Aerial photograph of volcan Sollipulli, looking southeast. The dark red feature on the side of Sollipulli is the cinder cone called Chufquen which formed during the most recent eruption, about 700 years ago.
|Elevation||2,282 m (7,487 ft)|
|Listing||List of volcanoes in Chile|
|Volcanic arc/belt||Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes|
|Last eruption||1240 ± 50 years|
Sollipulli (Spanish pronunciation: [soʝiˈpuʝi] ; lit. reddish mountain in the Mapuche language ) is an ice-filled volcanic caldera and volcanic complex, which lies southeast of the small town of Melipeuco in the La Araucanía Region, Chile. It is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the four volcanic belts in the Andes chain.
The volcano has evolved in close contact with glacial ice. It differs from many calderas in that Sollipulli appears to have collapsed in a non-explosive manner. The age of collapse is not yet known, but it is presently filled with ice to thicknesses of 650 m (2,130 ft). The ice drains through two glaciers in the west and the north of the caldera. Sollipulli has developed on a basement formed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological formations.
Sollipulli was active in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. A large Plinian eruption occurred 2,960–2,780 years before present, forming the Alpehué crater and generating a high eruption column and ignimbrite deposits. The last activity occurred 710 ± 60 years before present and formed the Chufquén scoria cone on the northern flank. Sollipulli is among the 118 volcanoes which have been active in recent history.
Sollipulli lies in the Araucania Region, Cautín Province, Melipeuco commune. 20 km (12 mi) northwest. The volcano is also part of the Kütralkura geopark project.The Sollipulli volcano is in the western part of the Nevados de Sollipulli mountain range, which is bordered to the north, south and east by river valleys. The communes of Curarrehue, Cunco, Panguipulli, Pucon and Villarrica are in the area, Melipeuco lies
Sollipulli is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes,one of the four belts of volcanoes which are found in the mountain range. The other three are the Northern Volcanic Zone, the Central Volcanic Zone (both north of the Southern Volcanic Zone) and the Austral Volcanic Zone (south of the Southern Volcanic Zone). These volcanic zones are separated by gaps where there is no volcanic activity and the subduction of the Pacific Ocean crust is shallower than in the volcanically active areas. About 60 volcanoes have erupted in historical time in the Andes, and 118 additional volcanic systems show evidence of Holocene eruptions.
There are 60 volcanoes in the Southern Volcanic Zone; among these are Cerro Azul and Cerro Hudson, which experienced large eruptions in 1932 and 1991 that resulted in the emission of substantial volumes of ash. The volcanoes Llaima and Villarrica have been regularly active during recent history.
Sollipulli is a stratovolcano, 4-kilometre-wide (2.5 mi) caldera on its summit and southwest of it the 1-kilometre-wide (0.62 mi) Alpehué crater. The crater is draped by pyroclastic flow deposits, and its rim reaches a height of 200 m (660 ft). The rims of the caldera rise 150 m (490 ft) above the ice in the caldera; the highest summit of Sollipulli lies on the southern flank of the caldera and reaches an elevation of 2,282 m (7,487 ft) above sea level. On the southern and eastern side the caldera is bordered by several lava domes. The caldera most likely was not formed by a large explosive eruption, considering that no deposits from such an eruption have been found.which has one
The volcano is formed by lava flows, lava domes, scoria, pillow lavas as well as pumice falls, pyroclastics and other material. 85 km3 (20 cu mi) and covers a surface area of about 250 km2 (97 sq mi). Radial valleys extend away from the top. A number of particular landforms on Sollipulli formed under the influence of glacial ice, such as the caldera structure.The edifice has a volume of about
The Nevados de Sollipulli mountain chain west of the Sollipulli caldera are a chain of volcanoes which is heavily eroded. They are formed by breccia and lava flows; glacial action has left cirques. Closer to the caldera they are better preserved, with individual flows issuing from fissure vents. –northeast striking volcano alignments in the Southern Volcanic Zone, the regional tectonics favour magma ascent along such alignments.This chain is one of several east
The flanks of the volcano are covered by lava flows, which gives them irregular contours. Glaciers and streams have cut valleys into the slopes and smoothed the lava flows.Two scoria cones are situated on the northern flank, Chufquén and Redondo, each associated with lava flows; about a dozen such craters dot the flanks of the volcano.
