Tomares ballus, the Provence hairstreak or cardenillo, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae. It is found on the Iberian Peninsula, northern Africa and along the Mediterranean coast of France.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers, and the most recent analyses suggest it also contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago.
Lycaenidae is the second-largest family of butterflies, with over 6,000 species worldwide, whose members are also called gossamer-winged butterflies. They constitute about 30% of the known butterfly species.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal and Spain, comprising most of their territory, as well as Andorra, small areas of France, and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of approximately 596,740 square kilometres (230,400 sq mi)), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, and by population, after the Balkan Peninsula.
T. ballus F. (75 d, e). male above dark brown, with traces of small red spots in the anal area of the hindwing. In the (larger) female the forewing red-yellow except the costal and distal margins, there being a similarly coloured ovate band-like spot before the distal margin of the hindmargin. The underside of both sexes recalls that of Chrysophanus phlaeas , but the basal area of the hindwing is dusted with verdigris.French Riviera, Spain, North Africa. — The egg green, somewhat flat, with a network of polygonals, laid singly on the upperside of leaves of Boujeania hispida. Larva rather thick, not so flat as in many other Lycaenids, the segments swollen, separated from each other by deep incisions; greenish yellow, with bluish dorsal stripe and a red-brown lateral one, there being thin oblique streaks between them; until the end of May in the pods of the food-plant. Pupa ovate, rounded everywhere, with shallow minute puncturation; as far as known the larva pupates free on the ground. The butterflies from February till April in places where the food-plant grows, often exceedingly plentiful. The specimen, when covered with the net, often drops to the ground and conceals itself in the grass. The wingspan is 28–30 mm. The butterfly flies from January to April.
Lycaena phlaeas, the small copper, American copper, or common copper, is a butterfly of the Lycaenids or gossamer-winged butterfly family. According to Guppy and Shepard (2001), its specific name phlaeas is said to be derived either from the Greek phlego, "to burn up" or from the Latin floreo, "to flourish".
The wingspan of a bird or an airplane is the distance from one wingtip to the other wingtip. For example, the Boeing 777-200 has a wingspan of 60.93 metres, and a wandering albatross caught in 1965 had a wingspan of 3.63 metres, the official record for a living bird. The term wingspan, more technically extent, is also used for other winged animals such as pterosaurs, bats, insects, etc., and other aircraft such as ornithopters. In humans, the term wingspan also refers to the arm span, which is distance between the length from one end of an individual's arms to the other when raised parallel to the ground at shoulder height at a 90º angle. Former professional basketball player Manute Bol stands at 7 ft 7 in (2.31 m) and owns one of the largest wingspans at 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m).
The larvae feed on Astragalus lusitanicus , Medicago , Dorycnium , Lotus and Anthyllis .
Medicago is a genus of flowering plants, commonly known as medick or burclover, in the legume family (Fabaceae). It contains at least 87 species and is distributed mainly around the Mediterranean basin. The best-known member of the genus is alfalfa, an important forage crop, and the genus name is based on the Latin name for that plant, medica, from Greek: μηδική (πόα) Median (grass). Most members of the genus are low, creeping herbs, resembling clover, but with burs. However, alfalfa grows to a height of 1 meter, and tree medick is a shrub. Members of the genus are known to produce bioactive compounds such as medicarpin and medicagenic acid. Chromosome numbers in Medicago range from 2n = 14 to 48.
Dorycnium is a formerly recognized genus in the pea family, found in the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands. It is now considered a synonym of Lotus.
Lotus, a latinization of Greek lōtos (λωτός), is a genus that includes most bird's-foot trefoils and deervetches and contains many dozens of species distributed worldwide. Depending on the taxonomic authority, roughly between 70 and 150 are accepted. Lotus is a genus of legumes and its members are adapted to a wide range of habitats, from coastal environments to high altitudes.
The map is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae.
The Raetzer's ringlet is a species of butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is found in Italy and Switzerland. Its natural habitat is temperate grassland. It is one of the rarest European butterflies, having not more than six or seven populations.
Erebia epistygne, the spring ringlet, is a species of butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is found in France and Spain. Its natural habitat is temperate grassland.
