|Elevation||150 metres (490 ft)|
|Prominence||150 metres (490 ft)|
|Location|| Cook, Londonderry Island |
Tierra del Fuego, Magallanes
|Parent range||Tierra del Fuego|
|Age of rock||Miocene-Holocene|
|Mountain type||Volcanic field|
|Volcanic belt||Austral Volcanic Zone|
Fueguino is a volcanic field in Chile. The southernmost volcano in the Andes, it lies on Tierra del Fuego's Cook Island and also extends over nearby Londonderry Island. The field is formed by lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a crater lake.
Volcanic activity at Fueguino is part of the Austral Volcanic Zone, which is formed by the subduction of the Antarctic Plate beneath the South America Plate. The subducting plate has not reached a depth sufficient for proper volcanic arc volcanism, however.
The field bears no trace of glacial erosion on its volcanoes, and reports exist of volcanic activity in 1712, 1820 and 1926.
Fueguino volcano lies in the commune of Cabo de Hornos, Chile.Cities in the region are Rio Gallegos, Puerto Natales, Punta Arenas, Rio Grande and Ushuaia.
Fueguino is the southernmost volcano in the Andes. The volcano to the north is Monte Burney, which lies 400 kilometres (250 mi) northwest of Fueguino. Both volcanoes belong to the Austral Volcanic Zone. Since the Paleocene, a transform fault, which bisects the island, has been moving the southern part of Tierra del Fuego eastward along the South America Plate, accompanied by tectonic uplift that persisted into the Holocene except when it was offset by glacial loading effects.
The subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctic Plate beneath the South America Plate is responsible for the formation of the Andean Volcanic Belt. This volcanic belt is subdivided into the Northern Volcanic Zone, the Central Volcanic Zone, the Southern Volcanic Zone and the Austral Volcanic Zone. The Austral Volcanic Zone features six Quaternary volcanoes and is 800 kilometres (500 mi) long. It is separated from the Southern Volcanic Zone by the Patagonian volcanic gap, where arc volcanism ceased 12 million years ago.
South of where the Chile Rise intersects the Peru-Chile Trench, the trench disappears as it is increasingly buried by sediments. However, subduction is still active as evidenced by the converging motion of the Antarctic Plate and the South America Plate and the volcanic activity. Only around 52° does the convergence change into strike-slip faulting at the Shackleton Fracture Zone.Subduction in that area commenced 17 million years ago, and the Antarctic slab has not sunk deep into the mantle. At shallow depth, magma generation is dominated by anatexis of the slab. The mantle ahead of the edge of the subducting slab may be dominated by a large slab window.
Other volcanic activity occurred in the region farther east, on Hardy Peninsula and some surrounding capes and islands during the Miocene;potassium-argon dating has yielded ages of 18 and 21 million years ago. These volcanic systems may indicate that the Antarctic Plate is subducting beneath the Scotia Plate.
Three stages of tectonic activity have been noted; Late Cretaceous, Paleocene-Early Eocene and Middle Eocene to Oligocene.
Fueguino lies on a peninsula on the southeastern side of Cook Island, Tierra del Fuego,but it also extends to Londonderry Island. The main Tierra del Fuego island lies northeast of Fueguino. This area of southern Tierra del Fuego is part of the Fuegian Andes, which are formed by various intrusive, effusive and metamorphic forms on the Scotia Plate.
The field contains lava domes and pyroclastic cones, 150 metres (490 ft). One of these cones has a crater lake within a 150 metres (490 ft) wide crater. Volcanic activity may be influenced by north-south trending faults.reaching heights of
The field has erupted andesite.Such a limited range of composition is typical for Austral Volcanic Zone volcanoes, which only feature andesite and dacite. Lava domes feature columnar joints. The surface texture of the rocks is trachytic to porphyritic.
The rocks contain phenocrysts of clinopyroxene, hornblende and plagioclase. In terms of composition, the Fueguino rocks belong to the calc-alkaline series and resemble tholeiites and andesites from primitive volcanic arcs.Xenoliths from the Patagonian batholith are also found.
The field is formed on top of plutonic rocks, which were scoured by glaciation.At the south coast of Tierra del Fuego, volcanic activity provided the late Jurassic formation known as the Lemaire Formation. Later, during the Cretaceous, the Yaghan Formation consisting of marine sediments was deposed on top of the Lemaire Formation. The basement of Fueguino consists of an ophiolite of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The ophiolitic sequence contains pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, titanomagnetite, cubanite and pyrite.
The volcanoes were unaffected by glacial activity, and potassium-argon dating has indicated a near absence of radiogenic argon.Myths of the Yaghan people of a "world fire" may be a reference to volcanism at Fueguino, but they could also refer to an impact event.
Ships passing in the area reported volcanic activity in 1712 and 1820.The former eruption, dated around 26 November is uncertain. It was reported by French captain Josselin Guardin; the volcano was marked on maps as Volcan San Clemente, after Gardin's ship.
The latter eruption was observed on the 25-26 November by HMS Conway captained by Basil Hall,and involved the eruption of incandescent material. According to reports it lasted intermittently for the whole morning that day. A volcanic explosivity index of 2 has been estimated. These volcanic activities were at first assumed to have occurred in the local Andes mountains, but a geological expedition by Giacomo Bove in 1882 found no evidence of a volcano there; the field itself was accidentally discovered by geologists of SERNAGEOMIN in 1978.
