|UN Security Council |
|Date||15 September 1999|
|Subject||The situation in Timor|
|Security Council composition|
United Nations Security Council resolution 1264, adopted unanimously on 15 September 1999, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor (Timor-Leste), the Council authorised the establishment of the multinational International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) to restore peace and security in the territory, facilitate humanitarian assistance and protect the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET).
The Security Council welcomed the successful conduct of the East Timor Special Autonomy Referendum on 30 August 1999, in which the East Timorese people voted for independence from Indonesia. Meanwhile, there was concern about the deteriorating security situation and the violence that had displaced many residents. Attacks also took place against UNAMET and other international and national humanitarian personnel and this had particularly affected vulnerable groups. There were reports of widespread violations of international humanitarian and human rights law across East Timor, and Indonesia had accepted the presence of a United Nations international peacekeeping force in the region.
Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council condemned the violence in East Timor, called for those responsible to be brought to justice and emphasised the need for immediate unrestricted humanitarian assistance to the area. In this regard, it authorised the establishment of an Australian-led multinational force under joint command with the task of restoring peace, protecting the UNAMET mission and assisting in humanitarian operations using all necessary measures.The force consisted of 8,000 personnel from 17 countries. The Government of Indonesia, which had temporary responsibility for the security of East Timor, would co-operate with the multinational force or INTERFET.
The resolution noted that part of the agreement between Indonesia and Portugal on the future of East Timor stipulated a peaceful and orderly transfer of authority in East Timor to the United Nations and INTERFET was asked to support the process. The multinational force would be present in East Timor for four months until replaced by a United Nations peacekeeping force and would be required to submit periodic reports on its progress.
Finally, the Secretary-General was asked to make preparations for a transitional administration in East Timor that would include a peacekeeping operation during the implementation phase following the referendum.
The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) provided an interim civil administration and a peacekeeping mission in the territory of East Timor, from its establishment on 25 October 1999, until its independence on 20 May 2002, following the outcome of the East Timor Special Autonomy Referendum. Security Council Resolution 1272 established the transitional administration in 1999, and its responsibilities included providing a peacekeeping force to maintain security and order; facilitating and co-ordinating relief assistance to the East Timorese; facilitating emergency rehabilitation of physical infrastructure; administering East Timor and creating structures for sustainable governance and the rule of law; and assisting in the drafting of a new constitution and conducting elections. It was led by Sérgio Vieira de Mello of Brazil and the Lieutenant General Jaime de los Santos of the Philippines.
East Timor is a country in Southeast Asia, officially known as Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. The country comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor and the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco. The first inhabitants are thought to be descendant of Australoid and Melanesian peoples. The Portuguese began to trade with Timor by the early 16th century and colonised it throughout the mid-century. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty for which Portugal ceded the western half of the island. Imperial Japan occupied East Timor during World War II, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese surrender.
The International Force East Timor (INTERFET) was a multinational non-United Nations peacemaking taskforce, organised and led by Australia in accordance with United Nations resolutions to address the humanitarian and security crisis that took place in East Timor from 1999–2000 until the arrival of UN peacekeepers. INTERFET was commanded by an Australian military officer, Major General Peter Cosgrove.
The United Nations Integrated Mission in East Timor (UNMIT) was established on 25 August 2006 by UN Security Council Resolution 1704. Its objectives are "to support the Government in consolidating stability, enhancing a culture of democratic governance, and facilitating political dialogue among Timorese stakeholders, in their efforts to bring about a process of national reconciliation and to foster social cohesion". In its most recent resolution on UNMIT, the Council extended its mandate until 26 February 2012. UNMIT and ISF troops left the country at the end of 2012.
The United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) was established by Security Council Resolution 1246 on 11 June 1999 for a period up to 31 August 1999. By Security Council Resolution 1257 of 3 August UNAMET was extended to 30 September 1999.
An independence referendum was held in East Timor on 30 August 1999. The referendum's origins lay with the request made by the President of Indonesia, B. J. Habibie, to the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan on 27 January 1999, for the United Nations to hold a referendum, whereby the Indonesian province would be given choice of either greater autonomy within Indonesia or independence.
The 1999 East Timorese crisis began with attacks of general violence throughout the country, centered in the capital Dili. The violence erupted after a majority of eligible East Timorese voters chose independence from Indonesia. Some 1,400 civilians are believed to have died. A UN-authorized force (INTERFET) consisting mainly of Australian Defence Force personnel was deployed to East Timor to establish and maintain peace.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1101, adopted on 28 March 1997, after reiterating its concern over the situation in Albania, the Council established a multinational protection force in the country to create conditions to facilitate humanitarian assistance.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1236, adopted unanimously on 7 May 1999, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor including 384 (1975) and 389 (1976), the Council welcomed an agreement between Indonesia and Portugal on the future of East Timor and a proposed United Nations presence to assist with the East Timor Special Autonomy Referendum scheduled for August 1999.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1246, adopted unanimously on 11 June 1999, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor, particularly Resolution 1236 (1999), the Council established the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) to organise and conduct the East Timor Special Autonomy Referendum on the future status of East Timor, scheduled for August 1999.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1257, adopted unanimously on 3 August 1999, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor, particularly Resolution 1246 (1999), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) until 30 September 1999.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1262, adopted unanimously on 27 August 1999, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor, particularly resolutions 1246 (1999) and 1257 (1999), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET) until 30 November 1999.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1272 was adopted unanimously on 25 October 1999, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor, particularly resolutions 384 (1975), 389 (1976), 1236 (1999), 1246 (1999), 1262 (1999) and 1264 (1999). The Council established the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) that was responsible for the administration of the territory until its independence in 2002.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1319, adopted unanimously on 8 September 2000, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor (Timor-Leste), the Council demanded that Indonesia take steps to disarm and disband militia on the island following the killing of three United Nations staff.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1338, adopted unanimously on 31 January 2001, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor (Timor-Leste), particularly resolutions 1272 (1999) and 1319 (2000), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) for a year until 31 January 2002.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1410, adopted unanimously on 17 May 2002, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor (Timor-Leste), particularly resolutions 1272 (1999), 1338 (2001) and 1392 (2002), the Council established the United Nations Mission of Support to East Timor (UNMISET) to replace the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET).
United Nations Security Council resolution 1497, adopted on 1 August 2003, after expressing concern at the situation in Liberia, the Council authorised a multinational force to intervene in the civil war to support the implementation of a ceasefire agreement using "all necessary measures".
United Nations Security Council resolution 1509, adopted unanimously on 19 September 2003, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Liberia, including Resolution 1497 (2003), the Council established the 15,000-strong United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) to assist in implementing a ceasefire and peace agreement.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1690, adopted unanimously on June 20, 2006, after reaffirming previous resolutions on East Timor (Timor-Leste), particularly resolutions 1599 (2005) and 1677 (2006), the Council renewed the mandate of the United Nations Office in Timor-Leste (UNOTIL) for two months until August 20, 2006.
The Sangnoksu Unit is one of the UN Peacekeeping Forces sent to Somalia, Angola, and East Timor by Republic of Korea Armed Forces (ROKA). Sangnoksu unit is the first unit for the purpose of maintaining peace in South Korea. After joining the UN in 1991, Sangnoksu unit started its peacekeeping missions in Somalia from July 1993 to March 1994. From October 1995 to December1996, Sangnoksu unit performed its missions in Angola. Lastly, it was sent for peacekeeping operations in East Timor from October 1999 to October 2003. After 2003, Sangnoksu unit was disbanded.