Strolling

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Strolling is walking along or through at a leisurely pace. Strolling is a pastime and activity enjoyed worldwide as a leisure activity. The object of strolling is to walk at a slightly slower pace in an attempt to absorb the surroundings.

Contents

Works featuring the flâneur , French for a “strolling urban observer”, have appeared in European and American literature since the late 18th century. [1]

Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida, Strolling along the Seashore, 1909 (Sorolla Museum) Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida - Strolling along the Seashore - Google Art Project.jpg
Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, Strolling along the Seashore, 1909 (Sorolla Museum)
A wooded area is an ideal locale for an evening stroll (Dahlem) 2019-11-30-Marienallee Dahlem-7978.jpg
A wooded area is an ideal locale for an evening stroll (Dahlem)
Strolling over a bridge in Pszczyna Park zamkowy w Pszczynie 03promykjck.jpg
Strolling over a bridge in Pszczyna

Etymology

The verb form of "stroll" may have originated from a c.1600 Cant word. This word may have been derived from the German word strollen, which in itself is a derivative of the German word strolchen, which means "to roam, travel about aimlessly, drift, rove." [2] The German noun strolch refers to any sort of vagabond or rogue.

Before the American Revolution, a stroller was the British word for a vagabond. [3]

The noun stroll came from the verb in 1814. The term "stroller" was coined in the 1920s as a "child’s push-chair". [4] The modern-day usage of the word "stroll" does not differ greatly from its older derivatives.

Technological advances in strolling. Strolling mp3.jpg
Technological advances in strolling.

Health outcomes

Strolling is not an aerobic exercise. The body's energy demands whilst strolling do not require extra oxygen. [5] Physicians therefore do not recommend strolling, but rather recommend more vigorous and aerobic forms of exercise. The American Medical Association's committee on Exercise and Physical Fitness has stated that "walking briskly, not just strolling, is the simplest and also one of the best forms of exercise". [6]

Researchers investigating the cognitive benefits to exercise have also concluded that strolling results in no significant gains to cognitive health as people age. Brisk walking and other everyday activities, such as house work or gardening, have demonstrated significant benefits to prevention of cognitive decline as the population ages. [7]

Other researchers at the Mayo Clinic posit that all activity that is not sleeping, eating, or sports activity still contributes to overall health. This has been named "Non-exercise activity thermogenesis" (NEAT) and includes everything from strolling to fidgeting in the analysis of energy consumption. Utilizing NEAT research has generated many ideas about social design of offices, schools, and living spaces to promote any physical activity, such as removing places to sit to promote standing and pacing. [8] The body operates at a more balanced level when strolling. The heart beat is more balanced. The blood pressure is well balanced.

International traditions

In Spain, a stroll is called a Paseo and is a popular after-dinner pastime. The participants, whose membership is egalitarian, wear their best clothing. Activities include chatting with neighbors and acquaintances, flirting, and gossiping. [9] Several streets in countries with a Spanish cultural history incorporate the word: Paseo de la Reforma in Mexico City, Paseo del Prado, Havana, Paseo de Roxas in the Philippines, and Buenos Aires’s Paseo La Plaza.

The similar, and widespread custom in Italy for an evening walk is called la passeggiata. [10]

Strolling or walking (Russian: гулять, gulyat') is very common in the Russian society. In contrast to many western countries strolling is very common among young people in Russia. Young people often arrange just to go for a walk. [11] [12] Besides the verb, the experience itself, which describes the time span of the walk, is called progulka (Russian: прогулка). [13] Walking is so important in Russian culture that gulyat' also is a synonym for "to party". [14] [15]

The 19th-century Russian literary critic Vissarion Belinsky described St. Petersburg as the center of urban strolling in that country, by contrast with Moscow. [16] Rural strolls have long been a staple of Russian fiction and songs; Tchaikovsky composed a musical accompaniment to the Nikolay Grekov poem “We haven’t long to stroll”. [17]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Walking Gait of locomotion among legged animals

Walking is one of the main gaits of terrestrial locomotion among legged animals. Walking is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendulum' gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step. This applies regardless of the usable number of limbs—even arthropods, with six, eight, or more limbs, walk.

Doodle Simple drawing

A doodle is a drawing made while a person's attention is otherwise occupied. Doodles are simple drawings that can have concrete representational meaning or may just be composed of random and abstract lines, generally without ever lifting the drawing device from the paper, in which case it is usually called a "scribble".

Cognition Act or process of knowing

Cognition refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual functions and processes such as: attention, the formation of knowledge, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language. Cognitive processes use existing knowledge and generate new knowledge.

Walking meditation

Walking meditation, also known as kinhin is a practice within several forms of Buddhism that involve movement and periods of walking between long periods of sitting meditation. In different forms, the practice is common in Zen, Chan Buddhism, Korean Seon and Vietnamese Thiền. To perform walking meditation first find a location that is quiet. Start walking at a slow pace, walk 10-15 steps, back and forth. Put the hands and arms in a comfortable position. When walking, focus the attention on breathing, and balance the movement of the body: legs, neck, shoulders. While focusing, let the mind wander. The duration of walking meditation is about 10 minutes.

Exercise Bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness

Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

Aerobic exercise

Aerobic exercise is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. "Aerobic" is defined as "relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Aerobic exercise is performed by repeating sequences of light-to-moderate intensity activities for extended periods of time. Aerobic exercise may be better referred to as "solely aerobic", as it is designed to be low-intensity enough that all carbohydrates are aerobically turned into energy via mitochondrial ATP production. Mitochondria are organelles that rely on oxygen for the metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats.

