The CDC 1700 was a 16-bit word minicomputer, manufactured by the Control Data Corporation with deliveries beginning in May 1966.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors. In a 1970 survey, The New York Times suggested a consensus definition of a minicomputer as a machine costing less than US$25,000, with an input-output device such as a teleprinter and at least four thousand words of memory, that is capable of running programs in a higher level language, such as Fortran or BASIC. The class formed a distinct group with its own software architectures and operating systems. Minis were designed for control, instrumentation, human interaction, and communication switching as distinct from calculation and record keeping. Many were sold indirectly to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) for final end use application. During the two decade lifetime of the minicomputer class (1965–1985), almost 100 companies formed and only a half dozen remained.
Control Data Corporation (CDC) was a mainframe and supercomputer firm. CDC was one of the nine major United States computer companies through most of the 1960s; the others were IBM, Burroughs Corporation, DEC, NCR, General Electric, Honeywell, RCA, and UNIVAC. CDC was well-known and highly regarded throughout the industry at the time. For most of the 1960s, Seymour Cray worked at CDC and developed a series of machines that were the fastest computers in the world by far, until Cray left the company to found Cray Research (CRI) in the 1970s. After several years of losses in the early 1980s, in 1988 CDC started to leave the computer manufacturing business and sell the related parts of the company, a process that was completed in 1992 with the creation of Control Data Systems, Inc. The remaining businesses of CDC currently operate as Ceridian.
Over the years there were several versions. The original 1700 was constructed using air-cooled CDC 6600-like cordwood logic modules and core memory, although later models used different technology. The final models, called Cyber-18, added four general-purpose registers and a number of instructions to support a time-sharing operating system.
The CDC 6600 was the flagship of the 6000 series of mainframe computer systems manufactured by Control Data Corporation. Generally considered to be the first successful supercomputer, it outperformed the industry's prior recordholder, the IBM 7030 Stretch, by a factor of three. With performance of up to three megaFLOPS, the CDC 6600 was the world's fastest computer from 1964 to 1969, when it relinquished that status to its successor, the CDC 7600.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
|System name||Processor||Minimum RAM||Maximum RAM||Cycle time|
|1700||1704||4 KW||32 KW||1.1 μs|
|1714||1714||12 KW||64 KW||1.1 μs|
|SC1700||1774||4 KW||32 KW||1.5 μs|
|System 17||1784||4 KW||64 KW||0.9 or 0.6 μs|
|CYBER 18||MP17||16 KW||128 KW||0.75 μs|
The 1700 used ones' complement arithmetic and an ASCII-based character set, and supported memory write protection on an individual word basis. It had one general-purpose register and two indexing registers (one of which was implemented as a dedicated memory location). The instruction set was fairly simple and supported seven storage addressing modes, including multilevel (chained) indirect addressing.
The ones' complement of a binary number is defined as the value obtained by inverting all the bits in the binary representation of the number. The ones' complement of the number then behaves like the negative of the original number in some arithmetic operations. To within a constant, the ones' complement behaves like the negative of the original number with binary addition. However, unlike two's complement, these numbers have not seen widespread use because of issues such as the offset of −1, that negating zero results in a distinct negative zero bit pattern, less simplicity with arithmetic borrowing, etc.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU). Registers usually consist of a small amount of fast storage, although some registers have specific hardware functions, and may be read-only or write-only. Registers are typically addressed by mechanisms other than main memory, but may in some cases be assigned a memory address e.g. DEC PDP-10, ICT 1900.
Although described as a 16-bit system, the basic core storage memory was 4,096 18 bit words, each comprising
Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975. Such memory is often just called core memory, or, informally, core.
Available peripherals included teletypewriters, paper tape readers/punches, punched card readers/punches, line printers, magnetic tape drives, magnetic drums, fixed and removable magnetic disk drives, display terminals, communications controllers, Digigraphic display units, timers, etc. These interfaced to the processor using unbuffered interrupt-driven "A/Q" channels or buffered Direct Storage Access channels.
