Cueros de Purulla

Last updated
Cueros de Purulla
Relief Map of Argentina.jpg
Red triangle with thick white border.svg
Cueros de Purulla
Highest point
Coordinates 26°33′S67°49′W / 26.550°S 67.817°W / -26.550; -67.817 Coordinates: 26°33′S67°49′W / 26.550°S 67.817°W / -26.550; -67.817 [1]

Cueros de Purulla is a volcano in Argentina. It consists of a lava dome and an associated ignimbrite. A large eruption dated to c. 7820 BP deposited ash into the Valles Calchaquies.

Contents

Geography and geomorphology

The volcano lies in Catamarca Province of Argentina [2] 60–70 kilometres (37–43 mi) southeast of Antofagasta de la Sierra. [3] Cerro Blanco volcano lies 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of Cueros de Purulla. [1]

It is the northern of two lava domes which lie at the southern end of the Sierra de Calalaste. [4] The dome is accompanied by ignimbrites [1] and a debris deposit consisting of obsidian lies at the foot of the dome. [4] Two volcanic fallout units are associated with Cueros de Purulla. A lower fallout unit consisting of lapilli and volcanic ash extends several kilometres from the volcano, and remnants occur as far as 180 kilometres (110 mi) from it. [5] The upper unit is formed by ignimbrites and pyroclastic density current deposits. [6]

Composition and ores

Volcanic rocks erupted at Cueros de Purulla include rhyolite. Mineralogically, the rocks contain allanite, amphibole, apatite, biotite, clinopyroxene, epidote, feldspar, ilmenite, magnetite, muscovite, quartz, titanite and zircon. [6] For the past five millennia, [7] the volcano has been used as a source of obsidian, which occurs at 4,380 metres (14,370 ft) in the form of blocks and nodules of various colours, and is of high quality. [3] Reportedly, gold and silver can be found at the volcano. [8] [9]

Eruption history

The lava dome at Cueros de Purulla is 400,000 ± 100,000 years old. [10] A large eruption occurred during the Holocene, 7820 years before present (i.e. about 5870 BC). [11] Deposits from this eruption form the Cerro Paranilla Ash in the Calchaquí Valleys. [12] The eruption was highly explosive, forming a buoyant cloud. [13]

Related Research Articles

The 6th millennium BC spanned the years 6000 BC to 5001 BC. It is impossible to precisely date events that happened around the time of this millennium and all dates mentioned here are estimates mostly based on geological and anthropological analysis. This millennium is reckoned to mark the end of the global deglaciation which had followed the Last Glacial Maximum and caused sea levels to rise by some 60 m (200 ft) over a period of about 5,000 years.

El Tatio mountain

El Tatio is a geyser field located in the Andes Mountains of northern Chile at 4,320 metres (14,170 ft) above mean sea level. Various etymologies have been proposed for the name "El Tatio", which might mean "oven" or "grandfather". It is the third-largest geyser field in the world and the largest in the Southern Hemisphere.

Cerro Tuzgle stratovolcano in the Susques Department of Jujuy Province in Argentina

Cerro Tuzgle is a dormant stratovolcano in the Susques Department of Jujuy Province in Argentina. Tuzgle is a prominent volcano of the back-arc of the Andes and lies about 280 kilometres (170 mi) east of the main volcanic arc. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 5,486 metres (17,999 ft) high above sea level and was constructed during different stages over a caldera and lava domes. Some major lava flows emanate from the summit crater, and one confirmed and one possible flank collapse unit as well as an ignimbrite sheet are associated with this volcano.

Galán mountain in Argentina

Cerro Galán is a caldera in the Catamarca Province of Argentina. It is one of the largest exposed calderas in the world. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one out of several volcanic belts found in South America. It is one of several major caldera systems in the Central Volcanic Zone, some of which are grouped into the Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex.

Purico complex mountain in Chile

The Purico complex is a Pleistocene volcanic complex in Chile close to Bolivia, formed by an ignimbrite, several lava domes and stratovolcanoes and one maar. It is one of the Chilean volcanoes of the Andes, and more specifically the Chilean segment of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the four volcanic belts which make up the Andean Volcanic Belt. The Central Volcanic Zone spans Peru, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina and includes 44 active volcanoes as well as the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex, a system of large calderas and ignimbrites of which Purico is a member of. Licancabur to the north, La Pacana southeast and Guayaques to the east are separate volcanic systems.

