Eatoniella mortoni

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Eatoniella mortoni
Eatoniella (Dardanula) mortoni (Ponder, 1965) (AM MA71262).jpg
Holotype of Eatoniella mortoni from Auckland War Memorial Museum
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Caenogastropoda
Order: Littorinimorpha
Family: Eatoniellidae
Genus: Eatoniella
Species:
E. mortoni
Binomial name
Eatoniella mortoni
Ponder, 1965
Synonyms [1]
  • Eatoniella (Dardanula) mortoniPonder 1965

Eatoniella mortoni is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. [1] First described by Winston Ponder in 1965, it is endemic to the waters of New Zealand. The species has been used to study the effects of ocean acidification, as it is known to thrive in carbon dioxide-rich environments.

Contents

Taxonomy

The species was described as Eatoniella (Dardanula) mortoni in 1965 by Winston Ponder, who named it after New Zealand biologist John Morton. Morton had assisted Ponder during his early investigations into the species. [2] Ponder synonymised several previously-named genera, including Iredale's 1915 genus Dardanula, which was retained as a subgenus of Eatoniella. [2]

Description

Eatoniella mortoni has a solid, conical, smooth shell. The shells are widely variable in colour, from purple-tinted dark grey to pale yellow-grey. [2] The species measures 1.85 millimetres by 1.13 millimetres. [3]

Distribution

The species is often found living on kelp such as Ecklonia radiata Common Kelp Ecklonia radiata at Cape Rodney-Okakari Point Marine Reserve (2).jpg
The species is often found living on kelp such as Ecklonia radiata

The species is endemic to New Zealand. [1] The holotype was collected by Ponder himself on 11 December 1961, at Days Bay in Wellington. [4] The species is known to occur on both coasts of the North Island and South Island. [5] [2] [6] [7] In addition, the species can be found on the Chatham Islands [2] and the volcanic island Whakaari / White Island. [8]

Typically the species can be found on algae at low tide, [2] and underneath intertidal rocks, [5] and often lives on kelp species such as Ecklonia radiata . [9]

Ocean acidification studies

Different angle views of an Eatoniella mortoni specimen found in Abel Tasman National Park Eatoniella mortoni 01.jpg
Different angle views of an Eatoniella mortoni specimen found in Abel Tasman National Park

Eatoniella mortoni has been used as a species to study ocean acidification, as the species benefits from living in carbon dioxide-rich environments and remains localised, [9] [10] [11] [12] especially specimens sourced from the volcanic island Whakaari / White Island, due to their lifetime exposure to carbon dioxide vents. [13] Eatoniella mortoni can produce more crystalline, durable and less porous shells at natural carbon dioxide vents. [14]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ocean acidification</span> Climate change-induced decline of pH levels in the ocean

Ocean acidification is the reduction in the pH value of the Earth’s ocean. Between 1751 and 2021, the pH value of the ocean surface is estimated to have decreased from approximately 8.25 to 8.14. The root cause of ocean acidification are the human-caused carbon dioxide emissions which have led to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels of more than 410 ppm (in 2020). The oceans absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. This leads to the formation of carbonic acid which dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO−3) and a hydrogen ion (H+). The free hydrogen ions (H+) decrease the ocean pH of the ocean, causing "acidification" (this does not mean that seawater is acidic yet; it is still alkaline, with a pH higher than 8). The lowered pH causes a decrease in the concentration of carbonate ions, which are the main building block for calcium carbonate (CaCO3) shells and skeletons. It also lowers carbonate mineral saturation states. Marine calcifying organisms, like mollusks, oysters and corals, are particularly affected by this as they rely on calcium carbonate to build shells and skeletons.

Marine chemistry, also known as ocean chemistry or chemical oceanography, is influenced by plate tectonics and seafloor spreading, turbidity currents, sediments, pH levels, atmospheric constituents, metamorphic activity, and ecology. The field of chemical oceanography studies the chemistry of marine environments including the influences of different variables. Marine life has adapted to the chemistries unique to earth's oceans, and marine ecosystems are sensitive to changes in ocean chemistry.

Estuarine acidification happens when the pH balance of water in coastal marine ecosystems, specifically those of estuaries, decreases. Water, generally considered neutral on the pH scale, normally perfectly balanced between alkalinity and acidity. While ocean acidification occurs due to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, pH change in estuaries is more complicated than in the open ocean due to direct impacts from land run-off, human impact, and coastal current dynamics. In the ocean, wave and wind movement allows carbon dioxide (CO2) to mixes with water (H2O) forming carbonic acid (H2CO3). Through wave motion this chemical bond is mixed up, allowing for the further break of the bond, eventually becoming carbonate (CO3) which is basic and helps form shells for ocean creatures, and two hydron molecules. This creates the potential for acidic threat since hydron ions readily bond with any Lewis Structure to form an acidic bond. This is referred to as an oxidation-reduction reaction.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ocean acidification in the Great Barrier Reef</span> Threat to the reef which reduces the viability and strength of reef-building corals

