|Thorpe rail accident|
|Date||10 September 1874 |
|Location||Thorpe St Andrew, Norfolk|
|Cause||Single-line telegraphic working error|
|List of UK rail accidents by year|
The Thorpe rail accident occurred on 10 September 1874, when two trains were involved in a head-on collision at Thorpe St Andrew in the English county of Norfolk.
Thorpe St Andrew is a small town and suburb of Norwich in the English county of Norfolk. It is situated about two miles east of the city centre, outside the city boundary in the district of Broadland. It constitutes a civil parish covering an area of 705 ha which had a population of 13,762 according to the 2001 census, increasing to 14,556 at the 2011 Census. It is also the administrative headquarters of the Broadland district council.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles (5,370 km2) and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a largely rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich (213,000), Great Yarmouth (63,000), King's Lynn (46,000) and Thetford (25,000).
The accident occurred on what was then a single-track rail line between Norwich railway station and Brundall. The two trains involved were the 20:40 mail from Yarmouth and the 17:00 express from London to Yarmouth. The latter had left Norwich Thorpe at 21:30 and would normally have had a clear run on its way to Yarmouth, since the mail train should have been held on a loop line at Brundall to allow the express to pass. On this occasion trains were running late.
Norwich railway station is the eastern terminus of the Great Eastern Main Line in the East of England, serving the city of Norwich, Norfolk. It is 114 miles 77 chains (185.0 km) down the main line from London Liverpool Street, the western terminus.
Brundall railway station is on the Wherry Lines in the east of England, serving the village of Brundall, Norfolk. It is 5 miles 60 chains (9.3 km) down the line from Norwich on the route to Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft. Its three-letter station code is BDA.
Great Yarmouth railway station is one of two eastern termini of the Wherry Lines in the East of England, serving the seaside town of Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. The other terminus at the eastern end of the lines is Lowestoft, and the western terminus to which all trains run is Norwich.
In such circumstances, when the timetable was upset, drivers had to have written authority to proceed further. Due to a series of errors (primarily, the telegraph clerk sending the authorization message before it had been signed by the appropriate official), both drivers received their authority, and anxious to make up for lost time, set off at speed along the single track. The accident, when it occurred around 21:45, resulted in both locomotives rearing into the air, and carriages reduced to wreckage.
Both drivers and firemen were killed, as were 17 passengers with 4 later dying from their injuries.73 passengers and two railway guards were seriously injured.
Prompted by the accident, engineer Edward Tyer developed the tablet system in which a token is given to the train driver; this must be slotted into an electric interlocking device at the other end of the single-track section before another train is allowed to pass.
Tyer's Electric Train Tablet system is a form of railway signalling for single line railways used in several countries; it was first devised in Great Britain by engineer Edward Tyer after the Thorpe rail accident of 1874, which left 21 people dead. It was used in New Zealand for close to 100 years until June 1994. The system used a hard disk called a tablet, a form of token.
The Canoe River train crash in Canada in 1950 also involved two trains, controlled by telegraphed orders, authorized to enter the same single-track section in opposite directions.
The Canoe River train crash occurred on November 21, 1950, near Valemount in eastern British Columbia, Canada, when a westbound troop train and the eastbound Canadian National Railway (CNR) Continental Limited collided head-on. The collision killed 21 people: 17 Canadian soldiers en route to the Korean War and the two-man locomotive crew of each train.
The Bure Valley Railway is a 15 in minimum gauge heritage railway in Norfolk, within The Broads National Park. The railway runs from Wroxham to Aylsham and is Norfolk's longest railway of less than standard gauge. It uses both steam and diesel locomotives. There are intermediate halts at Brampton, Buxton and Coltishall. There are 17 bridges, including a 105 ft (32 m) long girder bridge over the River Bure in Buxton with Lammas as well as Aylsham Bypass Tunnel under the A140 at Aylsham.
