Thoropa

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Thoropa
Thoropa miliaris.jpg
Thoropa miliaris
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Cycloramphidae
Genus: Thoropa
Cope, 1865
Type species
Cystignathus missiessii
Eydoux and Souleyet, 1842
Species

6 species (see text)

Thoropa is a genus of frogs in the family Cycloramphidae. [1] [2] They are endemic to eastern and southeastern Brazil. They are sometimes known as river frogs. [1]

Contents

Description, ecology, and behavior

Thoropa are associated with rocks and have cryptic coloration. Their size ranges from small to medium, 28–102 mm (1.1–4.0 in) in snout–vent length. [3] They occur at elevations up to 1,500 m (4,900 ft) above sea level; [3] Thoropa miliaris and Thoropa taophora can even live on rocky marine shores, foraging in the intertidal zone. [4] [5] Male Thoropa are associated with wet rock faces, whereas the females seem to range more widely. [6]

In species where reproduction is known, males are territorial—suitable wet rock faces are a scarce resource. Furthermore, mature male Thoropa feature characteristic clusters of dark spines on the inner portions of the hand. It appears that these are associated with male-male combat, probably in conjunction with territorial disputes. Scratch marks in males, but not in females, support this interpretation. [6]

The eggs are laid on rocks with a thin layer of water. Tadpoles are semiterrestrial and have a depressed shape, long tail, and bulging eyes. [3]

Male T. taophora frogs mate exclusively and repeatedly with two females per season in a polygynous system in which the semiterrestrial tadpoles from both females share the same freshwater seep. [7] The females have a dominance hierarchy, and the males mate more with the dominant female. [7]

Species

The genus contains the following species: [1] [2]

Related Research Articles

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<i>Cycloramphus</i>

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Cycloramphus cedrensis is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to southern Brazil and is only known from its type locality near Rio dos Cedros, Santa Catarina. Common name Cedros button frog has been coined for it.

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Cycloramphus izecksohni is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to southern Brazil and occurs in the Serra do Mar in the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, and São Paulo. Prior to its description in 1983, it was confused with Cycloramphus duseni. Common name Izecksohn's button frog has been coined for this species.

Cycloramphus stejnegeri is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to the Serra dos Órgãos in southeastern Brazil. The specific name stejnegeri honors Leonhard Stejneger, a Norwegian–American herpetologist and ornithologist. Common name Stejneger's button frog has been coined for this species.

<i>Hylodes</i>

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<i>Leptodactylus chaquensis</i>

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<i>Leptodactylus labyrinthicus</i>

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<i>Leptodactylus notoaktites</i>

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<i>Leptodactylus petersii</i>

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<i>Leptodactylus spixi</i>

Leptodactylus spixi is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. It is endemic to eastern Brazil and occurs in the Atlantic forests of the Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Rio de Janeiro states. The specific name spixi honors Johann Baptist von Spix, a German naturalist who worked in Brazil. Prior to its description, this species had been referred to as Leptodactylus mystaceus(Spix, 1824). Common name Spix's white-lipped frog has been coined for this species.

<i>Leptodactylus syphax</i>

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Thoropa saxatilis is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to southern Brazil and occurs in the Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states, corresponding to the southernmost extent of the Atlantic Forest biome. The specific name saxatilis refers to its association with rocks. Common name Brazilian river frog has been coined for it.

<i>Leptodactylus discodactylus</i>

Leptodactylus discodactylus is a species of frog in the family Leptodactylidae. It is found in the Amazonian Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia.

Cycloramphus faustoi is a species of frog in the family Cycloramphidae. It is endemic to Ilha dos Alcatrazes, a 1.5 km2 (0.58 sq mi) island about 35 km off the coast of São Paulo state, Brazil.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Frost, Darrel R. (2018). "Thoropa Cope, 1865". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  2. 1 2 "Cycloramphidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  3. 1 2 3 Nunes-de-Almeida, Carlos Henrique Luz (2015). Phylogenetic reconstruction based on internal and external morphology of the genus Thoropa Cope, 1865 (Anura, Cycloramphidae) (Master thesis). Universidade Estadual de Campinas.
  4. Abe, A. S. & Bicudo, J. E. P. W. (1991). "Adaptations to salinity and osmoregulation in the frog Thoropa miliaris (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)". Zoologischer Anzeiger. 227: 313–318. hdl:11449/117830.Cite uses deprecated parameter |last-author-amp= (help)
  5. Brasileiro, Cinthia A.; Martins, Marcio & Sazima, Ivan (2010). "Feeding ecology of Thoropa taophora (Anura: Cycloramphidae) on a rocky seashore in southeastern Brazil" (PDF). South American Journal of Herpetology. 5 (3): 181–188. doi:10.2994/057.005.0303. S2CID   55176548.Cite uses deprecated parameter |last-author-amp= (help)
  6. 1 2 Cocroft, R. B. & Heyer, W. R. (1988). "Notes on the frog genus Thoropa (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) with a description of a new species (Thoropa saxatilis)". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 101: 209–220.Cite uses deprecated parameter |last-author-amp= (help)
  7. 1 2 de Sá, F.P.; Consolmagno, R.C.; Muralidhar, P.; Brasileiro, C.A.; Zamudio, K.R.; Haddad, C.F.B. (2020). "Unexpected reproductive fidelity in a polygynous frog". Science Advances. 6 (33): eaay1539. Bibcode:2020SciA....6.1539D. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aay1539 . PMC   7423391 . PMID   32851153.