Wilhelm Eger Matheson (born 5 May 1955) is a Norwegian Supreme Court Justice. Matheson took office in November 2009.
The Supreme Court of Norway was established in 1815 on the basis of section 88 in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway, which prescribes an independent judiciary. It is located in the capital Oslo. In addition to serving as the court of final appeal for civil and criminal cases, it can also rule whether the Cabinet has acted in accordance with Norwegian law and whether the Parliament has passed legislation consistent with the Constitution.
Born in Oslo,he was divorced once and subsequently remarried; these marriages produced two children each.
Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 January 1838. The city functioned as a co-official capital during the 1814 to 1905 Union between Sweden and Norway. In 1877, the city's name was respelled Kristiania in accordance with an offical spelling reform – a change that was taken over by the municipal authorities only in 1897. In 1925 the city, after incorporating the village retaining its former name, was renamed Oslo.
Wilhelm Matheson graduated with a degree from the University of Oslo in 1982. He has been employed as higher executive officer and was legal adviser in the Law Department of the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and also as a guest researcher at the Max Planck institute in Freiburg, Germany. From 1987–1988, Matheson served as deputy judge at the district recorder office of Lier, Røyken and Hurum. In 1989 he was employed as deputy advocate in the law firm Mellbye, Schjoldager, Sejersted, Tenden. Between 1990 and 2009 he was employed as a lawyer and partner in Wiersholm. After this, he took the role of supreme court justice.
The University of Oslo, until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University, is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. Until 1 January 2016 it was the largest Norwegian institution of higher education in terms of size, now surpassed only by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked it the 58th best university in the world and the third best in the Nordic countries. In 2015, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it the 135th best university in the world and the seventh best in the Nordics. While in its 2016, Top 200 Rankings of European universities, the Times Higher Education listed the University of Oslo at 63rd, making it the highest ranked Norwegian university.
The Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law is a non-university research institute located in Freiburg, Germany. The institute is part of the Max Planck Society and is conducting basic research into criminal law and criminology.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps, Lake Constance and the High Rhine to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.
Matheson was appointed Supreme Court Justice on 31 October 2008 together with Bergljot Webster and Erik Møse. The process surrounding the 2008 appointments was criticised by professor of comparative politics at the University of Bergen, Gunnar Grendstad for a "lack of transparency".Journalist Hanne Skartveit (working for Verdens Gang) tried to push the three newly appointed judges to reveal their political positions in a selection of matters of public interest. Matheson (and his two new colleagues) did not, however, accept the contentions of the critics and refused to bind themselves to positions that later could become subject to Supreme Court considerations.
Bergljot Cecilie Webster is a Norwegian judge.
Erik Møse is a Norwegian judge.
Comparative politics is a field in political science, characterized by an empirical approach based on the comparative method. In other words, comparative politics is the study of the domestic politics, political institutions, and conflicts of countries. It often involves comparisons among countries and through time within single countries, emphasizing key patterns of similarity and difference. Arend Lijphart argues that comparative politics does not have a substantive focus in itself, but rather a methodological one: it focuses on "the how but does not specify the what of the analysis." In other words, comparative politics is not defined by the object of its study, but rather by the method it applies to study political phenomena. Peter Mair and Richard Rose advance a slightly different definition, arguing that comparative politics is defined by a combination of a substantive focus on the study of countries' political systems and a method of identifying and explaining similarities and differences between these countries using common concepts. Rose states that, on his definition: "The focus is explicitly or implicitly upon more than one country, thus following familiar political science usage in excluding within-nation comparison. Methodologically, comparison is distinguished by its use of concepts that are applicable in more than one country."
Matheson expresses belief in the ideal of unbiased judges; however, he also considers it self-evident that decisions made in the court of law to some extent express the attitudes of the judges, and not "the so-called true law".
As of January 2011, Matheson has dissented in two Supreme Court decisions: One (in January 2010) regarding the demand from a kiosk-company demanding compensation for the loss of income in the Public Roads Administration in the aftermath of a landslide blocking a nearby road (and the kiosk's source of income). The majority of the three justices passed judgment in favour of the government, while the dissenting justices (counting two) argued that the government ought to be seen as responsible for the company's loss of income. Matheson wrote this dissent.
In the second case, of March 2010, Matheson was the sole dissenter against four justices in a case regarding compensation for non-pecuniary damages: The actor Gøril Mauseth demanded compensation from the Norwegian Broadcasting Company (NRK) in the aftermath of the screening of a nude scene including Mauseth from the movie Brent av frost, in conflict with a contract stipulating that this scene was not to be used in the purpose of marketing. The majority of four justices passed judgment in favour of Mauseth, against Matheson's lone dissent in favour of NRK.
Antonin Gregory Scalia was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016. Appointed to the Court by President Ronald Reagan in 1986, Scalia was described as the intellectual anchor for the originalist and textualist position in the Court's conservative wing.