The Violet Town rail accident, also known as the Southern Aurora disaster, was a railway accident that occurred on 7 February 1969 following the incapacitation of the driver of one of the trains, near the McDiarmids Road crossing, approximately 1 km south of Violet Town, Victoria, Australia. The crash resulted in nine deaths and 117 injuries.
The Great Heck rail crash, also called the Selby rail crash, was a high-speed train accident that occurred at Great Heck near Selby, North Yorkshire, England on the morning of 28 February 2001. An InterCity 225 passenger train operated by GNER travelling from Newcastle to London collided with a Land Rover Defender which had crashed down a motorway embankment onto the railway line; it was subsequently derailed into the path of an oncoming freight train at an estimated closing speed of 142 mph (229 km/h). Ten people died including the drivers of both trains, and 82 were seriously injured. It remains the worst rail disaster of the 21st century in the United Kingdom.
The town of Morpeth in Northumberland, England has what is reputed to be the most severe curve of any main railway line in Britain. The track turns approximately 98° from a northwesterly to an easterly direction immediately west of Morpeth Station on an otherwise fast section of the East Coast Main Line railway. This was a major factor in three serious derailments between 1969 and 1994. The curve has a permanent speed restriction of 50 miles per hour (80 km/h). This led to the introduction of triangular speed warning boards with a yellow outline, sometimes referred to as Morpeth Boards, after this location, as well as these being accommodated with an AWS horn in the train driver's cabin to alert them of the warning.
The Nuneaton rail crash occurred on 6 June 1975, on the West Coast Main Line just south of Nuneaton railway station in Warwickshire, England.
The Wherry Lines are railway branch lines in the East of England, linking Norwich to Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft. There are 14 stations including the three termini. They form part of Network Rail Strategic Route 7, SRS 07.11 and are classified as a rural line.
A head-on collision is a traffic collision where the front ends of two vehicles such as cars, trains, ships or planes hit each other when traveling in opposite directions, as opposed to a side collision or rear-end collision.
The Breckland line is a secondary railway line in the east of England that links Cambridge in the west to Norwich in the east. The line runs through three counties: Cambridgeshire, Suffolk and Norfolk. It takes its name from the Breckland region of Norfolk, and passes through Thetford Forest.
Buckenham railway station is on the Wherry Lines in the east of England, serving the village of Buckenham, Norfolk. It is 7 miles 62 chains (12.5 km) down the line from Norwich on the route to Lowestoft and is situated between Brundall and Cantley. Its three-letter station code is BUC.
Brundall Gardens railway station is on the Wherry Lines in the east of England, serving the western side of the village of Brundall, Norfolk. It is 4 miles 66 chains (7.8 km) down the line from Norwich on the route to Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft. Its three-letter station code is BGA.
The Dagenham East rail crash was a railway accident on the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway line of British Railways which occurred at Dagenham, United Kingdom.
The Milton rail crash was a crash in 1955, at Milton, Berkshire. A passenger train took a crossover too fast and derailed. Eleven were killed, and 157 were injured.
Great Western Railway accidents include several notable incidents that influenced rail safety in the United Kingdom.
The Knowle and Dorridge rail crash was a fatal rail crash that occurred at Dorridge railway station in the West Midlands, England, on 15 August 1963. Three people died in the crash after a signalman's error routed a small freight train into the path of an express passenger train which slowed but could not stop before colliding with it.
The 1944 Ilford rail crash occurred on 16 January 1944 when, in darkness and dense fog, an express passenger train passed a signal at danger and collided with another passenger train that was stopped at Ilford railway station in Essex, England.
This is a list of significant Railway Accidents in Queensland, Australia.
BBC Radio Norfolk is the BBC Local Radio service for the English county of Norfolk, broadcasting since 11 September 1980. It broadcasts from the studios of BBC East in The Forum, Norwich on 95.1 FM, 104.4 FM, 95.6 FM, 855 kHz AM/MW, 873 kHz AM/MW, DAB and through the internet using BBC iPlayer.