A teleprinter is an electromechanical device that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations. Initially they were used in telegraphy, which developed in the late 1830s and 1840s as the first use of electrical engineering. The machines were adapted to provide a user interface to early mainframe computers and minicomputers, sending typed data to the computer and printing the response. Some models could also be used to create punched tape for data storage and to read back such tape for local printing or transmission.
Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. Now effectively obsolete, it was widely used during much of the twentieth century for teleprinter communication, for input to computers of the 1950s and 1960s, and later as a storage medium for minicomputers and CNC machine tools.
A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Digital data can be used for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery.
The main operating systems for the 1700 were the Utility System, which usually took the form of several punched paper tapes (resident monitor plus utilities), a similar Operating System for larger configurations (often including punched cards and magnetic tape), and the Mass Storage Operating System (MSOS) for disk-based systems.
An assembler and a Fortran compiler were available.Pascal was also available, via a cross compiler on a CDC 6000 series host. The Cyber 18 series, exploiting the extended instruction set, ran a disk-based OS, the Interactive Terminal Oriented System (ITOS). This system supported Fortran, Cobol, and UCSD Pascal. ITOS was a foreground/background system with multiple users connected via serial CRT terminals; user tasks ran in the background while the operating system itself ran in the foreground.
The 1700 series found use as communications concentrators, Digigraphics workstations, remote batch job entry stations, and industrial process controllers.One application, running the AUTRAN program, controlled water and wastewater treatment plants for many years. Another was used as Maintenance and Diagnostic SubSystem (M&DSS) for the AN/FPQ-16 Perimeter Acquisition Radar Attack Characterization System (PARCS), located at Cavalier Air Force Station (CAFS) in North Dakota; this CDC 1700 is still being used as of this writing (2016).
Washington, DC used a Control Data 1700 in vote-tallying.CDC's 1700 was also used by Ticketron as central servers for their wagering systems and ticketing services.
In mid-2016, John Forecast added a CDC 1700 simulator to the SIMH package.
RT-11 is a discontinued small, single-user real-time operating system for the Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 family of 16-bit computers. RT-11 was first implemented in 1970 and was widely used for real-time systems, process control, and data acquisition across the full line of PDP-11 computers.
The IBM 1620 was announced by IBM on October 21, 1959, and marketed as an inexpensive "scientific computer". After a total production of about two thousand machines, it was withdrawn on November 19, 1970. Modified versions of the 1620 were used as the CPU of the IBM 1710 and IBM 1720 Industrial Process Control Systems
UNIVAC is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation. Later the name was applied to a division of the Remington Rand company and successor organizations.
The IBM 7090 is a second-generation transistorized version of the earlier IBM 709 vacuum tube mainframe computer that was designed for "large-scale scientific and technological applications". The 7090 is the third member of the IBM 700/7000 series scientific computers. The first 7090 installation was in November 1959. In 1960, a typical system sold for $2.9 million or could be rented for $63,500 a month.
The CDC Cyber range of mainframe-class supercomputers were the primary products of Control Data Corporation (CDC) during the 1970s and 1980s. In their day, they were the computer architecture of choice for scientific and mathematically intensive computing. They were used for modeling fluid flow, material science stress analysis, electrochemical machining analysis, probabilistic analysis, energy and academic computing, radiation shielding modeling, and other applications. The lineup also included the Cyber 18 and Cyber 1000 minicomputers. Like their predecessor, the CDC 6600, they were unusual in using the ones' complement binary representation.
The IBM System/3 was an IBM midrange computer introduced in 1969, and marketed until 1985. It was produced by IBM Rochester in Minnesota as a low-end business computer aimed at smaller organizations that still used IBM 1400 series computers or unit record equipment. The first member of what IBM refers to as their "midrange" line, it also introduced the RPG II programming language.
The CDC 3000 series computers from Control Data Corporation were mid-1960s follow-ons to the CDC 1604 and CDC 924 systems.
