3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||370.48 g/mol|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Thromboxane B2 is an inactive metabolite/product of thromboxane A2. It is almost completely cleared in the urine.
It itself is not involved in platelet activation and aggregation in case of a wound, but its precursor, thromboxane A2, is. Thromboxane A2 synthesis is the target of the drug aspirin, which inhibits the COX-1 enzyme (the source of thromboxane A2 in platelets).
2-(3,4-Di-hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (DHPE) is a phenolic component of extra-virgin olive oil. An olive oil fraction containing DHPE can inhibit platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 formation in vitro.
An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant), also known as a platelet agglutination inhibitor or platelet aggregation inhibitor, is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation. They are effective in the arterial circulation, where anticoagulants have little effect.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are a component of blood whose function is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot. Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, which then enter the circulation. Circulating unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid (lens-shaped) structures, 2–3 µm in greatest diameter. Activated platelets have cell membrane projections covering their surface. Platelets are found only in mammals, whereas in other vertebrates thrombocytes circulate as intact mononuclear cells.
Prostacyclin (also called prostaglandin I2 or PGI2) is a prostaglandin member of the eicosanoid family of lipid molecules. It inhibits platelet activation and is also an effective vasodilator.
Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids. The two major thromboxanes are thromboxane A2 and thromboxane B2. The distinguishing feature of thromboxanes is a 6-membered ether-containing ring.
Vasospasm refers to a condition in which an arterial spasm leads to vasoconstriction. This can lead to tissue ischemia and tissue death (necrosis). Cerebral vasospasm may arise in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Symptomatic vasospasm or delayed cerebral ischemia is a major contributor to post-operative stroke and death especially after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vasospasm typically appears 4 to 10 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Thromboxane A synthase 1 , also known as TBXAS1, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the TBXAS1 gene.
The thromboxane receptor (TP) also known as the prostanoid TP receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBXA2R gene, The thromboxane receptor is one among the five classes of prostanoid receptors and was the first eicosanoid receptor cloned. The TP receptor derives its name from its preferred endogenous ligand thromboxane A2.
Sulfinpyrazone is a uricosuric medication used to treat gout. It also sometimes is used to reduce platelet aggregation by inhibiting degranulation of platelets which reduces the release of ADP and thromboxane.
A prostaglandin antagonist is a hormone antagonist acting upon one or more prostaglandins, a subclass of eicosanoid compounds which function as signaling molecules in numerous types of animal tissues.
Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) is a type of thromboxane that is produced by activated platelets during hemostasis and has prothrombotic properties: it stimulates activation of new platelets as well as increases platelet aggregation. This is achieved by activating the thromboxane receptor, which results in platelet-shape change, inside-out activation of integrins, and degranulation. Circulating fibrinogen binds these receptors on adjacent platelets, further strengthening the clot. Thromboxane A2 is also a known vasoconstrictor and is especially important during tissue injury and inflammation. It is also regarded as responsible for Prinzmetal's angina.
Triflusal is a platelet aggregation inhibitor that was discovered and developed in the Uriach Laboratories, and commercialised in Spain since 1981. Currently, it is available in 25 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa and America. It is a drug of the salicylate family but it is not a derivative of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), but rather a trifluoromethylated analogue. Trade names include Disgren, Grendis, Aflen and Triflux.
Picotamide is a platelet aggregation inhibitor. It works as a thromboxane synthase inhibitor and a thromboxane receptor inhibitor, the latter by modifying cellular responses to activation of the thromboxane receptor. Picotamide is licensed in Italy for the treatment of clinical arterial thrombosis and peripheral artery disease.
Indobufen is a platelet aggregation inhibitor. It acts as a reversible cyclooxygenase inhibitor.
Etamsylate is a antihemorrhagic agent which is believed to work by increasing resistance in the endothelium of capillaries and promoting platelet adhesion. It also inhibits biosynthesis and action of those prostaglandins which cause platelet disaggregation, vasodilation and increased capillary permeability.
Aspirin causes several different effects in the body, mainly the reduction of inflammation, analgesia, the prevention of clotting, and the reduction of fever. Much of this is believed to be due to decreased production of prostaglandins and TXA2. Aspirin's ability to suppress the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes is due to its irreversible inactivation of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. Cyclooxygenase is required for prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis. Aspirin acts as an acetylating agent where an acetyl group is covalently attached to a serine residue in the active site of the COX enzyme. This makes aspirin different from other NSAIDs, which are reversible inhibitors. However, other effects of aspirin, such as uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, and the modulation of signaling through NF-κB, are also being investigated. Some of its effects are like those of salicylic acid, which is not an acetylating agent.
Seratrodast (development name, AA-2414; marketed originally as Bronica) is a thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor (TP receptor) antagonist used primarily in the treatment of asthma. It was the first TP receptor antagonist that was developed as an anti-asthmatic drug and received marketing approval in Japan in 1997. As of 2017 seratrodast was marketed as Bronica in Japan, and as Changnuo, Mai Xu Jia, Quan Kang Nuo in China.
Terbogrel (INN) is an experimental drug that has been studied for its potential to prevent the vasoconstricting and platelet-aggregating action of thromboxanes. Terbogrel is an orally available thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist and a thromboxane A synthase inhibitor. The drug was developed by Boehringer Ingelheim.
Thromboregulation is the series of mechanisms in how a primary clot is regulated. These mechanisms include, competitive inhibition or negative feedback. It includes primary hemostasis, which is the process of how blood platelets adhere to the endothelium of an injured blood vessel. Platelet aggregation is fundamental to repair vascular damage and the initiation of the blood thrombus formation. The elimination of clots is also part of thromboregulation. Failure in platelet clot regulation may cause hemorrhage or thrombosis. Substances called thromboregulators control every part of these events.
Multiplate multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) is a test of platelet function in whole blood. The test can be used to diagnose platelet disorders, monitor antiplatelet therapy, and is also investigated as a potential predictor of transfusion requirements and bleeding risk in cardiac surgery.
Dihydroxy-E,Z,E-PUFA are metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that possess two hydroxyl residues and three in series conjugated double bonds having the E,Z,E cis-trans configuration. These recently classified metabolites are distinguished from the many other dihydroxy-PUFA with three conjugated double bonds that do not have this critical E,Z,E configuration: they inhibit the function of platelets and therefore may be involved in controlling and prove useful for inhibiting human diseases which involve the pathological activation of these blood-borne elements.