Watsonella

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Watsonella
Temporal range: Cambrian Stage 2, c. 530–525  Ma
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Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca (?)
Genus:Watsonella
Grabau, 1900
Species
  • W. crosbyi
  • ... and others?

Watsonella is a genus of 'mollusc' known from early (Terreneuvian) Cambrian strata.

Contents

The genus is closely related to Anabarella , with which it bears many morphological similarities, [1] including a laminar internal shell microstructure said to connect it with the early bivalves Fordilla and Pojetaia . [2]

Anabarella is a species of bilaterally-flattened monoplacophoran mollusc, with a morphological similarity to the rostroconchs. Its shell preserves evidence of three mineralogical textures on its outer surface: it is polygonal near the crest of the shell, subsequently changing to both spiny and stepwise. Its internal microstructure is calcitic and semi-nacreous. Its name reflects its provenance from Anabar, Siberia. It has been interpreted as ancestral to the rostroconchs, and has been aligned to the Helcionellidae.

<i>Fordilla</i> genus of molluscs (fossil)

Fordilla is an extinct genus of early bivalves, one of two genera in the extinct family Fordillidae. The genus is known solely from Early Cambrian fossils found in North America, Greenland, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The genus currently contains three described species, Fordilla germanica, Fordilla sibirica, and the type species Fordilla troyensis.

Pojetaia is an extinct genus of early bivalves, one of two genera in the extinct family Fordillidae. The genus is known solely from Early to Middle Cambrian fossils found in North America, Greenland, Europe, North Africa, Asia, and Australia. The genus currently contains two accepted species, Pojetaia runnegari, the type species, and Pojetaia sarhroensis, though up to seven species have been proposed. The genera Buluniella, Jellia, and Oryzoconcha are all considered synonyms of Pojetaia.

Biostratigraphic significance

Watsonella has been proposed as an index fossil of the Cambrian, defining a W. crosbyi zone. Notwithstanding the weakness of a first appearance datum as a definition for the base of a period, [3] the species has been proposed as a marker for the base of the presently unratified second stage of the Terreneuvian (i.e. Cambrian Stage 2). However, the species has now been found late in the FOrtunian, drawing back its first occurrence. [4] But that said its occurrence in Australia seems to begin rather near the base of Stage 2. [5]

Affinity

Widely thought to be a mollusc, the connection between the two 'valves' of Watsonella recalls the configuration of Rostroconchs (a group thought to be paraphyletic to bivalves and scaphopods). Similarities to the shells of certain bivalves seem to place Watsonella closer to the bivalve crown group than typical rostroconchs, though there is not yet enough evidence for an unequivocal classification. [6]

Evidence for a molluscan affinity: (though for a sceptical view see [7] )

Related Research Articles

Hyolitha

Hyoliths are animals with small conical shells, known as fossils from the Palaeozoic Era. They are lophophorates, a group which includes the brachiopods.

Rostroconchia class of molluscs

The Rostroconchia is a class of extinct molluscs dating from the early Cambrian to the Late Permian. They were initially thought to be bivalves, but were later given their own class. They have a single shell in their larval stage, and the adult typically has a single, pseudo-bivalved shell enclosing the mantle and muscular foot. The anterior part of the shell probably pointed downward and had a gap from which the foot could probably emerge. Rostroconchs probably lived a sedentary semi-infaunal lifestyle. There were probably more than 1,000 species of members of this class.

Evolution of molluscs The origin and diversification of mulluscs through geologic time

The evolution of the molluscs is the way in which the Mollusca, one of the largest groups of invertebrate animals, evolved. This phylum includes gastropods, bivalves, scaphopods, cephalopods, and several other groups. The fossil record of mollusks is relatively complete, and they are well represented in most fossil-bearing marine strata. Very early organisms which have dubiously been compared to molluscs include Kimberella and Odontogriphus.

