A London Symphony

Last updated

A London Symphony is the second symphony composed by Ralph Vaughan Williams. The work is sometimes referred to as Symphony No. 2, though the composer did not designate that name for the work. First performed in 1914, the original score of this four-movement symphony was lost and subsequently reconstructed. Vaughan Williams continued revisions of the work into its final definitive form, which was published in 1936.

Contents

Instrumentation

The work is scored for:

Structure

Vaughan Williams said that while the title may suggest a programmatic piece (and the work includes sounds heard in London such as the Westminster Quarters), it was intended to be heard as absolute music. In a programme note in 1920, he suggested that Symphony by a Londoner might be a better title. [2] However, he allowed the conductor Albert Coates to provide elaborate descriptions for the 1920 performance.

The symphony is in four movements.

1. Lento – Allegro risoluto

The symphony opens quietly, and after a few nocturnal bars, the Westminster chimes are heard, played on the harp. [3]

A London Symphony

After a silent pause, the allegro risoluto section, much of it triple forte, is vigorous and brisk, and the ensuing second subject, dominated by the wind and brass, is no less so (evoking "Hampstead Heath on an August Bank Holiday"). [4]

A London Symphony
A London Symphony

After a contrasting gentle interlude scored for string sextet and harp, the vigorous themes return and bring the movement to a lively close, with full orchestra playing fortissimo . [1]

2. Lento

The movement opens with muted strings playing ppp . [1] Vaughan Williams said that the slow movement is intended to evoke "Bloomsbury Square on a November afternoon". [4]

A London Symphony

Quiet themes led in turn by cor anglais, flute, trumpet and viola give way to a grave, impassioned forte section, after which the movement gradually subsides to its original quiet dynamic.

3. Scherzo (Nocturne)

In the composer's words, "If the listener will imagine himself standing on Westminster Embankment at night, surrounded by the distant sounds of The Strand, with its great hotels on one side and the "New Cut" on the other, with its crowded streets and flaring lights, it may serve as a mood in which to listen to this movement." [4] In the definitive score, the movement revolves around two scherzo themes, the first marked fugato and the second straightforward and lively.

A London Symphony

The piece closes with muted strings playing pppp. [1]

4. Finale – Andante con moto – Maestoso alla marcia – Allegro – Lento – Epilogue

A London Symphony

The finale opens on a grave march theme, punctuated with a lighter allegro section, with full orchestra initially forte and appassionato. [1] After the reappearance of the march, the main allegro theme of the first movement returns. Following this, the Westminster Chimes strike again, this time the harp plays the first three-quarters of the hour chimes, [1] and there is a quiet Epilogue, inspired by the last chapter of H.G. Wells's novel Tono-Bungay : [4] [5] [6]

The last great movement in the London Symphony in which the true scheme of the old order is altogether dwarfed and swallowed up ... Light after light goes down. England and the Kingdom, Britain and the Empire, the old prides and the old devotions, glide abeam, astern, sink down upon the horizon, pass – pass. The river passes – London passes, England passes.

History and versions

The symphony was composed from 1912 to 1913. It is dedicated to Vaughan Williams's friend and fellow composer George Butterworth (1885–1916) who was subsequently killed by a sniper on the Somme during World War I. [7] It was Butterworth who had first encouraged Vaughan Williams to write a purely orchestral symphony. [8] Vaughan Williams recorded that: [9]

"We were talking together one day when he said in his gruff, abrupt manner: 'You know, you ought to write a symphony'. I answered... that I'd never written a symphony and never intended to... I suppose Butterworth's words stung me and, anyhow, I looked out some sketches I had made for... a symphonic poem about London and decided to throw it into symphonic form... From that moment, the idea of a symphony dominated my mind. I showed the sketches to George bit by bit as they were finished, and it was then that I realised that he possessed in common with very few composers a wonderful power of criticism of other men's work and insight into their ideas and motives. I can never feel too grateful to him for all he did for me over this work and his help did not stop short at criticism."