The CDC 6000 series was a family of mainframe computers manufactured by Control Data Corporation in the 1960s. It consisted of the CDC 6200, CDC 6300, CDC 6400, CDC 6500, CDC 6600 and CDC 6700 computers, which were all extremely rapid and efficient for their time. Each was a large, solid-state, general-purpose, digital computer that performed scientific and business data processing as well as multiprogramming, multiprocessing, Remote Job Entry, time-sharing, and data management tasks under the control of the operating system called SCOPE. By 1970 there also was a time-sharing oriented operating system named KRONOS. They were part of the first generation of supercomputers. The 6600 was the flagship of Control Data's 6000 series.
CER model 12 was a third-generation digital computer developed by Mihajlo Pupin Institute (Serbia) in 1971 and intended for "business and statistical data processing". However, the manufacturer also stated, at the time, that having in mind its architecture and performance, it can also be used successfully in solving "wide array of scientific and technical issues". Computer CER-12 consisted of multiple modules connected via wire wrap and connectors.
The CDC 160 series was a series of minicomputers built by Control Data Corporation. The CDC 160 and CDC 160-A were 12-bit minicomputers built from 1960 to 1965; the CDC 160G was a 13-bit minicomputer, with an extended version of the CDC 160-A instruction set, and a compatibility mode in which it did not use the 13th bit. The 160 was designed by Seymour Cray - reportedly over a long three-day weekend. It fit into the desk where its operator sat.
NOS is a discontinued operating system with time-sharing capabilities, written by Control Data Corporation in the 1970s.
The Honeywell 316 was a popular 16-bit minicomputer built by Honeywell starting in 1969. It is part of the Series 16, which includes the Models 116, 316 (1969), 416 (1966), 516 (1966) and DDP-716 (1969). They were commonly used for data acquisition and control, remote message concentration, clinical laboratory systems, Remote Job Entry and time-sharing. The Series-16 computers are all based on the DDP-116 designed by Gardner Hendrie at Computer Control Company, Inc. (3C) in 1964.
MERA 300 was a Polish-built 8-bit minicomputer family. It was first introduced in 1974 at the Poznań Trade Fair and Exhibition.
The Bendix G-20 computer was introduced in 1961 by the Bendix Corporation, Computer Division, Los Angeles, California. The G-20 followed the highly successful G-15 vacuum tube computer. Bendix sold its computer division to Control Data Corporation in 1963, effectively terminating the G-20.
BESYS was an early computing environment originally implemented as a batch processing operating system in 1957 at Bell Labs for the IBM 704 computer. It was developed because Bell recognized a "definite mismatch…between the 704's internal speed, the sluggishness of its on-line unit-record equipment, and the inherent slowness of manual operations associated with stand-alone use."
This is a glossary of terms relating to computer hardware – physical computer hardware, architectural issues, and peripherals.
The IBM System/360 Model 20 is the smallest member of the IBM System/360 family announced in November 1964. The Model 20 supports only a subset of the System/360 instruction set, with binary numbers limited to 16 bits and no floating point. In later years it would have been classified as a 16-bit minicomputer rather than a mainframe, but the term "minicomputer" was not current, and in any case IBM wanted to emphasize the compatibility of the Model 20 rather than its differences from the rest of the System/360 line. It does, however, have the full System/360 decimal instruction set, that allows for addition, subtraction, product, and dividend of up to 31 decimal digits.
Philips Technical Review, Volume 36, 1976, No., p.162 ff. Computer-aided design by Peter Blume: An early application of the CDC 1700 Digigraphic: shows in Fig. 4 a complete schematic of the computer configuration and in Fig. 5 a picture of the Digigraphic display Abstract:.... Work has been in progress at the Philips Laboratories in Hamburg since 1973 ... on an integrated computer system in which parts are completely detailed in a dialogue between the designer and a computer via an "interactive display" ...
The mentioned display is the display of the CDC 1700 Digigraphic. Fig. 4 Figure caption: The CDC 1700 Digigraphic computer system for the graphic processing of data. The interactive display is connected to the CD 1704 central processor via a control unit with a "picture store"; the computer itself has the usual mass stores and peripheral equipment. Information from the computer store can be displayed on the screen of the picture tube and can be altered or added to by using a light pen and keyboards connected to the interactive display. This means that very fast input of both alphanumeric and graphic information is possible, while the input can be verified immediately on the screen.