Romeral (volcano)

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Romeral
Volcán Romeral
Colombia relief location map.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Romeral
Location of Romeral in Colombia
Highest point
Elevation 3,858 m (12,657 ft)
Listing Volcanoes of Colombia
Coordinates 5°12′22″N75°21′50″W / 5.20611°N 75.36389°W / 5.20611; -75.36389 Coordinates: 5°12′22″N75°21′50″W / 5.20611°N 75.36389°W / 5.20611; -75.36389
Geography
Location Caldas
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
Parent range Central Ranges, Andes
Geology
Age of rock Pliocene-Holocene
Mountain type Andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano
Last eruption 5950 BCE ± 500 years

Romeral is a stratovolcano located in Caldas, Colombia. It is the northernmost Holocene volcano of South America, of the North Volcanic Zone in the Andean Volcanic Belt. The volcano was formed in the Late Pliocene, approximately 3 million years ago. [1]

Stratovolcano Tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava and other ejecta

A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers (strata) of hardened lava, tephra, pumice and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas. The lava flowing from stratovolcanoes typically cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is often felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows are uncommon, but have travelled as far as 15 km (9.3 mi).

Caldas Department Department in Andean Region, Colombia

Caldas is a department of Colombia named after Colombian patriotic figure Francisco José de Caldas. It is part of the Paisa Region and its capital is Manizales. The population of Caldas is 1,030,062, and its area is 7,291 km². Caldas is also part of the Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis region along with the Risaralda and Quindio departments.

Colombia Country in South America

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. It shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogotá.

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Galeras is an Andean stratovolcano in the Colombian department of Nariño, near the departmental capital Pasto. Its summit rises 4,276 metres (14,029 ft) above sea level. It has erupted frequently since the Spanish conquest, with its first historical eruption being recorded on December 7, 1580. A 1993 eruption killed nine people, including six scientists who had descended into the volcano's crater to sample gases and take gravity measurements in an attempt to be able to predict future eruptions. It is currently the most active volcano in Colombia.

Chiles (volcano) mountain in Colombia

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Puracé mountain in Colombia

Puracé is an andesitic stratovolcano located in the Puracé National Natural Park in the Cauca Department, Colombia. It is part of the North Volcanic Zone of the Andean Volcanic Belt. The volcano is located at the intersection of the Coconucos and Morras Faults.

Andean Volcanic Belt Volcanic belt in South America

The Andean Volcanic Belt is a major volcanic belt along the Andean cordillera in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. It formed as a result of subduction of the Nazca Plate and Antarctic Plate underneath the South American Plate. The belt is subdivided into four main volcanic zones that are separated from each other by volcanic gaps. The volcanoes of the belt are diverse in terms of activity style, products and morphology. While some differences can be explained by which volcanic zone a volcano belongs to, there are significant differences within volcanic zones and even between neighboring volcanoes. Despite being a type location for calc-alkalic and subduction volcanism, the Andean Volcanic Belt has a large range of volcano-tectonic settings, such as rift systems and extensional zones, transpressional faults, subduction of mid-ocean ridges and seamount chains apart from a large range on crustal thicknesses and magma ascent paths, and different amount of crustal assimilations.

El Escondido

El Escondido is a volcano of the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes in the department of Caldas. The volcano is approximately 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) high.

Las Ánimas (volcano)

Las Ánimas is a volcano of the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes at the border of the departments of Cauca and Nariño. The volcano is 4,175 metres (13,698 ft) high.

Romeral Fault System

The Romeral Fault System is a megaregional system of major parallel and anastomosing faults in the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes and the Cauca, Amagá, and Sinú-San Jacinto Basins. The system spans across ten departments of Colombia, from northeast to south Bolívar, Sucre, Córdoba, Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda, Quindío, Valle del Cauca, Cauca and Nariño. The fault zone extends into Ecuador where it is known as the Peltetec Fault System. The in detail described part of the Romeral Fault System south of Córdoba has a total length of 697.4 kilometres (433.3 mi) with a cumulative length of 1,787.9 kilometres (1,110.9 mi) and runs along an average north to south strike of 017.6 ± 16, cross-cutting the central-western portion of Colombia.