The work was first performed on 27 March 1914 at Queen's Hall, [7] conducted by Geoffrey Toye. [1] The performance was a success. Shortly afterwards, the composer sent the score to the conductor Fritz Busch in Germany, and the original score disappeared in the upheaval of the outbreak of World War I. [10] The second performance was given in Harrogate on 12 August 1914 by the Harrogate Municipal Orchestra under Julian Clifford. [9] There was a short score, [9] which had been prepared by Bevis Ellis, Francis Toye and George Butterworth, so it is possible that version was used instead. The composer, aided by Geoffrey Toye, Butterworth and the critic E. J. Dent, reconstructed the score from the orchestral parts, and the reconstruction was performed on 11 February 1915 by the Bournemouth Municipal Orchestra under Dan Godfrey. [8]

The symphony went through several revisions before reaching its final form. Vaughan Williams revised it for a performance in March 1918, and again in 1919–1920. This second revision became the first published version, and was recorded for the gramophone in 1925 by the London Symphony Orchestra conducted by Sir Dan Godfrey. It was also recorded in 1941 by the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra conducted by Sir Eugene Goossens. [11] It had already received its American premiere on 20 December 1920 when the New York Symphony Orchestra played it under the baton of Albert Coates. It is most unlikely that OUP sanctioned the use of the 1920 version in Goossens' recording, since Vaughan Williams had withdrawn it and all scores of the 1933 revision carry the statement:

'This revised edition supersedes the Original Version which should no longer be used.'

However, the Cincinnati/Goossens recording was made at a period during World War II when communications between Britain and the USA were difficult, and a "rogue" set was used. In fact, the 1920 version was already in the public domain in the US, having been published before 1923, so it may simply have been cheaper to record that version. It was still possible to buy scores and parts of the 1920 version in the USA until early in the 21st century,[ citation needed ] although this is no longer the case.[ dubious ]

While he was working on his fourth symphony in 1933, Vaughan Williams made time to revise A London Symphony yet again. [11] He regarded this version, which was published in 1936, [8] as the definitive one, and it is this version that entered the repertoire, being played in concert and on record by many conductors. [11]

In 2001, a new commercial recording appeared on Chandos of the original 1914 score, following assent from the composer's widow, Ursula Vaughan Williams, for a recording only, without live performances. The new recording of the original 1914 score attracted attention from various music critics, including some commentary that the composer had cut many bars of interesting music. [11] [12] [13] Richard Tiedman commented: [11]

The 1913 score is more meditative, dark-shaded and tragic in tone, almost Mahleresque in its inclusiveness. By 1933, Vaughan Williams's concept of symphonic architecture was becoming more aligned with a Sibelian logic and severity.

Andrew Clements has separately remarked: [12]

'Some of the excisions seem to have been sensible - the finale is dangerously episodic in the first version... 'Much of what was removed is music of vivid poetic description. Admirers of Vaughan Williams will certainly want to hear all this restored music, some of it of a very high quality indeed, and while it does not supplant the version of the work that we know, it makes a very worthwhile addition to the catalogue.'

The main differences between the first and last versions may be summarised as follows:

Below is a summary of the changes made between the original and the two published versions. It shows the number of bars in each movement and the total for the whole symphony: [9]

VersionMvt IMvt IIMvt IIIMvt IVEpilogueTotal
19144082023862271091322
1920407162398173851225
1933407150398162601177

The final version is more than twenty minutes shorter than the original, as some indicative timings show:

1914 version:

1920 revision:

1933/36 revision:

The reception accorded to the Chandos recording of the 1914 score persuaded Ursula Vaughan Williams to allow a live performance of the original version. In November 2003, Richard Hickox conducted the original 1914 score with the London Symphony Orchestra at the Barbican, in the first live performance of this version since 1918. [19] The Proms presented an additional live performance of the 1914 version on 19 July 2005, with Hickox conducting the BBC National Orchestra of Wales. [20]

In his liner note commentary to the Chandos recording of the original version, Michael Kennedy placed the status of the original score as subordinate to the final 1936 published version: [8]

'There can be no question of the original version supplanting the revision. The 1936 score represents the symphony as Vaughan Williams wanted it to exist for posterity. The cuts and re-scorings were his own decisions, not forced on him, like Bruckner's, by well-meaning friends. Vaughan Williams would, and did, ask for advice, but never took it against his own inclinations.'

Recordings

Related Research Articles

<i>The Planets</i> Orchestral suite by Gustav Holst

The Planets, Op. 32, is a seven-movement orchestral suite by the English composer Gustav Holst, written between 1914 and 1917. In the last movement the orchestra is joined by a wordless female chorus. Each movement of the suite is named after a planet of the solar system and its supposed astrological character.

