Volcano in Chile
The Chiliques volcano, seen from Laguna Miscanti
|Elevation||5,778 m (18,957 ft)|
Chiliques is a stratovolcano located in the Antofagasta Region of Chile.
Chiliques is capped off by a 500 metres (1,600 ft) wide summit crater, which contains two crater lakes. One of these lakes is found in the northern part and the other east-southeastern part. The volcano is formed by rocks ranging from andesite to dacite; the andesites of the main stratocone building phase contain pyroxene. Together with Tumisa, Leija and Cordón de Puntas Negras it forms a northwest-trending volcano alignment.
The first part of Chiliques to form was a block lava field, which still crops out northeast of the main volcano to a distance of 6.5 kilometres (4.0 mi). Lava flows with lengths of up to 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) then constructed the stratovolcano proper and were later buried by shorter (up to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)) lava flows that cover a surface of 16.26 square kilometres (6.28 sq mi) around the summit crater. The Cerro Overo maar northeast of Chiliques is occasionally considered the last phase of Chiliques's activity, and the two have erupted rocks with similar chemical composition. There is no evidence for historical activity.
Over years, Chiliques has been monitored from space by ASTER imagery. 15 °C (27 °F). This temperature anomaly may reflect either thermal events in crater lakes or fumarolic activity, although evidence for the occurrence of either is equivocal. Some of the anomalies were observed in the crater and others on the upper slopes of the volcano. This anomaly lasted only a few months.In 2002, the imagery showed evidence of a temperature anomaly on Chiliques, which occasionally reached a scale of
Magnetotelluric investigation of the region has shown evidence of a high-conductivity structure underground between Chiliques, Cordón de Puntas Negras and Láscar. This high conductivity zone reaches a depth of 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) at its southern end, and it might reflect the presence of magma underground.
The lake Laguna Lejia lies north of Chiliques volcano,other parts of the volcano drain into the Salar de Atacama; the volcano forms part of the drainage divide of the salar. A pre-modern route goes up the mountain and aside from the steep slopes and height of the mountain, does not feature any major difficulties.
The town of Socaire is found west of Chiliques, and the volcano has cultural importance to the town, with the volcano being considered the origin of the water for Socaire and part of a cosmological representation together with the neighbouring mountains Tumisa, Lausa, Ipira and Miñiques.Seen from Socaire, the sun rises behind Chiliques during St. Bartholomew's Day; St. Bartholomew is an important saint for the town. Archeological findings made on Chiliques include pottery, a stone room and an elliptical structure in the summit area. Additional platforms and stone structures are found lower on its slopes, and an Incan tambo even farther down. Such archeological sites on mountains are common in Chile, with Licancabur and Cerro Quimal being examples of other mountains with such structures.
Licancabur is a stratovolcano on the border between Bolivia and Chile, south of the Sairecabur volcano and west of Juriques. Part of the Andean Central Volcanic Zone, it has a prominent, 5,916-metre (19,409 ft)-high cone. A 400-metre (1,300 ft) summit crater containing Licancabur Lake, a crater lake which is among the highest lakes in the world, caps the volcano. Three stages of lava flow emanate from the volcano, which formed on Pleistocene ignimbrites.
Caldera del Atuel is a caldera in Argentina. It is the source of the Rio Atuel and has dimensions of 30 by 45 kilometres. Cerro Sosneado is a volcano located outside of the Atuel caldera, Volcan Overo and Las Lágrimas complex are located within the caldera. Holocene activity may have formed the cinder cones on the northeastern side of the caldera. After the 2010 Maule earthquake, the caldera was one of the volcanic centres that underwent subsidence, along with secondary earthquake activity.
Incahuasi is a volcanic mountain in the Andes of South America. It lies on the border of the Argentine province of Catamarca, and the Atacama Region of Chile. Incahuasi has a summit elevation of 6,621 metres (21,722 ft) above sea level.
Isluga is a stratovolcano located in Colchane, 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) west of the Chile-Bolivia border and at the west end of a group of volcanoes lined up in an east-west direction, which also includes the volcanoes Cabaray and Tata Sabaya. Isluga has an elongated summit area and lies within the borders of Volcán Isluga National Park in Chile's Tarapacá Region.
Miñiques is a massive volcanic complex containing a large number of craters, lava domes and flows, located in the Antofagasta Region of Chile. Located 21 km (13 mi) south of Volcán Chiliques and 26 km (16 mi) west of Cordón Puntas Negras, it is part of a frequently visited attraction conformed by the high plain lagoons Laguna Miscanti, Laguna Miñiques and the Cerro Miscanti volcano.
Laguna Lejía is a salt lake located in the Altiplano of the Antofagasta Region of northern Chile. The landscape of the area is dominated by the volcanoes Chiliques, Lascar, Aguas Calientes and Acamarachi. It is shallow and has no outlet, covering a surface area of about 1.9 square kilometres (0.73 sq mi) in the present-day.
