|AHFS/Drugs.com||International Drug Names|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
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|Molar mass||238.084 g·mol−1|
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Tilbroquinol is an antiprotozoal agent effective against amoebiasis.It has also been used against Vibrio cholerae .
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe. The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet. Dehydration can cause the skin to turn bluish. Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure.
Vibrio cholerae is a species of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe and comma-shaped bacteria. The bacteria naturally live in brackish or saltwater where they attach themselves easily to the chitin-containing shells of crabs, shrimps, and other shellfish. Some strains of V. cholerae are pathogenic to humans and cause a deadly disease cholera, which can be derived from the consumption of undercooked or raw marine life species.
El Tor is a particular strain of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. Also known as V. cholerae biotype eltor, it has been the dominant strain in the seventh global cholera pandemic. It is distinguished from the classic strain at a genetic level, although both are in the serogroup O1 and both contain Inaba, Ogawa and Hikojima serotypes. It is also distinguished from classic biotypes by the production of hemolysins.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod (comma) shape, several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood. Being highly salt tolerant and unable to survive in fresh water, Vibrio spp. are commonly found in various salt water environments. Vibrio spp. are facultative anaerobes that test positive for oxidase and do not form spores. All members of the genus are motile. They are able to have polar or lateral flagellum with or without sheaths. Vibrio species typically possess two chromosomes, which is unusual for bacteria. Each chromosome has a distinct and independent origin of replication, and are conserved together over time in the genus. Recent phylogenies have been constructed based on a suite of genes.
A biovar is a variant prokaryotic strain that differs physiologically or biochemically from other strains in a particular species. Morphovars are those strains that differ morphologically. Serovars are those strains that have antigenic properties that differ from other strains.
The Vibrionaceae are a family of Pseudomonadota given their own order, Vibrionales. Inhabitants of fresh or salt water, several species are pathogenic, including the type species Vibrio cholerae, which is the agent responsible for cholera. Most bioluminescent bacteria belong to this family, and are typically found as symbionts of deep-sea animals.
G. Balakrish Nair is an Indian microbiologist. At present, he is the Ag. Regional Adviser, Research Policy and Cooperation Unit, Department of Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization. Before joining WHO, he was the executive director of Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI), Faridabad, NCR, India. Before joining THSTI, he was working in NICED as the director. He has also served as the director of Laboratory Sciences Division at the International Center for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research,, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a curved, rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacterium found in the sea and in estuaries which, when ingested, may cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. V. parahaemolyticus is oxidase positive, facultatively aerobic, and does not form spores. Like other members of the genus Vibrio, this species is motile, with a single, polar flagellum.
Cholera toxin is an AB5 multimeric protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection. It is a member of the heat-labile enterotoxin family.
Vibriocins are a group of bacteriocins produced by, and active against, gram-negative bacteria in the genus Vibrio. They were first discovered in 1962, considerably after the original bacteriocins, the colicins, which were discovered in 1925.
Sambhunath De ; was an Indian medical scientist and researcher, who discovered the cholera toxin, the animal model of cholera, and successfully demonstrated the method of transmission of cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae.
The Pseudomonas exotoxin is an exotoxin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vibrio cholerae produces a similar protein called the Cholix toxin.
Voges–Proskauer or VP is a test used to detect acetoin in a bacterial broth culture. The test is performed by adding alpha-naphthol and potassium hydroxide to the Voges-Proskauer broth, which is a glucose-phosphate broth that has been inoculated with bacteria. A cherry red color indicates a positive result, while a yellow-brown color indicates a negative result.
Thiosulfate–citrate–bile salts–sucrose agar, or TCBS agar, is a type of selective agar culture plate that is used in microbiology laboratories to isolate Vibrio species. TCBS agar is highly selective for the isolation of V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus as well as other Vibrio species. Apart from TCBS agar, other rapid testing dipsticks like immunochromatographic dipstick is also used in endemic areas such as Asia, Africa and Latin America. Though, TCBS agar study is required for confirmation. This becomes immensely important in cases of gastroenteritis caused by campylobacter species, whose symptoms mimic that of cholera. Since no yellow bacterial growth is observed in case of campylobacter species on TCBS agar, chances of incorrect diagnosis can be rectified. TCBS agar contains high concentrations of sodium thiosulfate and sodium citrate to inhibit the growth of Enterobacteriaceae. Inhibition of gram-positive bacteria is achieved by the incorporation of ox gall, which is a naturally occurring substance containing a mixture of bile salts and sodium cholate, a pure bile salt. Sodium thiosulfate also serves as a sulfur source and its presence, in combination with ferric citrate, allows for the easy detection of hydrogen sulfide production. Saccharose (sucrose) is included as a fermentable carbohydrate for metabolism by Vibrio species. The alkaline pH of the medium enhances the recovery of V. cholerae and inhibits the growth of others. Thymol blue and bromothymol blue are included as indicators of pH changes.
Shah Mohammad Faruque is a professor in the School of Environment and Life Sciences at Independent University Bangladesh (IUB). He is widely recognized for his research in Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium which causes the epidemic diarrhoeal disease Cholera. Among other positions, previously he was a professor at BRAC University; director of the Genomics Centre at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), and formerly director of the Centre for Food and Water Borne Diseases in ICDDR,B. His areas of research interest include microbial genomics, bacteriophages, environmental microbiology, ecology, and evolution of bacterial pathogens, particularly those associated with waterborne and foodborne diseases. Faruque is primarily known for his work in genomics, epidemiology and ecology of the cholera pathogen, and its bacteriophages.
The CTXφ bacteriophage is a filamentous bacteriophage. It is a positive-strand DNA virus with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA).
In molecular biology, Vibrio cholerae ToxT activated RNAs are small RNAs which are produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. They are regulated by the transcriptional activator ToxT and may play a role in V. cholerae virulence. Two ToxT activated RNAs have been described: TarA and TarB.
VqmR small RNA was discovered in Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium which can cause cholera, using differential RNA sequencing (sRNA-seq) under conditions of low and high cell density which were being used to study quorum sensing (QS). QS controls virulence and biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae; it has been shown previously that it is directed by the Qrr sRNAs. VqmR has been shown to repress the expression of multiple mRNAs including the rtx toxin genes and the vpsT, which is required for biofilm formation. In fact, VqmR which is highly conserved in vibrionaceae, was shown to strongly inhibit biofilm formation by repressing the vpsT gene; it could be the link between biofilm formation and QS.
John Mekalanos is a microbiologist who is primarily known for leading one of the first teams that reported the discovery of the type VI secretion system as well as his work on the pathogenicity of the bacterial species Vibrio cholerae, its toxin, and its secretion systems. Since 1998, he has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Melanie Blokesch is a German microbiologist. Her research focuses on Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium causing cholera. She is a professor of life sciences at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), where she heads the Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology.