Cocroft and Heyer , 1988
Thoropa saxatilis is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to southern Brazil and occurs in the Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states,corresponding to the southernmost extent of the Atlantic Forest biome. The specific name saxatilis refers to its association with rocks. Common name Brazilian river frog has been coined for it.
Adult males measure 41–58 mm (1.6–2.3 in) in snout–vent length. The snout is rounded. The tympanum is distinct and relatively large (about as large as the eye ); the prominent supratympanic fold partly hides the tympanum dorsally. Finger tips have prominent discs; those of the toes are less prominent. The thumbs have a dark cluster of spines, and fingers have II–III rows of spines. Both fingers and toes have lateral ridges but no webbing. Preserved specimens are mottled with dark and light brown or grey. The upper surfaces of the limbs are barred. The venter is cream with some brown wash. No vocal sac is present.
The tadpoles are elongated and have a depressed body and a low tail fin with rounded tip. The largest tadpoles (Gosner stage 39) measure 34 mm (1.3 in) in total length. The body makes about third (29–33%) of the total length.
Thoropa saxatilis occurs on rocky cliffs in forested areas at elevations of 300–1,000 m (980–3,280 ft) above sea level. The holotype was collected on a rock near a small waterfall. Other adult males have been collected along road cuts where water was trickling over steep rock faces; tadpoles were collected from the same habitat. The eggs are laid under waterfalls on rocks.
It is a rarely collected species, and it appears to have disappeared from some localities. It can be threatened by habitat loss and modification (alteration of water causes, sedimentation, forest loss), but it has also vanished from some areas of apparently suitable habitat. Chytridiomycosis is a possible threat. The species is present in the Serra Geral and Aparados da Serra National Parks.
Hyloscirtus chlorosteus is a species of frog in the family Hylidae. It is endemic to Bolivia and only known from the holotype collected in 1979 from Parjacti (=Paracti), on the eastern slopes of the Andes in the Cochabamba Department. The specific name refers to the green bones of this frog. Common name Parjacti treefrog has been coined for it.
Cycloramphus dubius is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Common name São Paulo button frog has been coined for it.
Cycloramphus eleutherodactylus is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to the Serra do Mar in southeastern Brazil, including the Serra dos Órgãos, Serra da Mantiqueira, and Serra da Bocaina. Common name Alto button frog has been coined for it.
Cycloramphus izecksohni is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to southern Brazil and occurs in the Serra do Mar in the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, and São Paulo. Prior to its description in 1983, it was confused with Cycloramphus duseni. Common name Izecksohn's button frog has been coined for this species.
Pristimantis pycnodermis is a species of frog in the family Craugastoridae. It is endemic to the Ecuadorean Andes and occurs in the Cordillera de Matanga in the Azuay and Morona-Santiago Provinces. The specific name pycnodermis is Greek and means "thick skin", a characteristic of this species. Common name thickskin robber frog has been coined for it.
The smoky jungle frog is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical swamps, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, rivers, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, and aquaculture ponds.
Telmatobius vilamensis is a species of frog in the family Telmatobiidae. It is endemic to northern Chile and only known from its type locality, Río Vilama near San Pedro de Atacama. The specific name vilamensis refers to the type locality.
Thoropa is a genus of frogs in the family Cycloramphidae. They are endemic to eastern and southeastern Brazil. They are sometimes known as river frogs.
Phrynobatrachus taiensis is a species of frog in the family Phrynobatrachidae. It is endemic to Ivory Coast and only known from its type locality, Taï Forest in the Taï National Park. There are concerns about taxonomic validity of this species. Common name Tai river frog has been coined for it.
Phrynobatrachus uzungwensis is a species of frogs in the family Phrynobatrachidae. It is endemic to eastern Tanzania and is known from the Udzungwa, Uluguru, Nguu, and Nguru Mountains. Common names Ukinga puddle frog and Udzungwa puddle frog have been coined for this species.
Phrynobatrachus sandersoni is a species of frog in the family Phrynobatrachidae. It is found in southwestern Cameroon and in Equatorial Guinea, including the island of Bioko. It is named for Ivan T. Sanderson, a British naturalist and explorer, and later on, author and television commentator.
Amolops cremnobatus is a species of frogs in the family Ranidae. It is found in north-central Laos and Vietnam. Its range might extend into Thailand. The specific name cremnobatus is derived from Greek kremnobates, meaning "frequenter of steep places", and refers to the steep waterfall from which the type series were collected. Common name Lao sucker frog has been coined for it.
Odorrana absita is a species of frog in the family Ranidae. It is found in southern Laos and central Vietnam. It was originally described in genus Huia. Its type locality is Xe Sap National Biodiversity Conservation Area in southern Laos.
Huia modiglianii is a species of frog in the family Ranidae. It is endemic to Sumatra (Indonesia). It was originally only known from two locations near Lake Toba, but is now known to be more widespread. The specific name modiglianii honors Elio Modigliani, an Italian anthropologist and zoologist who collected the holotype in 1891. Common name Modigliani's huia frog has been coined for this species. Morphological evidence suggests that it can hybridize with Huia sumatrana, but this needs confirmation using genetic data.
Meristogenys amoropalamus is a species of frog in the family Ranidae. It is endemic to northern Borneo and occurs in northwestern Sabah and northeastern Sarawak (Malaysia) and in northeastern Kalimantan (Indonesia). Common names mountain Borneo frog and mountain torrent frog have been coined for it. Studies of its larvae revealed that the nominal species contained two cryptic forms, and in 2011, Shimada and colleagues described Meristogenys dyscritus as a separate species.
Odorrana supranarina is a species of frog in the family Ranidae. It is endemic to Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, and is known from the islands of Ishigaki and Iriomote, both in the Yaeyama Group. The specific name supranarina refers to the large size of this species —at the time of the species description, it was the largest member of the so-called Rana narina complex. Common name greater tip-nosed frog has been coined for it.
Taruga fastigo is a species of frogs in the family Rhacophoridae. It is endemic to Sri Lanka and only known from its type locality, Morningside Estate near Rakwana. Prior to its description in 2001, it was confused with Polypedates eques.
Ctenophryne barbatula is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae. It is endemic to Peru and only known from the Yanachaga–Chemillén National Park, its type locality in the Pasco Region. The specific name barbatula is the diminutive of the Latin barbatus, meaning "bearded". It refers to the beard-like spines under the lower jaw of males.
Theloderma nebulosum, the misty moss frog, is a species of frogs in the family Rhacophoridae. It is endemic to central Vietnam and currently only known from Ngọc Linh Nature Reserve in the Kon Tum Province. Only one female and a series of tadpoles collected in 2009–2010 are known. This species, together with Theloderma palliatum, was described by Australian and Vietnamese scientists in 2011.
Kalophrynus yongi is a species of frog in the family Microhylidae, also known as the Cameron Highland sticky frog. It is endemic to Peninsular Malaysia and is only known from its type locality near the top of Gunung Brinchang, in the Cameron Highlands, Pahang state. The specific name yongi honours Dr. Yong Hoi-Sen, a zoologist from the University of Malaya.