Parnassius tenedius, the tenedius Apollo, is an east Palearctic member of the snow Apollo genus (Parnassius) of the swallowtail family (Papilionidae). Populations range from Siberia and the Far East of Russia to the western Chukchi Peninsula, Mongolia and north China. The larva feeds on Corydalis species. In the northern part of its range it is a low altitude butterfly; further south it is montane.
Lasiommata maera, the large wall brown, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae.
The Lapland ringlet is a member of the subfamily Satyrinae of the family Nymphalidae. It is restricted to sunny patches in very damp spruce and pine forests and forested unmanaged peatlands. The larva feeds on various grasses and related plants and winters twice. A dry period in the habitat will result in the decline of the species.
Erebia pharte, the blind ringlet, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is an Alpine butterfly.
The yellow-spotted ringlet is a member of the subfamily Satyrinae of the family Nymphalidae. It is associated with (sub)alpine meadows at 900-2,500 m above sea level. It is found in the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Cantabrian Mountains, the Massif Central, the Vosges Mountains, the Carpathian Mountains and the mountains of Herzegovina.
The yellow-banded ringlet is a member of the subfamily Satyrinae of the family Nymphalidae. It is a high mountain butterfly found in a small area of the Alps in Switzerland and Italy.
The black ringlet is a member of the subfamily Satyrinae of the family Nymphalidae. It is a high-altitude butterfly found in Albania, former Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Romania.
Coenonympha arcania, the pearly heath, is a butterfly species belonging to the family Nymphalidae. It can be found in Central Europe. It resembles Coenonympha hero. Seitz describes it thus C. arcania L.. Forewing fiery reddish yellow with black distal margin, hindwing dark brown.Easily recognised by the underside of the hindwing, whose marginal portion is occupied by a broad white band, which in the nymotypical form interrupts the row of ocelli below the apical eye, the latter therefore appearing to be placed on the inside of the white band. All Europe except great Britain, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean sea and from Spain and France to the Black sea and Armenia. — Specimens with a very broadly black margin to the forewing and a narrowed and slightly dentate band on the underside of the hindwing, which probably occur among nymotypical specimens everywhere, but especially in the South, are considered as ab. insubrica Frey. — Larva green with dark dorsal stripe bordered with a yellowish tint, light subdorsal stripe and pale yellow lateral stripe; head blue-green, mouth and anal fork red. Until May on grasses. Pupa brown, with whitish wing-cases edged with red. Butterflies very conunon in June and July and often flying together in large numbers.At the edge of woods full of undergrowth, but also in the open country and on hills. They affect flying round bushes and settle on the tip of low twigs, but sometimes also fly up into the higher branches of trees. The females are much less numerous than the males and appear later.
Polygonia egea, the southern comma, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found in southern Europe.
Eumedonia eumedon, the geranium argus, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae. It is found in the Palearctic ecozone. This butterfly has been included in the genera Plebejus, Plebeius, Polyommatus and Aricia, but recent molecular studies have demonstrated that Eumedonia is a valid genus, different from the previous genera mentioned.
Chazara briseis, the hermit, is a butterfly species belonging to the family Nymphalidae. It can be found in North Africa, southern Europe, Asia Minor, the Caucasus, Kazakhstan, Central Asia through Afghanistan, and north-western China and Tuva.It is found on steppe and in other dry grassy places between 500 - 2,500 mtrs
Erebia melampus, the lesser mountain ringlet, is a member of the subfamily Satyrinae of the family Nymphalidae.
Iolana iolas, the iolas blue, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae. It is found in northern Africa, southern Spain, southern France, southern Europe, Asia Minor and Iran. The wingspan of the male is 18–21 mm. The flight period is May to June in rocky places at around 2,000 m. The larva feeds on Colutea arborescens.
Arethusana is a butterfly genus from the subfamily Satyrinae of the brush-footed butterfly family (Nymphalidae). It is composed of only one species, Arethusana arethusa, the false grayling
Boeberia is a genus of satyrine butterflies containing a single species Boeberia parmenio found in the Altai mountains South Siberia, Mongolia, Yakutia, Amur and North east China.
Tomares callimachus, the Caucasian vernal copper, is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae. It is found in Anatolia, Iraq, Iran, the Caucasus, and Transcaucasia.
Tomares nogelii is a small butterfly found in the Palearctic that belongs to the blues family.
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