Cerro Bravo

Last updated
Cerro Bravo
Cerro Bravo.jpg
Cerro Bravo in June 2010
Highest point
Elevation 4000+ metres (13,123+ ft) [1]
Listing Volcanoes of Colombia
Coordinates 5°05′31″N75°18′00″W / 5.092°N 75.30°W / 5.092; -75.30 Coordinates: 5°05′31″N75°18′00″W / 5.092°N 75.30°W / 5.092; -75.30 [1]
Geography
Colombia relief location map.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Cerro Bravo
Location of Cerro Bravo in Colombia
Location Tolima
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
Parent range Central Ranges
  Andes
Geology
Age of rock Holocene
Mountain type Andesitic stratovolcano
Last eruption 1720 ± 150 years

Cerro Bravo is a stratovolcano located in Tolima, Colombia, north of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano. The rock type of the volcano is andesite. [2]

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Tolima Department Department in Andean Region, Colombia

Tolima is one of the 32 departments of Colombia, located in the Andean region, in the center-west of the country. It is bordered on the north and the west by the department of Caldas; on the east by the department of Cundinamarca; on the south by the department of Huila, and on the west by the departments of Cauca, Valle del Cauca, Quindío and Risaralda. Tolima has a surface area of 23,562 km², and its capital is Ibagué. The department of Tolima was created in 1861 from a part of what was previously Cundinamarca.

Colombia Country in South America

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogotá.

Contents

Eruptive history

As with many volcanoes in the region, Bravo's eruptions are often characterized by a central vent (caldera) eruption, followed by an explosive eruption and pyroclastic flows. However, it is unique in the fact that its eruption have also produced lava domes in its caldera. Such eruptions occurred in 1720 ± 150 years, 1050 ± 75 years, and 750 AD ± 150 years (through radiocarbon dating). Eruptions consisting of just a central vent eruption and subsequent explosive eruption took place in 1330 ± 75 years, 1310 BC ± 150 years, 1050 BC ± 200 years and 4280 BC ± 150 years. [1]

Pyroclastic flow Fast-moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter that moves away from a volcano

A pyroclastic flow is a fast-moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter that moves away from a volcano about 100 km/h (62 mph) on average but is capable of reaching speeds up to 700 km/h (430 mph). The gases can reach temperatures of about 1,000 °C (1,830 °F).

Lava dome Roughly circular protrusion from slowly extruded viscous volcanic lava

In volcanology, a lava dome or volcanic dome is a roughly circular mound-shaped protrusion resulting from the slow extrusion of viscous lava from a volcano. Dome-building eruptions are common, particularly in convergent plate boundary settings. Around 6% of eruptions on earth are lava dome forming. The geochemistry of lava domes can vary from basalt to rhyolite although the majority are of intermediate composition The characteristic dome shape is attributed to high viscosity that prevents the lava from flowing very far. This high viscosity can be obtained in two ways: by high levels of silica in the magma, or by degassing of fluid magma. Since viscous basaltic and andesitic domes weather fast and easily break apart by further input of fluid lava, most of the preserved domes have high silica content and consist of rhyolite or dacite.

Radiocarbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

See also

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Arcabuco Formation

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Murrí Fault

The Murrí Fault is an oblique thrust fault in the department of Antioquia in northwestern Colombia. The fault has a total length of 87.1 kilometres (54.1 mi) and runs along an average north-south strike of 001.4 ± 5 along the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

Palestina Fault

The Palestina Fault is a regional sinistral oblique thrust fault in the departments of Antioquia, Caldas and Bolívar in central Colombia. The fault has a total length of 369.6 kilometres (229.7 mi) and runs along an average north-northeast to south-southwest strike of 017.8 ± 11 along the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "Cerro Bravo". Global Volcanism Program . Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved 2011-08-12.
  2. Plancha 206, 1998

Bibliography