Paniri is a stratovolcano located in El Loa Province, Antofagasta Region, Chile, and near the border with Bolivia. To its northwest lie the twin volcanoes San Pedro and San Pablo, and to its southeast lies Cerro del León, from which it is separated by the huge Chao lava dome.
Cerros de Tocorpuri is a volcanic complex located along the border between Bolivia and Chile.
Putana, sometimes referred to as Jorqencal or Machuca, is a volcano on the border between Bolivia and Chile and close to the Sairecabur volcanic complex. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit is 5,890 metres (19,320 ft) above sea level and contains a summit crater with two smaller craters nested within it. Beneath the summit, the volcano features a number of lava domes and lava flows, some of which originated in flank vents.
Cordón de Puntas Negras is a 500 km2 (193 sq mi) volcanic chain located east of the Salar de Atacama in Chile's Antofagasta Region.
Cerro Overo is a maar lying at the foot of Chiliques volcano and close to Laguna Lejía, in the Antofagasta Region of northern Chile over ignimbrites of Miocene-Pliocene age. It is the result of a phreatomagmatic eruption, its maximum diameter is 600 metres (2,000 ft) and its depth is 80 metres (260 ft). The maar formed in postglacial times and erupted basalts that originated in the deep crust, with no magma chamber. The lavas are of lower crustal provenience and are among the least evolved of northern Chile. According to a thesis published in 2017, it formed about 77,000 years ago.
Tilocalar are two volcanoes in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. They are constructed on Pleistocene ignimbrites and are 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) afar. Tilocálar Sur is a 3,116 metres (10,223 ft) high polygenetic volcano and has an explosion crater one kilometre to the south. Two other craters are also present along a graben. Four basaltic andesite-andesite lava flows emanate from it. Tilocálar Norte is a 3,040 metres (9,970 ft) high monogenetic system and generated northbound lava flows that run along the eastern wall of the Callejón de Tilocálar. Based on the age of the underlying Tucucaro ignimbrite the volcano is less than 3.2 million years old. An andesitic dyke swarm is associated with this system.
Tumisa is a Pleistocene stratovolcano in the Andes. Located east of the Salar de Atacama, it is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, which since the Miocene has been subject to extensive andesitic/dacitic effusive activity and ignimbrite eruptions. The basement on which Tumisa is built includes Paleozoic rocks and more recent volcanic products of the Lejia volcano and the Atana and Patao ignimbrites.
Guallatiri is a 6,071-metre (19,918 ft) high volcano in Chile. It is located southwest of the Nevados de Quimsachata volcanic group and is sometimes considered to be part of that group. It is a stratovolcano with numerous fumaroles around the summit. The summit may be composed of either a lava dome or a pyroclastic cone, while the lower flanks of the volcano are covered by lava flows and lava domes. The volcano's eruptions have produced mostly dacite along with andesite and rhyolite.
Irruputuncu is a volcano in the commune of Pica, Tamarugal Province, Tarapacá Region, Chile, as well as San Pedro de Quemes Municipality, Nor Lípez Province, Potosí Department, Bolivia. The mountain's summit is 5,163 m (16,939 ft) high and has two summit craters—the southernmost 200 m (660 ft)-wide one has active fumaroles. The volcano also features lava flows, block and ash flows and several lava domes. The volcano is part of the Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ).
Sairecabur is a volcano located on the frontier between Bolivia and Chile. It is part of the Andean Central Volcanic Zone. Sairecabur proper is 5,971 metres (19,590 ft) high; other mountains in the range are 5,722 metres (18,773 ft) high Curiquinca, 5,819 metres (19,091 ft) high Escalante and 5,748 metres (18,858 ft) high Cerro Colorado, all of which have erupted a number of lava flows. Also in close proximity to Sairecabur lie the volcanic centres Licancabur, Putana and Juriques.
Llullaillaco is a dormant stratovolcano at the border of Argentina and Chile. It lies in the Puna de Atacama, a region of tall volcanic peaks on a high plateau close to the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places in the world. It is the second highest active volcano in the world after Ojos del Salado.
Lastarria is a stratovolcano that lies on the border between Chile and Argentina. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the four segments of the volcanic arc of the Andes. Several volcanoes are located in this chain of volcanoes, which is formed by subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate.
Olca-Paruma is a volcanic complex in Chile. Lying on the border between Chile and Bolivia, it is formed by an east-west alignment of volcanoes. From west to east, these are Cerro Paruma, Volcan Paruma, Olca, and Mencheca or Michincha. Aside from the mines of Ujina, Rosario, and Quebrada Blanca, the area is sparsely populated.
Miscanti Lake (Spanish: Laguna Miscanti) is a brackish water lake located in the altiplano of the Antofagasta Region, in northern Chile. Miñiques volcano and Cerro Miscanti tower over this lake. This heart-shaped lake has a deep blue color. The western shoreline of the lake is separated by less than 1 km from the drainage divide between the lake and the Salar de Atacama basins. Laguna Miscanti basin also has a common boundary with Salar de Talar basin.