Both the main caldera and the Alpehué crater contain glaciers, 650 m (2,130 ft) in 1992 and fills it; the total volume was estimated at 6 km3 (1.4 cu mi) in 1992. These glaciers feature typical ice structures such as crevasses and there may be a subglacial lake in the caldera. Three lakes are found in the caldera at its margins, the easterly Sharkfin lake, the southeasterly Dome lake and the southwesterly Alpehué lake. These glaciers drain to the north and northwest; the latter glacier flows from the caldera through the Alpehué crater into the valley of the same name, which is drained by the Rio Alpehué into the Rio Allipén river. Other than the caldera and crater glaciers, the only snow cover on Sollipulli is seasonal.which in the caldera reached a thickness of
The glacier within the caldera of Sollipulli is shrinking; 1.3 km (0.81 mi). The process of glacier retreat is probably accelerated by ash being deposited on the glacier through eruptions at the neighbouring volcano Puyehue-Cordón Caulle; activity at the other volcanoes Llaima and Villarrica may have the same effect. In 2011, the volume of the glacier was 4.5 ± 0.5 km3 (1.08 ± 0.12 cu mi). Melting of the glacier risks generating lahars and putting water supplies in the region into jeopardy.its surface area decreased between 1961 and 2011 and the Alpehuén outlet glacier retreated by
Subduction has been ongoing on the western side of South America since 185 million years ago and has resulted in the formation of the Andes and volcanic activity within the range. About 27 million years ago, the Farallon Plate broke up and the pace of subduction increased, resulting in increased volcanic activity and a temporary change in the tectonic regime of the Southern Andes.
Sollipulli volcano developed on a 600-to-1,600-metre-high (2,000–5,200 ft) basement which consists of the Jurassic–Cretaceous Nacientes del Biobío formation and the Pliocene-Pleistocene Nevados de Sollipulli volcanics, with subordinate exposures of the Miocene Curamallín and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Vizcacha-Cumilao complex volcano-sedimentary formations. Miocene granites are intruded into the basement.
Rocks erupted from Sollipulli range from basalt over basaltic andesite and andesite to dacite. Composition has changed over the evolution of the volcano; sometimes one type of rock is found as inclusion in another.Minerals contained in the rocks include apatite, clinopyroxene, ilmenite, olivine, orthopyroxene, plagioclase and titanomagnetite. Xenoliths are also found, including diorite and granophyre.
The petrogenesis of the Alpehué rocks has been explained with the penetration of more primitive magma into a dacitic magma chamber, which was then subject to magma mixing. The primitive magmas sometimes pass through the flanks of the edifice and form parasitic vents in these cases.
Obsidian was obtained on Sollipulli and exported over large distances; it has been found as far as Argentina's steppes and northern Chile,and is chemically and in appearance different from obsidian obtained on Chaiten volcano. One source has been identified at a lava dome on the western side of Sollipulli. A route starting south of Melipeuco leads up on the volcano; this route was used for the transport of obsidian in the 1980s.
The region is forested, with deciduous trees including Nothofagus , with laurel forests around the lakes of the area and woods consisting of Araucaria araucana and Austrocedrus chilensis at altitudes exceeding 800 m (2,600 ft). In addition there are open grasslands called mallines which were used for grazing.
Sollipulli was active during the Pleistocene and Holocene; million years old with argon-argon dating having obtained ages of 490,000 ± 30,000 and 312,000 ± 20,000 years ago. Six separate volcanic units form the edifice; from the oldest to the youngest they are the Sharkfin, Northwest, South, Peak, Alpehué and Chufquén units. The first two may be contemporaneous to the formation of the caldera, or they may predate it. The Sharkfin unit was emplaced in a subglacial environment and later disrupted by faulting, later units show substantial evidence of having been altered by glaciers. Radiometric dates have been obtained on the Sharkfin unit (700,000 ± 140,000 and 350,000 ± 90,000 years before present), the Northwest unit (120,000 ± 16,000, 120,000 ± 140,000, 110,000 ± 30,000 and 100,000 ± 30,000 years before present) and the South and Peak units (68,000 ± 14,000, 64,000 ± 15,000 and 26,000 ± 5,000 years before present). The caldera is nested within an older and eroded caldera, and some parasitic cones are heavily eroded whereas others appear to be younger.the Nevados de Sollipulli are less than 1.8
Pyroclastic flows from Alpehué have been dated to 2,960–2,780 years before present. 44-kilometre-high (27 mi) eruption column and ejected about 7.5 km3 (1.8 cu mi) of pumice falls; layers of tephra identified in a bog of South Georgia 3,000 km (1,900 mi) away as well as in an ice core at Siple Dome in Antarctica and dated to about 980 BCE may be a product of the Alpehué eruption. Alpehué tephra has been used as a tephrochronology tool. Pyroclastic flows from the eruption melted the caldera ice sheet, forming lahars that propagated northwest away from Sollipulli. Ignimbrites from this eruption cover surfaces of at least 40 km2 (15 sq mi) around Sollipulli, their volume has been estimated to be about 0.4 km3 (0.096 cu mi). They are brown to grey in colour and unwelded with the exception of part of the ignimbrite that is emplaced within the Alpehué crater. The eruption reached a level of 5 on the volcanic explosivity index.The Alpehué unit was emplaced during a large Plinian eruption, which generated a
Radiocarbon dating at Chufquén has yielded an age of 710 ± 60 years before present. This eruption deposited ash onto the caldera ice, while it is absent from the central parts of the Chufquén valley; either it was removed by a later glacier advance or it landed on a glacier which later retreated. The eruption occurred relatively recently, indicating that Sollipulli is still active.