Nevado Tres Cruces mountain

Nevado Tres Cruces is a massif of volcanic origin in the Andes Mountains on the border of Argentina and Chile. It has two main summits, Tres Cruces Sur at 6,748 metres (22,139 ft) and Tres Cruces Centro at 6,629 m (21,749 ft) and a third more minor summit, Tres Cruces Norte 6,206 m (20,361 ft). Tres Cruces Sur is the sixth highest mountain in the Andes. The area was first surveyed in 1883 by Francisco San Román and the Nevado Tres Cruces National Park was established in 1994.

Cordón de Puntas Negras mountain in Chile

Cordón de Puntas Negras is a 500 km2 (193 sq mi) volcanic chain located east of the Salar de Atacama in Chile's Antofagasta Region.

La Pacana mountain in Chile

La Pacana is a Miocene age caldera in northern Chile's Antofagasta Region. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is part of the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex, a major caldera and silicic ignimbrite volcanic field. This volcanic field is located in remote regions at the Zapaleri tripoint between Chile, Bolivia and Argentina.

Aguas Calientes caldera

Aguas Calientes is a major Quaternary caldera in Salta Province, Argentina. It is in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, a zone of volcanism covering southern Peru, Bolivia, northwest Argentina and northern Chile. This zone contains stratovolcanoes and calderas.

Abra Granada is a volcanic complex in the Puna de Atacama in Bolivia. It is located approximately 45 kilometres (28 mi) north of Pirquitas and is composed from a lava dome, lavas and dacitic ignimbrites centering on Cerro Granada and are dated 9.8-7.8 Ma. Deposits erupted 7.9-5.0 mya by this volcano overlie the older Granada ignimbrite. Other peraluminous rocks were erupted 10 mya. The complex is the likely source of the Granada Ignimbrite. The ignimbrite reaches its maximum thickness in the complex.

Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex volcanic complex in Chile

The Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex, also known as APVC, is a complex of volcanic systems in the Puna of the Andes. It is located in the Altiplano area, a highland bounded by the Bolivian Cordillera Real in the east and by the main chain of the Andes, the Western Cordillera, in the west. It results from the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. Melts caused by subduction have generated the volcanoes of the Andean Volcanic Belt including the APVC. The volcanic province is located between 21° S–24° S latitude. The APVC spans the countries of Argentina, Bolivia and Chile.

Cerro Blanco (volcano) mountain in Argentina

Cerro Blanco is a caldera in the Andes of the Catamarca Province in Argentina. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is a volcano collapse structure located at an altitude of 4,670 metres (15,320 ft) in a depression. The caldera is associated with a less well defined caldera to the south and several lava domes.

Cerro Guacha

Cerro Guacha is a Miocene caldera in southwestern Bolivia's Sur Lípez Province. Part of the volcanic system of the Andes, it is considered to be part of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ), one of the three volcanic arcs of the Andes, and its associated Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex (APVC). A number of volcanic calderas occur within the latter.

Cerro Panizos mountain in Bolivia

Panizos is a Late Miocene era caldera in the Potosí Department of Bolivia and the Jujuy Province of Argentina. It is part of the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex of the Central Volcanic Zone in the Andes. 50 volcanoes active in recent times are found in the Central Volcanic Zone, and several major caldera complexes are situated in the area. The caldera is located in a logistically difficult area of the Andes.

Incapillo

Incapillo is a Pleistocene caldera, a depression formed by the collapse of a volcano, in the La Rioja province of Argentina. Part of the Argentine Andes, it is considered the southernmost volcanic centre in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes with Pleistocene activity. Incapillo is one of several ignimbritic or calderic systems that, along with 44 active stratovolcanoes, are part of the Central Volcanic Zone.

Pairique volcanic complex is a volcanic complex in the Jujuy Province, Argentina.

Laguna Colorada is an ignimbrite shield of the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex at an altitude of 5,000 metres (16,000 ft) in Bolivia.

Vilama (caldera) mountain

Vilama is a Miocene caldera in Bolivia and Argentina. Straddling the border between the two countries, it is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the four volcanic belts in the Andes. Vilama is remote and forms part of the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex, a province of large calderas and associated ignimbrites that were active since about 8 million years ago, sometimes in the form of supervolcanoes.