Further activity may have occurred on 3 February 1926, when a ship travelling through the northeastern arm of the Beagle Channel encountered a cloud of ash.Such a cloud may have been transported to the ship's location by southwesterly winds from Fueguino. Most recently, seismic swarms far south of Puerto Williams in 2018 were associated with Fueguino in the media.
The vegetation of the area belongs to the Magellanic Province, 5 °C (41 °F) and precipitation decreasing northeastward. Sea surface temperatures in the Beagle Channel range 3–10 °C (37–50 °F). The Fuegian Andes are covered by an ice sheet with outlet glaciers, although only on the Chilean side.formed by deciduous trees at low altitudes. Peatlands and bogs are widespread. The climate is temperate and cold, with temperatures of about
During the ice ages, a substantial ice cap covered the Patagonian and Fuegian Andes.Two stages of glaciation have been identified in southern Tierra del Fuego; four more have been found north of the Magellan Strait. After about 10,000 years ago, Nothofagus woods developed in the region.
The Scotia Plate is a tectonic plate on the edge of the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Thought to have formed during the early Eocene with the opening of the Drake Passage that separates South America from Antarctica, it is a minor plate whose movement is largely controlled by the two major plates that surround it: the South American Plate and Antarctic Plate.
Viedma is a subglacial volcano located below the ice of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, an area disputed between Argentina and Chile. The 1988 eruption deposited ash and pumice on the ice field and produced a mudflow that reached Viedma Lake. The exact position of the edifice is unclear, both owing to the ice cover and because the candidate position, the "Viedma Nunatak", does not clearly appear to be of volcanic nature. Numerous ash layers in the Viedma lake indicate numerous past eruptions.
Cerro Azul, sometimes referred to as Quizapu, is an active stratovolcano in the Maule Region of central Chile, immediately south of Descabezado Grande. Part of the South Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit is 3,788 meters (12,428 ft) above sea level, and is capped by a summit crater that is 500 meters (1,600 ft) wide and opens to the north. Beneath the summit, the volcano features numerous scoria cones and flank vents.
Incahuasi is a volcanic mountain in the Andes of South America. It lies on the border of the Argentine province of Catamarca, and the Atacama Region of Chile. Incahuasi has a summit elevation of 6,621 metres (21,722 ft) above sea level.
Mentolat is an ice-filled, 6 km (4 mi) wide caldera in the central portion of Magdalena Island, Aisén Province, Chilean Patagonia. This caldera sits on top of a stratovolcano which has generated lava flows and pyroclastic flows. The caldera is filled with a glacier.
Cerro Macá is a stratovolcano located to the north of the Aisén Fjord and to the east of the Moraleda Channel, in the Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region of Chile. This glacier-covered volcano lies along the regional Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone.
Aguilera is a stratovolcano in southern Chile, which rises above the edge of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field. It is a remote volcano that was identified as such in 1985, but the first ascent only occurred in 2014, making it the last unclimbed major Andean volcano.
The Andean Volcanic Belt is a major volcanic belt along the Andean cordillera in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. It is formed as a result of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctic Plate underneath the South American Plate. The belt is subdivided into four main volcanic zones that are separated from each other by volcanic gaps. The volcanoes of the belt are diverse in terms of activity style, products, and morphology. While some differences can be explained by which volcanic zone a volcano belongs to, there are significant differences within volcanic zones and even between neighboring volcanoes. Despite being a type location for calc-alkalic and subduction volcanism, the Andean Volcanic Belt has a broad range of volcano-tectonic settings, as it has rift systems and extensional zones, transpressional faults, subduction of mid-ocean ridges and seamount chains as well as a large range of crustal thicknesses and magma ascent paths and different amounts of crustal assimilations.
The geology of Chile is a characterized by processes linked to subduction such as volcanism, earthquakes and orogeny. The buildings blocks of Chile's geology assembled during the Paleozoic Era. Chile was by then the southwestern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana. In the Jurassic Gondwana begun to split and the ongoing period of crustal deformation and mountain building known as the Andean orogeny begun. In the Late Cenozoic Chile definitely separated from Antarctica, the Andes expienced a great rise accomplained by a cooling climate and the onset of glaciations.
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Reclus, also written as Reclús, is a volcano located in the Southern Patagonia Ice Field, Chile. Part of the Austral Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit rises 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above sea level and is capped by a crater about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) wide. Close to the volcano lies the Amalia Glacier, which is actively eroding Reclus.
Cay is a stratovolcano in the South Volcanic Zone of the Andes in Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region, Chile. The volcano is located 15 km northeast of the larger Maca Volcano and about 230 km of the Chile Trench at the intersection of NW-SE and NE-SW faults of the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone. The volcano is composed from basalt and dacite and there is no evidence of Holocene activity. Below 1000m, several parasitic cones lie on the southwest flank of the volcano.
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Pali-Aike volcanic field is a volcanic field in Argentina which straddles the border with Chile. It is part of a province of back-arc volcanoes in Patagonia, which formed from processes involving the collision of the Chile Rise with the Peru–Chile Trench. It lies farther east than the Austral Volcanic Zone, the volcanic arc which forms the Andean Volcanic Belt at this latitude.
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Tata Sabaya is a 5,430-metre (17,810 ft) high volcano in Bolivia. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of several volcanic belts in the Andes which are separated by gaps without volcanic activity. This section of the Andes was volcanically active since the Jurassic, with an episode of strong ignimbritic volcanism occurring during the Miocene. Tata Sabaya lies in a thinly populated region north of the Salar de Coipasa salt pan.
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