Ocean acidification threatens the Great Barrier Reef by reducing the viability and strength of coral reefs. The Great Barrier Reef, considered one of the seven natural wonders of the world and a biodiversity hotspot, is located in Australia. Similar to other coral reefs, it is experiencing degradation due to ocean acidification. Ocean acidification results from a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which is taken up by the ocean. This process can increase sea surface temperature, decrease aragonite, and lower the pH of the ocean. The more humanity consumes fossil fuels, the more the ocean absorbs released CO₂, furthering ocean acidification.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Justin B. Ries</span> American marine scientist (born 1976)

Justin Baker Ries is an American marine scientist, best known for his contributions to ocean acidification, carbon sequestration, and biomineralization research.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean</span>

The Arctic ocean covers an area of 14,056,000 squared kilometers, and supports a diverse and important socioeconomic food web of organisms, despite its average water temperature being 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Over the last three decades, the Arctic Ocean has experienced drastic changes due to climate change. One of the changes is in the acidity levels of the ocean, which have been consistently increasing at twice the rate of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Arctic Ocean acidification is a result of feedback from climate system mechanisms, and is having negative impacts on Arctic Ocean ecosystems and the organisms that live within them.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Particulate inorganic carbon</span>

Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) can be contrasted with dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), the other form of inorganic carbon found in the ocean. These distinctions are important in chemical oceanography. Particulate inorganic carbon is sometimes called suspended inorganic carbon. In operational terms, it is defined as the inorganic carbon in particulate form that is too large to pass through the filter used to separate dissolved inorganic carbon.

<i>Eatoniella albocolumella</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella albocolumella is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. It was first described by Winston Ponder in 1965. It is endemic to the waters of New Zealand.

<i>Eatoniella bathamae</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella bathamae is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. It was first described by Winston F. Ponder in 1965. It is endemic to the waters of New Zealand.

<i>Eatoniella fossa</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella fossa is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. It was first described by Winston F. Ponder in 1965. It is endemic to the waters of New Zealand.

<i>Eatoniella globosa</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella globosa is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. It was first described by Winston F. Ponder in 1965. It is endemic to the waters of New Zealand.

<i>Eatoniella fuscosubucula</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella fuscosubucula is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. It was first described by Winston F. Ponder in 1965. It is endemic to the waters of New Zealand.

<i>Eatoniella latebricola</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella latebricola is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. It was first described by Winston F. Ponder in 1965. It is endemic to the waters of New Zealand.

<i>Eatoniella notalabia</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella notalabia is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. It was first described by Winston F. Ponder in 1965. It is endemic to the waters of New Zealand.

<i>Eatoniella perforata</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella perforata is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. First described by Winston Ponder in 1965, it is endemic to the waters of New Zealand. Compared to most other Eatoniella species of New Zealand, E. perforata is found in relatively deep water.

<i>Eatoniella pullmitra</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella pullmitra is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. First described by Winston Ponder in 1965, it is endemic to the waters of New Zealand. The species has a preference for living on algae found in the sublittoral zone.

<i>Eatoniella rakiura</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella rakiura is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. First described by Winston Ponder in 1965, it is endemic to the waters of New Zealand. The first specimens of the species were exclusively found around Stewart Island.

<i>Eatoniella smithae</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella smithae is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. First described by Winston Ponder in 1965, it is endemic to the waters of New Zealand, and is one of the most common marine species found around Stewart Island.

<i>Eatoniella stewartiana</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella stewartiana is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. First described by Winston Ponder in 1965, it is endemic to the waters of New Zealand.

<i>Eatoniella varicolor</i> Species of gastropod

Eatoniella varicolor is a species of marine gastropod mollusc in the family Eatoniellidae. First described by Winston Ponder in 1965, it is endemic to the waters of New Zealand.

References

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  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ponder, W. F. (1965). "The Family Eatoniellidae in New Zealand". Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum. 6: 85. ISSN   0067-0464. JSTOR   42906115. Wikidata   Q58676802.
  3. "Eatoniella mortoni". New Zealand Mollusca. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
  4. Blom, Wilma (2022). "Fossil and Recent molluscan types in the Auckland War Memorial Museum. Part 4: Gastropoda (Caenogastropoda – Neocyclotidae to Epitoniidae). [Cyclophoroidea, Cerithioidea, Littorinimorpha]". Records of the Auckland Museum . 56 (55): 39–62. doi:10.32912/ram.2020.55.7. ISSN   2422-8567. S2CID   229670783 . Retrieved 20 October 2022.
  5. 1 2 Hayward, Bruce; Morley, Margaret (2004). "Intertidal Life Around the Coast of the Waitakere Ranges, Auckland" (PDF). Auckland Regional Council . Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  6. "Eatoniella mortoni". Auckland War Memorial Museum . Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  7. "marine snail, Eatoniella mortoni Ponder, 1965". Te Papa . Retrieved 17 November 2022.
  8. "marine snail, Eatoniella mortoni Ponder, 1965". Te Papa . Retrieved 17 November 2022.
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