Adrian Boult English conductor

Sir Adrian Cedric Boult, CH was an English conductor. Brought up in a prosperous mercantile family, he followed musical studies in England and at Leipzig, Germany, with early conducting work in London for the Royal Opera House and Sergei Diaghilev's ballet company. His first prominent post was conductor of the City of Birmingham Orchestra in 1924. When the British Broadcasting Corporation appointed him director of music in 1930, he established the BBC Symphony Orchestra and became its chief conductor. The orchestra set standards of excellence that were rivalled in Britain only by the London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO), founded two years later.

London Symphony Orchestra British symphony orchestra

The London Symphony Orchestra (LSO) is a British symphony orchestra based in London. Founded in 1904, the LSO is the oldest of London's symphony orchestras. The LSO was set up by a group of players who left Henry Wood's Queen's Hall Orchestra because of a new rule requiring players to give the orchestra their exclusive services. The LSO itself later introduced a similar rule for its members. From the outset the LSO was organised on co-operative lines, with all players sharing the profits at the end of each season. This practice continued for the orchestra's first four decades.

London Philharmonic Orchestra Permanent symphony orchestra in London

The London Philharmonic Orchestra (LPO) is one of five permanent symphony orchestras based in London. It was founded by the conductors Sir Thomas Beecham and Malcolm Sargent in 1932 as a rival to the existing London Symphony and BBC Symphony Orchestras.

George Butterworth English composer

George Sainton Kaye Butterworth, MC was an English composer who was best known for the orchestral idyll The Banks of Green Willow and his song settings of A. E. Housman's poems from A Shropshire Lad.

Malcolm Sargent English conductor, organist and composer

Sir Harold Malcolm Watts Sargent was an English conductor, organist and composer widely regarded as Britain's leading conductor of choral works. The musical ensembles with which he was associated included the Ballets Russes, the Huddersfield Choral Society, the Royal Choral Society, the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, and the London Philharmonic, Hallé, Liverpool Philharmonic, BBC Symphony and Royal Philharmonic orchestras. Sargent was held in high esteem by choirs and instrumental soloists, but because of his high standards and a statement that he made in a 1936 interview disputing musicians' rights to tenure, his relationship with orchestral players was often uneasy. Despite this, he was co-founder of the London Philharmonic, was the first conductor of the Liverpool Philharmonic as a full-time ensemble, and played an important part in saving the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra from disbandment in the 1960s.

<i>A Sea Symphony</i> Symphony composed by Ralph Vaughan Williams

A Sea Symphony is a composition for orchestra and chorus by Ralph Vaughan Williams, written between 1903 and 1909. Vaughan Williams's first and longest symphony, it was first performed at the Leeds Festival in 1910, with the composer conducting. The symphony's maturity belies the composer's relative youth when it was written. One of the first symphonies in which a choir is used throughout the work and is an integral part of the musical texture, A Sea Symphony helped set the stage for a new era of symphonic and choral music in Britain during the first half of the 20th century. The work is sometimes referred to as the Symphony No. 1.

The Symphony No. 4 in F minor by Ralph Vaughan Williams was dedicated by the composer to Arnold Bax.

Sinfonia antartica is the Italian title given by the English composer Ralph Vaughan Williams to his seventh symphony.

Sir Eugene Aynsley Goossens was an English conductor and composer.

Ralph Vaughan Williams's Symphony in E minor, published as Symphony No. 6, was composed in 1944–47, during and immediately after World War II and revised in 1950. Dedicated to Michael Mullinar, it was first performed, in its original version, by Sir Adrian Boult and the BBC Symphony Orchestra on 21 April 1948. Within a year it had received some 100 performances, including the U.S. premiere by the Boston Symphony Orchestra under Serge Koussevitzky on 7 August 1948. Leopold Stokowski gave the first New York performances the following January with the New York Philharmonic and immediately recorded it, declaring that "this is music that will take its place with the greatest creations of the masters." However, Vaughan Williams, very nervous about this symphony, threatened several times to tear up the draft. At the same time, his programme note for the first performance took a defiantly flippant tone.

Symphony No. 8 (Vaughan Williams)

Ralph Vaughan Williams's Symphony No. 8 in D minor was composed between 1953 and 1955. Sir John Barbirolli, its dedicatee, conducted the Hallé Orchestra in the premiere at the Free Trade Hall in Manchester on 2 May 1956. It is the shortest of the composer's nine symphonies, and is mostly buoyant and optimistic in tone.