The substantial ice body in the caldera means that there is a significant risk of mudflows or glacier bursts in the case of renewed activity.A repeat of the Alpehué eruption would be a regional catastrophe, comparable to the 1991 eruption of Cerro Hudson volcano.
The Chilean geological service Sernageomin monitors the volcano and publishes a hazard index for it. The towns of Cunco, Melipeuco and Villa García are close to the volcano.
Parinacota, Parina Quta or Parinaquta is a dormant stratovolcano on the border of Chile and Bolivia. Together with Pomerape it forms the Nevados de Payachata volcanic chain. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit reaches an elevation of 6,380 metres (20,930 ft) above sea level. The symmetrical cone is capped by a summit crater with widths of 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) or 500 metres (1,600 ft). Farther down on the southern slopes lie three parasitic centres known as the Ajata cones. These cones have generated lava flows. The volcano overlies a platform formed by lava domes and andesitic lava flows.
Cerro El Cóndor is a stratovolcano in Argentina.
Falso Azufre is a complex volcano at the border of Argentina and Chile.
Payún Matrú is a shield volcano located in the Reserva Provincial La Payunia of the Malargüe Department, south of the Mendoza Province in Argentina. It lies in the back-arc region of the Andean Volcanic Belt, and formed during the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. Payún Matrú, along with the Llancanelo, Nevado and Salado Basin volcanic fields, form the Payenia province. It has been proposed as a World Heritage Site since 2011.
Viedma is a subglacial volcano located below the ice of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field, an area disputed between Argentina and Chile. The 1988 eruption deposited ash and pumice on the ice field and produced a mudflow that reached Viedma Lake. The exact position of the edifice is unclear, both owing to the ice cover and because the candidate position, the "Viedma Nunatak", does not clearly appear to be of volcanic nature. Numerous ash layers in the Viedma lake indicate numerous past eruptions.
Cerro Azul, sometimes referred to as Quizapu, is an active stratovolcano in the Maule Region of central Chile, immediately south of Descabezado Grande. Part of the South Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit is 3,788 meters (12,428 ft) above sea level, and is capped by a summit crater that is 500 meters (1,600 ft) wide and opens to the north. Beneath the summit, the volcano features numerous scoria cones and flank vents.
Incahuasi is a volcanic mountain in the Andes of South America. It lies on the border of the Argentine province of Catamarca, and the Atacama Region of Chile. Incahuasi has a summit elevation of 6,621 metres (21,722 ft) above sea level.
Nevado de Longaví is a volcano in the Andes of central Chile. The 3,242 m (10,636 ft) high volcano lies in the Linares Province, which is part of the Maule Region. It features a summit crater and several parasitic vents. The volcano is constructed principally from lava flows. Two collapses of the edifice have carved collapse scars into the volcano, one on the eastern slope known as Lomas Limpias and another on the southwestern slope known as Los Bueye. The volcano features a glacier and the Achibueno and Blanco rivers originate on the mountain.
Ampato is a dormant 6,288-metre (20,630 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru. It lies about 70–75 kilometres (43–47 mi) northwest of Arequipa and is part of a north-south chain that includes the volcanoes Hualca Hualca and Sabancaya, the last of which has been active in historical time.
Quetrupillán is a stratovolcano located in the La Araucanía Region of Chile. It is situated between Villarrica and Lanín volcanoes, within Villarrica National Park. Geologically, Quetrupillán is located in a tectonic basement block between the main traces of Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault and Reigolil-Pirihueico Fault.