Lifestyle diseases are defined as diseases linked with, and often caused by the way people live their life. These are non-communicable diseases. Lifestyle diseases are commonly caused by lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating, alcohol, drugs and smoking, which lead to heart disease, stroke, obesity, type II diabetes and Lung cancer. The diseases that appear to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer can include Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, atherosclerosis, asthma, cancer, chronic liver disease or cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney failure, osteoporosis, PCOD, stroke, depression, obesity and vascular dementia.

Physical fitness State of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities

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<i>Flâneur</i> An idler or man of leisure

Flâneur is a French noun referring to a person, literally meaning 'stroller', 'lounger', 'saunterer', or 'loafer', but with some nuanced additional meanings. Flânerie is the act of strolling, with all of its accompanying associations. A near-synonym of the noun is boulevardier. Traditionally depicted as male, a flâneur is an ambivalent figure of urban affluence and modernity, representing the ability to wander detached from society with no other purpose than to be an acute observer of industrialized, contemporary life.

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Treadmill desk

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Green exercise

Green exercise refers to physical exercise undertaken in natural environments. Physical exercise is well known to provide physical and psychological health benefits. There is also good evidence that viewing, being in, and interacting with natural environments has positive effects, reducing stress and increasing the ability to cope with stress, reducing mental fatigue and improving concentration and cognitive function. The concept of Green exercise has therefore grown out of well-established areas such as the attention restoration theory within environmental psychology which have tended to focus on the psychological and physical effects of viewing nature and well-recognised work about the psychological benefits of physical exercise.

Exercise trends

Worldwide there has been a large shift towards less physically demanding work and a more sedentary lifestyle. This has been accompanied by increasing use of mechanized transportation, a greater prevalence of labor saving technology in the home, and less active recreational pursuits. At least 31% of the world's population does not get sufficient physical exercise. This is true in almost all developed and developing countries, and among children. Some experts refer to sitting as "the new smoking" because of its negative effects on overall health.

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Obesity and walking describes how the locomotion of walking differs between an obese individual and a non-obese individual. The prevalence of obesity is becoming a worldwide problem, with the American population leading the way. In 2007-2008, prevalence rates for obesity among adult American men were approximately 32% and over 35% amongst adult American women. According to the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 66% of the American population is either overweight or obese and this number is predicted to increase to 75% by 2015. Obesity is linked to health problems such as decreased insulin sensitivity and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, sleep apnea, and joint pain such as osteoarthritis. It is thought that a major factor of obesity is that obese individuals are in a positive energy balance, meaning that they are consuming more calories than they are expending. Humans expend energy through their basal metabolic rate, the thermic effect of food, non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), and exercise. While many treatments for obesity are presented to the public, exercise in the form of walking is an easy, relatively safe activity that has the potential to move a person towards a negative energy balance and if done for a long enough time may reduce weight.

References

  1. James Werner (15 April 2004). American Flaneur: The Cosmic Physiognomy of Edgar Allan Poe. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN   978-1-135-87985-3.
  2. http://www.dictionarist.com/strolchen
  3. Phillips, Kevin (2012). 1775:A Good Year for Revolution. New York: Viking. p. 152. ISBN   978-0-670-02512-1.
  4. "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com.
  5. Evelyne Fleury-Milfort (2004). "Diabetes self-management education". In Anne Peters Harmel; Ruchi Mathur; Mayer B. Davidson (eds.). Davidson's diabetes mellitus: diagnosis and treatment (5th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 389. ISBN   978-0-7216-9596-9.
  6. Harold J. Reilly & Ruth Hagy Brod (2004). The Edgar Cayce handbook for health through drugless therapy. A.R.E Press. p. 104. ISBN   978-0-87604-482-7.
  7. Butler, R., Foreete, F., and Greengross, B.S. (2004) Maintaining Cognitive Health in an Aging Society. The Journal of The Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. Vol 124 No3. 119-121.
  8. James A. Levine, Mark W. Vander Weg, James O. Hill, Robert C. Klesges. (2006) Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis The Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon of Societal Weight Gain. Arterioscler Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. 26:729-736.
  9. Peter Kerr (1 May 2004). Manana, Manana: One Mallorcan Summer. Globe Pequot Press. p. 47. ISBN   978-1-59228-407-8.
  10. Del Negro, Giovanna (2004). The Passeggiata and Popular Culture in an Italian Town: Folklore and the Performance of Modernity. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN   9780773527225.
  11. "The biggest culture shocks Americans face in Russia". Matador Network. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  12. "What Do Russians Like Doing?" . Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  13. "гулять - Russian Verb Conjugation". RusslandJournal.de English. 2016-01-13. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  14. "Russian Word: гулять". seelrc-iis.trinity.duke.edu. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  15. PETTUS, MARK. (2017). RUSSIAN, BOOK 1 : russian through propaganda. [Place of publication not identified]: LULU COM. p. 202. ISBN   978-1387423521. OCLC   1021096626.
  16. Olga Matich (18 November 2010). Petersburg/Petersburg: Novel and City, 1900–1921. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 198. ISBN   978-0-299-23603-8.
  17. Tchaikovsky's Complete Songs: A Companion with Texts and Translations . Indiana University Press. October 2003. pp.  77–78. ISBN   0-253-21676-1.