Symphony No. 9 (Vaughan Williams)

The Symphony No. 9 in E minor was the last symphony written by the English composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. He composed it during 1956 and 1957 and it was given its premiere performance in London by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Sir Malcolm Sargent on 2 April 1958, in the composer's eighty-sixth year. The work was received respectfully but, at first, without great enthusiasm. Its reputation has subsequently grown, and the symphony has entered the repertoire, in the concert hall and on record, with the majority of recordings from the 1990s and the 21st century.

Chandos Records is a British independent classical music recording company based in Colchester. It was founded in 1979 by Brian Couzens.

Susan Gritton is an English operatic soprano. She was the 1994 winner of the Kathleen Ferrier Award and has sung leading roles in a wide-ranging repertoire from Handel and Mozart to Britten, Janáček and Strauss.

Edward Elgar's Third Symphony Op. 88 (posth.) was incomplete at the time of his death in 1934. Elgar left 130 pages of sketches, which the British composer Anthony Payne worked on for many years, producing a complete symphony in 1997, officially known as "Edward Elgar: the sketches for Symphony No 3 elaborated by Anthony Payne" or in brief "Elgar/Payne Symphony No 3". The first public performance was at the Royal Festival Hall on 15 February 1998, by the BBC Symphony Orchestra conducted by Andrew Davis.

<i>The Banks of Green Willow</i>

The Banks of Green Willow is a short orchestral piece of light music by British composer George Butterworth. It was composed in 1913, is written in the key of A major, and is around six minutes long.

Malcolm Sargent discography

The conductor Malcolm Sargent's career as a recording artist began in the days of acoustic recording, shortly before the introduction of the microphone and electrical recording, and continued into the stereo LP era. He recorded prolifically from 1924 until 1967, the year of his death.

The Norfolk Rhapsodies are three orchestral rhapsodies by Ralph Vaughan Williams, drafted in 1905–06. They were based on folk songs Vaughan Williams had collected in the English county of Norfolk, in particular the fishing port of King's Lynn in January 1905. Only the first rhapsody survives in its entirety, having been revised by the composer in 1914. The second exists in fragmentary form, and has been completed by other hands. The third is lost.

Egdon Heath, Op. 47, H. 172, subtitled "A Homage to Thomas Hardy", is a tone poem by Gustav Holst, written in 1927. Holst considered it his most perfectly realised composition.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Lee, Douglas A. (2002). Masterworks of 20th-century music: the modern repertory of the symphony orchestra . Routledge. p.  434. ISBN   978-0-415-93846-4.
  2. Mann, William: liner notes to EMI CD CDM 7 64017 2
  3. About 3:10 mins in.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Harrison, Max, liner notes to Chandos CD CHAN 2028
  5. Arblaster, Anthony (December 1987). "'A London Symphony' and 'Tono-Bungay'". Tempo. New Series (163): 21–25. JSTOR   945688.
  6. Wells, H. G., Tono-Bungay, Ch. 14. II
  7. 1 2 Borowski, Felix; George P. Upton (2005). The Standard Opera and Concert Guide Part Two. Kessinger Publishing. p. 506. ISBN   978-1-4191-8139-9.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 Michael Kennedy, Stephen Connock (2001). "Liner notes for CHSA 5001" (PDF). Chandos Records. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  9. 1 2 3 4 Lloyd, Stephen, in Ralph Vaughan Williams in Perspective, ed. Lewis Foreman, Albion Music Ltd, 1998; the quoted text in (a) is a portmanteau of two originals, the bulk being from a letter to Sir Alexander Butterworth, father of the composer
  10. Kennedy, Michael, A Catalogue of the Works of Vaughan Williams, OUP, 1964, p. 73. Kennedy quotes a letter from the composer: "I think it was [Donald] Tovey who suggested I should send it to Busch"
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Tiedman, Richard, Tempo, New Series, No. 218 (October 2001), pp. 58–59, Cambridge University Press
  12. 1 2 Andrew Clements (4 May 2001). "Capital gains". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  13. March, Ivan (ed): Penguin Guide to Recorded Classical Music 2008, London, Penguin Books, 2007, ISBN   978-0-14-103336-5, p. 1440
  14. Columbia L1717-22 and Symposium 1377
  15. Foreman, Lewis: booklet notes for Symposium reissue
  16. Biddulph WL 016
  17. Dutton CDBP 9707
  18. EMI CDM 7 64017 2
  19. Andrew Clements (5 November 2003). "LSO/Hickox (Barbican, London)". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  20. Andrew Clements (21 July 2005). "BBCNOW/Hickox (Royal Albert Hall, London)". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 July 2020.