitan area as of 2016, according to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI)

Ubinas volcano in Peru

Ubinas is a stratovolcano in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru, 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 5,672 metres (18,609 ft) above sea level. The volcano's summit is cut by a 1.4-kilometre (0.87 mi) wide and 150-metre (490 ft) deep caldera, which itself contains a smaller crater. Below the summit, Ubinas has the shape of an upwards-steepening cone with a prominent notch on the southern side. The gently sloping lower part of the volcano is also known as Ubinas I and the steeper upper part as Ubinas II; they represent different stages in the geologic history of Ubinas.

Mosaic image made from an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials

A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assembling of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It is often used in decorative art or as interior decoration. Most mosaics are made of small, flat, roughly square, pieces of stone or glass of different colors, known as tesserae. Some, especially floor mosaics, are made of small rounded pieces of stone, and called "pebble mosaics".

See also

Related Research Articles

Mummy Juanita well-preserved frozen body of an Inca girl, d. c. 1450

Momia Juanita, also known as the Lady of Ampato, is the well-preserved frozen body of an Inca girl who was killed as an offering to the Inca gods sometime between 1450 and 1480 when she was approximately 12–15 years old. She was discovered on Mount Ampato in southern Peru in 1995 by anthropologist Johan Reinhard and his Peruvian climbing partner, Miguel Zárate. "Juanita" has been on display in the Catholic University of Santa María's Museum of Andean Sanctuaries in Arequipa, Peru, almost continuously since 1996, and was displayed on a tour of Japan in 1999.

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Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve

Salinas y Aguada Blanca National Reserve is a protected area located in the regions of Arequipa and Moquegua; Peru. The main purpose of this area is to protect the local flora, fauna and landscape formations.

Ampato dormant Peruvian volcano

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Isluga stratovolcano located in Colchane, near Chile/Bolivia border

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Tacora

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Putana (volcano) South American volcano

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Pichu Pichu volcano in Peru

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Yucamane volcano in Peru

Yucamane, Yucamani or Yucumane is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Tacna Region of southern Peru. It is part of the Peruvian segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the three volcanic belts of the Andes generated by the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South America plate. Peru's active volcanoes Ubinas, Sabancaya and El Misti are also part of the Central Volcanic Zone.

Cerro Nicholson is a scoria cone in Peru. It is constructed on top of the 1.65 mya Arequipa Airport Ignimbrite and is well preserved with a summit crater. It is located west-southwest of Chachani volcano. Lavas erupted from this centre are dark in colour. They are basalt andesitic with vesicularity between 0 and 70%.

Coropuna volcano in Peru

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Acamarachi mountain in El Loa Province Chile

Acamarachi is a 6,046-metre (19,836 ft) high volcano in northern Chile. In this part of Chile, it is the highest volcano. Its name means "black moon". It is a volcano in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, a zone of strong volcanic activity during the last million years. Old volcanoes in the area are well-preserved, due to the dry climate.

Llullaillaco Dormant stratovolcano at the border of Argentina and Chile

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Sabancaya Peruvian stratovolcano

Sabancaya is an active 5,976-metre-high (19,606 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) northwest of Arequipa. It is considered part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the three distinct volcanic belts of the Andes. The Central Volcanic Zone includes a number of volcanoes, some of which like Huaynaputina have had large eruptions and others such as Sabancaya and Ubinas have been active in historical time. Sabancaya forms a volcanic complex together with Hualca Hualca to the north and Ampato to the south and has erupted andesite and dacite. It is covered by a small ice cap which leads to a risk of lahars during eruptions.

Tutupaca volcano in Peru

Tutupaca is a volcano in the region of Tacna in Peru. It is part of the Peruvian segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes. Tutupaca consists of three overlapping volcanoes formed by lava flows and lava domes made out of andesite and dacite, which grew on top of older volcanic rocks. The highest of these is usually reported to be 5,815 metres (19,078 ft) high and was glaciated in the past.

Ticsani volcano in Peru

Ticsani is a volcano in Peru. It consists of two volcanoes that form a complex: "old Ticsani", which is a compound volcano that underwent a large collapse in the past and shed 15–30 cubic kilometres (3.6–7.2 cu mi) of mass down the Rio Tambo valley; the other is a complex of three lava domes which were emplaced during the Holocene. The last eruption occurred after the 1600 eruption of neighbouring Huaynaputina.

Sara Sara volcano in Peru

Sara Sara is a 5,505-metre-high (18,061 ft) volcano lying between Lake Parinacochas and Ocoña River in Peru. It is situated in the Parinacochas Province, Puyusca District, and in the Paucar del Sara Sara Province, in the districts of Pausa and Sara Sara.

Chachani volcano in Peru

Chachani is a volcanic complex in southern Peru, 22 kilometres (14 mi) northwest of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 6,057 metres (19,872 ft) above sea level. The volcano consists of several lava domes and individual volcanoes such as Nocarane, along with lava shields such as the Airport Domes. Underneath Chachani lies a caldera.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "El Misti". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2008-12-21.
  2. Thomas Besom, Of Summits and Sacrifice: An Ethnohistoric Study of Inka Religious Practices, An ethnohistoric study of Inka religious practices, University of Texas press, 2009
  3. "Global Volcanism Program | El Misti". volcano.si.edu. Retrieved 2017-08-16.
  4. http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/content/113/12/1593
  5. 1 2 3 4 Scheffel, Richard L.; Wernet, Susan J., eds. (1980). Natural Wonders of the World. United States of America: Reader's Digest Association, Inc. p. 251. ISBN   0-89577-087-3.

Further reading

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