Thopha sessiliba

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Thopha sessiliba
Thopha sessiliba from CSIRO.jpg
adult male
Scientific classification
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T. sessiliba
Binomial name
Thopha sessiliba
Distant, 1892
Synonyms

Thopha stentor Buckton
Thopha nigricans Distant

Thopha sessiliba, commonly known as the northern double drummer, is an Australian cicada native to Queensland, the Northern Territory and northern Western Australia. Adults perch almost exclusively on ghost gums. [1]

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

Cicada superfamily of insects

The cicadas are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of insects in the order Hemiptera. They are in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, along with smaller jumping bugs such as leafhoppers and froghoppers. The superfamily is divided into two families, Tettigarctidae, with two species in Australia, and Cicadidae, with more than 3,000 species described from around the world; many species remain undescribed.

Queensland North-east state of Australia

Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland. The state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres (715,309 sq mi).

Contents

William Lucas Distant described the northern double drummer in 1892, but incorrectly gave the type locality as Sydney. [1]

William Lucas Distant British entomologist

William Lucas Distant was an English entomologist.

Description

Specimen in the Australian Museum AustralianMuseum cicada specimen 34.JPG
Specimen in the Australian Museum

The northern double drummer is a large species of cicada, the second largest in Australia, [1] just smaller than the largest species, the double drummer. The male and female average 4.56 cm long. The thorax is 1.85 cm in diameter. [2] The eyes are light brown tinged with purple, [2] and the postclypeus dark red-brown. The head is variable in colour, but never black like the double drummer. [1] The thorax is brown with lighter golden-brown markings. [2] The mesonotum is brown tinged with purple. The underside of the thorax is red-brown and covered in fine silvery velvety hairs. The abdomen is dark brown, with the first and second segments above and underside covered with grey hairs, and also a whitish pregenital band of hair. The wings are vitreous (transparent) with light brown veins. The legs are brown and have fine grey velvety hairs. [2]

<i>Thopha saccata</i>

Thopha saccata, commonly known as the double drummer, is the largest Australian species of cicada and reputedly the loudest insect in the world. Documented by the Danish zoologist Johan Christian Fabricius in 1803, it was the first described and named cicada native to Australia. Its common name comes from the large dark red-brown sac-like pockets that the adult male has on each side of its abdomen—the "double drums"—that are used to amplify the sound it produces.

Clypeus (arthropod anatomy)

The clypeus is one of the sclerites that make up the "face" of an arthropod. In insects, the clypeus delimits the lower margin of the face, with the labrum articulated along the ventral margin of the clypeus. The mandibles bracket the labrum, but do not touch the clypeus. The dorsal margin of the clypeus is below the antennal sockets. The clypeus is often well-defined by sulci ("grooves") along its lateral and dorsal margins, and is most commonly rectangular or trapezoidal in overall shape.

The mesothorax is the middle of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the second pair of legs. Its principal sclerites are the mesonotum (dorsal), the mesosternum (ventral), and the mesopleuron (lateral) on each side. The mesothorax is the segment that bears the forewings in all winged insects, though sometimes these may be reduced or modified, as in beetles (Coleoptera) or Dermaptera, in which they are sclerotized to form the elytra, and the Strepsiptera, in which they are reduced to form halteres. All adult insects possess legs on the mesothorax. In some groups of insects, the mesonotum is hypertrophied, such as in Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera), in which the anterior portion of the mesonotum forms most of the dorsal surface of the thorax. In these orders, there is also typically a small sclerite attached to the mesonotum that covers the wing base, called the tegula. In one group of insects, the Hemiptera, the dorsal surface of the thorax is typically formed primarily of the prothorax, but also in part by the enlarged posterior portion of the mesonotum, called the scutellum; in the Coleoptera, the scutellum may or may not be visible, usually as a small triangular plate between the elytral bases, thus similar in position to the Hemipteran scutellum. In Diptera and Hymenoptera the mesothoracic scutellum is also distinct, but much smaller than the mesoscutum.

Adult cicadas emerge from September and can be seen until the end of April, though are most abundant in December and January. [1]

Distribution

The northern double drummer is found from Gladstone in southeast Queensland north to Cape York and Mount Isa, and across eastern and northern Northern Territory and into northern Western Australia, across the Kimberley and Broome to Mundiwindi. It is found on eucalyptus trees, particularly smooth-barked species such as the ghost gum ( Corymbia aparrerinja ) in Central Australia. [1]

Gladstone, Queensland City in Queensland, Australia

Gladstone is a city in the Gladstone Region, Queensland, Australia. It is approximately 550 km (340 mi) by road north of Brisbane and 100 km (62 mi) south-east of Rockhampton. Situated between the Calliope and Boyne Rivers, Gladstone is home to Queensland's largest multi-commodity shipping port.

Broome, Western Australia Town in Western Australia

Broome is a coastal, pearling and tourist town in the Kimberley region of Western Australia, 2,240 km (1,390 mi) north of Perth. The urban population was 13,984 at the 2016 Census growing to over 45,000 per month during the peak tourist season.

Mundiwindi Town in Western Australia

Mundiwindi is a ghost town in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The town is around 1,150 kilometres (710 mi) north east of Perth and 124 kilometres (77 mi) south east of Newman, along the Jigalong Mission road.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Moulds, Maxwell Sydney (1990). Australian Cicadas. Kensington, New South Wales: New South Wales University Press. pp. 56–58. ISBN   0-86840-139-0.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Burns, A.N. (1962). "Revision of the genus Thopha (Cicadidae)". Memoirs of Museum Victoria. 25: 275–77.