<i>Yochelcionella</i> genus of molluscs (fossil)

Yochelcionella is an extinct genus of basal molluscs which lived during the Tommotian epoch, the first epoch of the Cambrian period. This genus is often reconstructed to resemble snails.

Helcionellid order of molluscs

The Helcionellids are small fossil shells that are universally interpreted as molluscs, though no sources spell out why this taxonomic interpretation is preferred. These animals are first found about 540 to 530 million years ago in the late Nemakit-Daldynian age, which is the earliest part of the Cambrian period. A single species persisted to the Early Ordovician. These fossils are component of the small shelly fossils (SSF) assemblages.

Tommotiids are Cambrian (Terreneuvian) shelly fossils thought to belong to the Brachiopod + Phoronid lineage (Brachiozoa).

Stenothecidae is an extinct family of fossil univalved Cambrian molluscs which may be either gastropods or monoplacophorans.

Stenothecoida is a taxon of bivalved fossils from the Early to middle Cambrian period. They look a bit like brachiopods or bivalve molluscs.

Allonnia is a genus of coeloscleritophoran known as complete scleritomes from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. It is also a constituent of the small shelly fauna.

Mongolitubulus is a form genus encapsulating a range of ornamented conical small shelly fossils of the Cambrian period. It is potentially synonymous with Rushtonites, Tubuterium and certain species of Rhombocorniculum, and owing to the similarity of the genera, they are all dealt with herein. Organisms that bore Mongolitubulus-like projections include trilobites, bradoriid arthropods and hallucigeniid lobopodians.

Fordillidae family of molluscs (fossil)

Fordillidae is an extinct family of early bivalves and one of two families in the extinct superfamily Fordilloidea. The family is known from fossils of early to middle Cambrian age found in North America, Greenland, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Australia. The family currently contains two genera, Fordilla and Pojetaia, each with up to three described species. Due to the size and age of the fossil specimens, Fordillidae species are included as part of the Turkish Small shelly fauna.

Fordilloidea superfamily of molluscs (fossil)

Fordilloidea is an extinct superfamily of early bivalves containing two described families, Fordillidae and Camyidae and the only superfamily in the order Fordillida. The superfamily is known from fossils of early to middle Cambrian age found in North America, Greenland, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Australia. Fordillidae currently contains two genera, Fordilla and Pojetaia each with up to three described species while Camyidae only contains a single genus Camya with one described species, Camya asy. Due to the size and age of the fossil specimens, Fordillidae species are included as part of the Turkish Small shelly fauna.

Tuarangia is a Cambrian shelly fossil interpreted as an early bivalve, though alternative classifications have been proposed and its systematic position remains controversial. It is the only genus in the extinct family Tuarangiidae and order Tuarangiida. The genus is known solely from Middle to Late Cambrian fossils found in Europe and New Zealand. The genus currently contains two accepted species, Tuarangia gravgaerdensis and the type species Tuarangia paparua.

Terreneuvian first epoch of the Cambrian Period

The Terreneuvian is the lowermost and oldest series of the Cambrian geological system. Its base is defined by the first appearance datum of the trace fossil Treptichnus pedum around 541 million years ago. Its top is defined as the first appearance of trilobites in the stratigraphic record around 521 million years ago. This series was formally ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy in 2012.

Stage 2 of the Cambrian is the unnamed upper stage of the Terreneuvian series. It lies atop the Fortunian and below Stage 3 of the Cambrian. It is commonly referred to as the Tommotian, after the Cambrian stratigraphy of Siberia. Neither the upper nor lower boundary has yet been defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. The preferred definitions for the lower boundary are the first appearance of the molluscs Watsonella crosbyi or Aldanella attleborensis around 529 million years ago. The proposed upper boundary might be the first appearance of trilobites around 521 million years ago.

Tannuolina is a genus of tommotiid, belonging to the brachiopod stem lineage.

Micrina is an extinct genus of brachiopods.