Montenegro Fault

The Montenegro Fault is an oblique sinistral strike-slip fault in the department of Quindío in west-central Colombia. The fault is part of the megaregional Romeral Fault System and has a total length of 21.7 kilometres (13.5 mi) and runs along an average northwest to southeast strike of 025.1 ± 9 in the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

Armenia Fault

The Armenia Fault is an oblique sinistral strike-slip fault in the department of Quindío in west-central Colombia. The fault is part of the megaregional Romeral Fault System and has a total length of approximately 32 kilometres (20 mi) and runs along an average northwest to southeast strike of 023.2 ± 11 in the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. The fault shows Holocene activity with a surface rupture produced in 2001.

Piendamó Fault

The Piendamó Fault is an oblique dextral strike-slip fault in the department of Cauca in southwestern Colombia. The fault is part of the megaregional Romeral Fault System and has a total length of 28.3 kilometres (17.6 mi) and runs along a variable average north to south strike of 341.6 ± 18 in the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

Abriaquí Fault

The Abriaquí Fault is an oblique thrust fault in the department of Antioquia in northwestern Colombia. The fault has a total length of 33.8 kilometres (21.0 mi) and runs along an average northwest to southeast strike of 311 ± 2 in the Western Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

Cañasgordas Fault

The Cañasgordas Fault is an oblique thrust fault in the department of Antioquia in northwestern Colombia. The fault has a total length of 54.8 kilometres (34.1 mi) and runs along an average northwest to southeast strike of 316 ± 4 in the Western Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

El Tambor Fault

The El Tambor Fault is an inactive dextral oblique thrust fault in the departments of Cauca and Valle del Cauca in Colombia. The fault has a total length of 117.5 kilometres (73.0 mi) and runs along an average northeast to southwest strike of 026.1 ± 09 to the west of the Western Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

Guáitara Fault

The Guáitara Fault is a dextral strike-slip fault in the department of Nariño in southwestern Colombia. The fault has a total length of 36.1 kilometres (22.4 mi) and runs along an average northeast to southwest strike of 044.1 ± 4 in the Western Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

Irlanda Fault

The Irlanda Fault is a dextral strike-slip fault in the department of Cauca in south-central Colombia. A small portion of the fault runs through Huila. The fault has a total length of 54.6 kilometres (33.9 mi) and runs along an average northeast to southwest strike of 023 ± 4 in the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. The fault is active and associated with the deadly 1994 Páez River earthquake.

La Plata Fault

The La Plata or Chusma Fault is a dextral oblique thrust fault in the department of Huila in southwestern Colombia. The fault has a total length of 113.2 kilometres (70.3 mi) and runs along an average northeast to southwest strike of 039 ± 12 in the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

Palestina Fault

The Palestina Fault is a regional sinistral oblique thrust fault in the departments of Antioquia, Caldas and Bolívar in central Colombia. The fault has a total length of 369.6 kilometres (229.7 mi) and runs along an average north-northeast to south-southwest strike of 017.8 ± 11 along the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

Piedrancha Fault

The Piedrancha Fault is a dextral oblique strike-slip fault in the department of Nariño in southwestern Colombia. The fault has a total length of 79.5 kilometres (49.4 mi) and runs along an average northeast to southwest strike of 033.8 ± 14 in the Western Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

Santa Rita Fault

The Santa Rita Fault is a strike-slip fault in the department of Antioquia in northern Colombia. The fault has a total length of 81.0 kilometres (50.3 mi) and runs along an average north to south strike of 010.6 ± 6 in the Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes.

References

  1. Bohórquez et al., 2005, p.72

Bibliography

Industrial University of Santander university

The Industrial University of Santander, abbreviated in Spanish with the acronym UIS, is a public university system, based in a coeducational, and research model. The university serves the Santander Department, being the main campus located in the city of Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia. The university also has satellite campuses across the department in the cities of Barrancabermeja, Barbosa, Málaga, Piedecuesta, Socorro.

Global Volcanism Program American research program

The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) documents Earth's volcanoes and their eruptive history over the past 10,000 years. The GVP reports on current eruptions from around the world as well as maintaining a database repository on active volcanoes and their eruptions. In this way, a global context for the planet's active volcanism is presented. Smithsonian reporting on current volcanic activity dates back to 1968, with the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP). The GVP is housed in the Department of Mineral Sciences, part of the National Museum of Natural History, on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

Smithsonian Institution Group of museums and research centers administered by the United States government

The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson. Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.