John Paul Stevens is an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1975 until his retirement in 2010. At the time of his retirement, he was the second-oldest serving justice in the history of the Court, the third-longest serving Supreme Court Justice in history. Stevens was considered to have been on the liberal side of the Court at the time of his retirement.
John Marshall Harlan was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1955 to 1971. His namesake and grandfather John Marshall Harlan had also been an associate justice of the Court who served from 1877 to 1911.
William Ian Corneil Binnie is a former puisne justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, serving from 1998 to 2011. Of the justices appointed to the Supreme Court in recent years, he is one of the few to have never sat as a judge prior to his appointment. He was described by the Toronto Star as "one of the strongest hands on the court."
Illinois v. Gates, 462 U.S. 213 (1983), is a Fourth Amendment case. Gates overruled Aguilar v. Texas and Spinelli v. United States, thereby replacing the Aguilar–Spinelli test for probable cause with the "totality of the circumstances" test.
Konakuppakatil Gopinathan Balakrishnan was the former Chairperson of the National Human Rights Commission of India. He is a former Chief Justice of India.
Berit Reiss-Andersen is a Norwegian lawyer, author and former politician for the Norwegian Labour Party. She is chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, the 5-member committee that awards the Nobel Peace Prize. She is also a board member of the Nobel Foundation, which has the overall responsibility for all the five Nobel Prizes. She served as state secretary for the Minister of Justice and Police from 1996 to 1997 and as President of the Norwegian Bar Association from 2008 to 2012. She has co-authored two crime novels with former Minister of Justice Anne Holt. She is currently a partner at DLA Piper's Oslo office.
Gørild Mauseth is a Norwegian actress. After graduating from the Norwegian National Academy of Theatre, she has worked at both Den Nationale Scene and Nationaltheatret. She is best known for her movie and television roles, that include "Deadline Torp" and Når mørket er forbi. In 2001 she was named one of European films' Shooting Stars by the European Film Promotion.
Lilly Helena Bølviken was a Norwegian judge.
Jens Bugge was a Norwegian judge.
On 29 December 2008, violent riots first broke out in Oslo, Norway amid protests against the Gaza War, starting outside the Israeli embassy. Riots broke out again following a protest on 4 January 2009, while the most violent and destructive riots took place on 8 and 10 January when riots spread throughout the city with widespread destruction of private and public property, clashes between rioters and police with several injuries, as well as attacks on civilians, including individuals targeted due to being thought by rioters to be Jews. Around 200 people were arrested in total, mainly Muslim youth, supported by left-wing autonomous Blitz activists.
Ivar Hippe is a Norwegian political consultant, former journalist and presenter. He received national media attention in 1982 when he was expelled from Argentina by the government. On his return to Norway he began working for the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK). In 1999 he became editor-in-chief of the Norwegian financial journal Økonomisk Rapport.
Hanne Stine Nabintu Herland is a Norwegian author, founder and host of The Herland Report. She is educated at the University of Oslo as a historian of religions.
Clarence Thomas is an American judge, lawyer, and government official who currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He is currently the most senior associate justice on the Court following the retirement of Anthony Kennedy. Thomas succeeded Thurgood Marshall and is the second African American to serve on the Court. Among the current members of the Court he is the longest-serving justice, with a tenure of 10,047 days as of April 26, 2019.
Noma D. Gurich is an American attorney and judge who is serving as the Chief Justice of the Oklahoma Supreme Court. Gurich was appointed the State's highest court by Governor of Oklahoma Brad Henry in 2010 and assumed office on February 15, 2011. Gurich was appointed to the Court following the death of long-time Justice Marian P. Opala. Gurich is the third woman in state history to be appointed to the Supreme Court.
Anders Behring Breivik, since 2017 legally Fjotolf Hansen and also known by his pseudonym Andrew Berwick, is a Norwegian far-right terrorist who committed the 2011 Norway attacks. On 22 July 2011, he killed eight people by detonating a van bomb amid Regjeringskvartalet in Oslo, then shot dead 69 participants of a Workers' Youth League (AUF) summer camp on the island of Utøya. In July 2012, he was convicted of mass murder, causing a fatal explosion, and terrorism.
Wenche Elizabeth Arntzen is a Norwegian lawyer and judge. She was appointed to the Supreme Court of Norway on 20 June 2014, having previously been a judge at the Oslo District Court.
Mikael Davud is a Norwegian Al-Qaeda operative convicted for conspiracy to commit terror against the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten, along with co-conspirator Shawan Bujak. Arrested in 2010, Davud was sentenced to eight years imprisonment in 2013.
Dietz v. Bouldin, 579 U.S. ___ (2016), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court held that a federal district court may rescind a discharge order and recall jurors for further service in the same case.