References

  1. Kouchinsky, A. V. (1999). "Shell microstructures of the Early Cambrian Anabarella and Watsonella as new evidence on the origin of the Rostroconchia". Lethaia. 32 (2): 173–180. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1999.tb00537.x.
  2. Vendrasco, M.J.; Checa, A.G.; Kouchinsky, A.V. (2011). "Shell microstructure of the early bivalve Pojetaia and the independent origin of nacre within the Mollusca". Palaeontology. 54 (4): 825. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01056.x.
  3. 1. Landing, E., Geyer, G., Brasier, M.D., and Bowring, S.A. (2013). Cambrian evolutionary radiation: context, correlation, and chronostratigraphy—overcoming deficiencies of the first appearance datum (FAD) concept. Earth-Science Rev. 123, 133–172.
  4. Landing, E., and Kouchinsky, A. V. (2016). Correlation of the Cambrian Evolutionary Radiation: geochronology, evolutionary stasis of earliest Cambrian (Terreneuvian) small shelly fossil (SSF) taxa, and chronostratigraphic significance. Geol. Mag. 153, 750–756.
  5. Jacquet SM, Brougham T, Skovsted CB, et al. ~Watsonella crosbyi~ from the lower Cambrian (Terreneuvian, Stage 2) Normanville Group in South Australia. Geol Mag. October 2016. doi : 10.1017/S0016756816000704.
  6. 1. Jacquet SM, Brougham T, Skovsted CB, et al. ~Watsonella crosbyi from the lower Cambrian (Terreneuvian, Stage 2) Normanville Group in South Australia. Geol Mag. October 2016. doi : 10.1017/S0016756816000704.
  7. Budd, G. E. & Jensen, S. A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla. Biol. Rev. 75, 253–295 (2000).
  8. Li, G.-X., Zhao, X., Gubanov, A., Zhu, M.-Y. & Na, L. Early Cambrian mollusc ~Watsonella crosbyi~: a potential GSSP index fossil for the base of the Cambrian Stage 2. Acta Geol. Sin. 85, 309–319 (2011).
  9. Li, G.-X., Zhao, X., Gubanov, A., Zhu, M.-Y. & Na, L. Early Cambrian mollusc ~Watsonella crosbyi~: a potential GSSP index fossil for the base of the Cambrian Stage 2. Acta Geol. Sin. 85, 309–319 (2011).
  10. Li, G.-X., Zhao, X., Gubanov, A., Zhu, M.-Y. & Na, L. Early Cambrian mollusc ~Watsonella crosbyi~: a potential GSSP index fossil for the base of the Cambrian Stage 2. Acta Geol. Sin. 85, 309–319 (2011).
  11. Vendrasco, M. J., Checa, A. G. & Kouchinsky, A. V. Shell microstructure of the early bivalve Pojetaia and the independent origin of nacre within the mollusca. Palaeontology 54, 825–850 (2011).
  12. Li, G.-X., Zhao, X., Gubanov, A., Zhu, M.-Y. & Na, L. Early Cambrian mollusc ~Watsonella crosbyi~: a potential GSSP index fossil for the base of the Cambrian Stage 2. Acta Geol. Sin. 85, 309–319 (2011).
  13. Vendrasco, M. J., Checa, A. G. & Kouchinsky, A. V. Shell microstructure of the early bivalve Pojetaia and the independent origin of nacre within the mollusca. Palaeontology 54, 825–850 (2011).
  14. Jacquet, S. M. et al. ~Watsonella crosbyi~ from the lower Cambrian (Terreneuvian, Stage 2) Normanville Group in South Australia. Geol. Mag. (2016). doi : 10.1017/S0016756816000704
  15. Vendrasco, M. J., Checa, A. G. & Kouchinsky, A. V. Shell microstructure of the early bivalve Pojetaia and the independent origin of nacre within the mollusca. Palaeontology 54, 825–850 (2011).