Antofalla mountain in Argentina

Antofalla is a Miocene-Pliocene volcano in Argentina's Catamarca Province. It is part of the volcanic segment of the Andes in Argentina, and it is considered to be part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the volcanic zones of the Andes. Antofalla forms a group of volcanoes that are aligned on and behind the main volcanic arc. Antofalla itself is a remote volcano.

Los Frailes ignimbrite plateau

Los Frailes is an ignimbrite plateau in Bolivia, between the city of Potosi and the Lake Poopo. It belongs to a group of ignimbrites that exist in the Central Andes and which includes the Altiplano–Puna volcanic complex. The plateau covers a surface of 7,500 square kilometres (2,900 sq mi)–8,500 square kilometres (3,300 sq mi) with about 2,000 cubic kilometres (480 cu mi) of ignimbrite.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Fernandez-Turiel et al. 2019, p. 4.
  2. Escola, Elías & Cohen 2016, p. 216.
  3. 1 2 Flores, Marina Cecilia; Balesta, Bárbara María (2014). "Avances en la Identificación de Obsidianas Utilizadas en el Valle de Hualfín (Depto. De Belén, Catamarca, Argentina) Durante el Periodo de Desarrollos Regionales/Inka". Estudios Atacameños (49): 5–18. doi:10.4067/S0718-10432014000300002. ISSN   0718-1043.
  4. 1 2 Seggiaro, Raúl E.; Hongn, Fernando D.; Castillo, Alfredo; Pereyra, Fernando Xavier; Villegas, Daniela; Martínez, Liliana; González, Osvaldo Edgar (2006). Hoja Geológica 2769-II Paso San Francisco. Servicio Geológico Minero Argentino. Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales. p. 26.
  5. Fernandez-Turiel et al. 2019, p. 6.
  6. 1 2 Fernandez-Turiel et al. 2019, p. 7.
  7. Escola, Elías & Cohen 2016, p. 219.
  8. Donnari, Eva I.; Peralta, Eduardo H.; Segal, Susana J.; Zanettini, Juan Carlos M.; Maksaev, Víctor; Mpdozis, Constantino (1994). "Mapa Metalogenético de la Frontera Argentino-Chilena entre los 22º y 34º de Latitud Sur". Anales del SEGEMAR: 22.
  9. Roy, R.; Cassard, D.; Cobbold, P. R.; Rossello, E. A.; Billa, M.; Bailly, L.; Lips, A. L. W. (1 November 2006). "Predictive mapping for copper–gold magmatic-hydrothermal systems in NW Argentina: Use of a regional-scale GIS, application of an expert-guided data-driven approach, and comparison with results from a continental-scale GIS". Ore Geology Reviews. 29 (3): 286. doi:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2005.10.002. ISSN   0169-1368.
  10. Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg; Coira, Beatriz; Mpodozis, Constantino (August 2006). LATE NEOGENE VOLCANISM IN THE CERRO BLANCO REGIONOF THE PUNA AUSTRAL, ARGENTINA (~26.5°S, ~67.5°W) (PDF). XI Congreso Geologico Chileno. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  11. Osterrieth, Margarita; Alvarez, María Fernanda; Gallardo, Juan Fernando; Saavedra, Julio; Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Perez-Torrado, Francisco J.; Rejas, Marta (10 July 2019). "Palaeoenvironmental use of silicophytoliths in soils and palaeosols associated with Holocene volcanic ash deposits in north-western Argentina". Quaternary International. 522: 103. Bibcode:2019QuInt.522..103O. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2019.07.001. ISSN   1040-6182.
  12. Osterrieth, Margarita; Alvarez, María Fernanda; Gallardo, Juan Fernando; Saavedra, Julio; Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Perez-Torrado, Francisco J.; Rejas, Marta (10 July 2019). "Palaeoenvironmental use of silicophytoliths in soils and palaeosols associated with Holocene volcanic ash deposits in north-western Argentina". Quaternary International. 522: 104. Bibcode:2019QuInt.522..103O. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2019.07.001. ISSN   1040-6182.
  13. Fernandez-Turiel et al. 2019, p. 21.

Sources