Mentolat is an ice-filled, 6 km (4 mi) wide caldera in the central portion of Magdalena Island, Aisén Province, Chilean Patagonia. This caldera sits on top of a stratovolcano which has generated lava flows and pyroclastic flows. The caldera is filled with a glacier.
Melipeuco is a town and commune in Chile, located at the foot of the Andes, in the Province of Cautín, Araucanía Region. Melipeuco is 12 km (7 mi) from the southern entrance of the Conguillío National Park. The Nevados de Sollipulli, an ice-filled volcanic caldera surrounded by numerous hot water springs and geysers, lie south of the town. Lake Carilafquén is also located in this area. At the edge of the Nevados de Sollipulli, at the Alpehue intersection 33 km (21 mi) away, there are several hot springs with water from 40 to 70 °C, even in the middle of glacier blocks.
Putana, sometimes referred to as Jorqencal or Machuca, is a volcano on the border between Bolivia and Chile and close to the Sairecabur volcanic complex. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, its summit is 5,890 metres (19,320 ft) above sea level and contains a summit crater with two smaller craters nested within it. Beneath the summit, the volcano features a number of lava domes and lava flows, some of which originated in flank vents.
Puyehue and Cordón Caulle are two coalesced volcanic edifices that form a major mountain massif in Puyehue National Park in the Andes of Ranco Province, in the South of Chile. In volcanology this group is known as the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcanic Complex (PCCVC). Four volcanoes constitute the volcanic group or complex, the Cordillera Nevada caldera, the Pliocene Mencheca volcano, Cordón Caulle fissure vents and the Puyehue stratovolcano.
Calabozos is a Holocene caldera in central Chile's Maule Region. Part of the Chilean Andes' volcanic segment, it is considered a member of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), one of the three distinct volcanic belts of South America. This most active section of the Andes runs along central Chile's western edge, and includes more than 70 of Chile's stratovolcanoes and volcanic fields. Calabozos lies in an extremely remote area of poorly glaciated mountains.
Coropuna is a dormant stratovolcano in the southern Peruvian Andes that lies within the Central Volcanic Zone. It has several summits, the highest of which reaches an altitude of 6,377 metres above sea level. The volcano is located 150 kilometres from the city of Arequipa and is mostly made of ignimbrites and lava flows on a basement formed by earlier ignimbrites and lava flows, some of which may have been formed by Coropuna itself. Coropuna has been active for at least five million years, with the bulk of the current cone having formed during the Quaternary. Coropuna has had two or three Holocene eruptions 2,100 ± 200 and either 1,100 ± 100 or 700 ± 200 years ago which generated lava flows, plus an additional eruption which may have taken place some 6,000 years ago. Current activity occurs exclusively in the form of hot springs.
Lastarria is a stratovolcano that lies on the border between Chile and Argentina. It is part of the Central Volcanic Zone, one of the four segments of the volcanic arc of the Andes. Several volcanoes are located in this chain of volcanoes, which is formed by subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate.
Fueguino is a volcanic field in Chile. The southernmost volcano in the Andes, it lies on Tierra del Fuego's Cook Island and also extends over nearby Londonderry Island. The field is formed by lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a crater lake.
Sabancaya is an active 5,976-metre-high (19,606 ft) stratovolcano in the Andes of southern Peru, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) northwest of Arequipa. It is considered part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, one of the three distinct volcanic belts of the Andes. The Central Volcanic Zone includes a number of volcanoes, some of which like Huaynaputina have had large eruptions and others such as Sabancaya and Ubinas have been active in historical time. Sabancaya forms a volcanic complex together with Hualca Hualca to the north and Ampato to the south and has erupted andesite and dacite. It is covered by a small ice cap which leads to a risk of lahars during eruptions.
Ubinas is a stratovolcano in the Moquegua Region of southern Peru, 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of the city of Arequipa. Part of the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, it is 5,672 metres (18,609 ft) above sea level. The volcano's summit is cut by a 1.4-kilometre (0.87 mi) wide and 150-metre (490 ft) deep caldera, which itself contains a smaller crater. Below the summit, Ubinas has the shape of an upwards-steepening cone with a prominent notch on the southern side. The gently sloping lower part of the volcano is also known as Ubinas I and the steeper upper part as Ubinas II; they represent different stages in the geologic history of Ubinas.