|Genus:|| Thoropa |
| Cystignathus missiessii |
Eydoux and Souleyet, 1842
7 species (see text)
Thoropa is a genus of frogs in the family Cycloramphidae.They are endemic to eastern and southeastern Brazil. They are sometimes known as river frogs.
Thoropa are associated with rocks and have cryptic coloration. Their size ranges from small to medium, 28–102 mm (1.1–4.0 in) in snout–vent length. They occur at elevations up to 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level; Thoropa miliaris and Thoropa taophora can even live on rocky marine shores, foraging in the intertidal zone. Male Thoropa are associated with wet rock faces, whereas the females seem to range more widely.
In species where reproduction is known, males are territorial—suitable wet rock faces are a scarce resource. Furthermore, mature male Thoropa feature characteristic clusters of dark spines on the inner portions of the hand. It appears that these are associated with male-male combat, probably in conjunction with territorial disputes. Scratch marks in males, but not in females, support this interpretation.
The eggs are laid on rocks with a thin layer of water. Tadpoles are semiterrestrial and have a depressed shape, long tail, and bulging eyes.
Male T. taophora frogs mate exclusively and repeatedly with two females per season in a polygynous system in which the semiterrestrial tadpoles from both females share the same freshwater seep.The females have a dominance hierarchy, and the males mate more with the dominant female.
The genus contains the following species:
The Eleutherodactylidae are a family of direct-developing frogs native to northern South America, the Caribbean, and southernmost North America. They are sometimes known under the common name rain frogs. Formerly the subfamily Eleutherodactylinae of the family Leptodactylidae, it was raised to the family status following a major revision of New World direct-developing frogs in 2008. As currently defined, the family has more than 200 species.
The Cycloramphidae are a family of frogs endemic to southeastern Brazil. This family has seen large changes in its composition. Genera that have at some point been included in the Cycloramphidae are at present placed in the Alsodidae, Hylodidae, Leptodactylidae, and Rhinodermatidae. Of these, the Alsodidae and/or Hylodidae have also been considered as subfamilies of Cycloramphidae ; the Cycloramphidae, as recognized at present, would be similar to subfamily Cycloramphinae under such system.
Physalaemus is a large genus of leptodactylid frogs. These frogs, sometimes known as dwarf frogs or foam frogs, are found in South America. It is very similar to Leptodactylus, a close relative, and indeed the recently rescribed Leptodactylus lauramiriamae is in some aspects intermediate between them.
Leptodactylus is a genus of leptodactylid frogs. It includes the species commonly called ditch frogs or white-lipped frogs. It is very similar to Physalaemus, a close relative, and indeed the recently described Leptodactylus lauramiriamae is in some aspects intermediate between them. The name means ‘slender finger’, from leptos (‘thin, delicate’) and the Greek daktylos.
Cycloramphus is a genus of frogs in the family Cycloramphidae. The genus is endemic to the southeastern Brazil. They are sometimes known as the button frogs.
Cycloramphus cedrensis is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to southern Brazil and is only known from its type locality near Rio dos Cedros, Santa Catarina. Common name Cedros button frog has been coined for it.
Cycloramphus dubius is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Common name São Paulo button frog has been coined for it.
Cycloramphus izecksohni is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to southern Brazil and occurs in the Serra do Mar in the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, and São Paulo. Prior to its description in 1983, it was confused with Cycloramphus duseni. Common name Izecksohn's button frog has been coined for this species.
Cycloramphus stejnegeri is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to the Serra dos Órgãos in southeastern Brazil. The specific name stejnegeri honors Leonhard Stejneger, a Norwegian–American herpetologist and ornithologist. Common name Stejneger's button frog has been coined for this species.
Hylodes is a genus of frogs in the family Hylodidae. It might be paraphyletic with respect to Megaelosia. The genus is endemic to southeastern Brazil. They are also known as the tree toads, or more ambiguously, as torrent frogs. They are diurnal and usually inhabit shallow mountain streams.
Leptodactylus labyrinthicus is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. Its common names are labyrinth frog, pepper frog, South American pepper frog, and pepper foam frog. This frog is found in central and southeastern Brazil, northeast Argentina, and eastern Paraguay. Earlier reports from Bolivia refer to Leptodactylus vastus, or possibly an unnamed species.
Leptodactylus latrans is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. It is native to much of South America east of the Andes, and Trinidad and Tobago. It has many common names, including rana criolla, sapo-rana llanero, butter frog, and lesser foam frog.
Leptodactylus podicipinus is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. It is found in northern Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Brazil.
Megaelosia is a genus of frogs in the family Hylodidae. The genus is endemic to the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira in southeastern Brazil. These frogs are sometimes known as the big-tooth frogs.
Thoropa saxatilis is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to southern Brazil and occurs in the Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states, corresponding to the southernmost extent of the Atlantic Forest biome. The specific name saxatilis refers to its association with rocks. Common name Brazilian river frog has been coined for it.
Arthroleptides is a small genus of frogs in the family Petropedetidae. Their common name is rocky river frogs. They are found in the mountains of East Africa. They have been considered to belong to Petropedetes, which after exclusion of Arthroleptides is restricted to Central Africa.
Petropedetes cameronensis, sometimes known as the Cameroon water frog, is a species of frog in the family Petropedetidae. It is found in southeastern Nigeria, southwestern Cameroon, and on the island of Bioko. It is the type species of the genus Petropedetes.
The Petropedetidae are a family of frogs containing three genera and 12 species. They are found in sub-Saharan tropical Africa and are sometimes known under common name African torrent frogs.
The Alsodidae are a small family of frogs from South America between Patagonia and southern Brazil. It contains 30 species in three genera. This family, along with several other families, used to be included in the family Leptodactylidae. It was then a subfamily in the family Cycloramphidae, before being recognized as a family first in 2011.
Beddomixalus is a monotypic genus of frogs in the family Rhacophoridae. The only described species, Beddomixalus bijui, is endemic to the Western Ghats, India. Its name is derived from a combination of the cognomen of Richard Henry Beddome, in honour of his work on the amphibian diversity of the Western Ghats, as well as Ixalus, which is often used as a suffix for names of rhacophorid genera.