This article needs additional citations for verification .(May 2022)
Eclecticism is a 19th and 20th century architectural style in which a single piece of work incorporates a mixture of elements from previous historical styles to create something that is new and original. In architecture and interior design, these elements may include structural features, furniture, decorative motives, distinct historical ornament, traditional cultural motifs or styles from other countries, with the mixture usually chosen based on its suitability to the project and overall aesthetic value.
The term is also used of the many architects of the 19th and early 20th centuries who designed buildings in a variety of styles according to the wishes of their clients, or their own. The styles were typically revivalist, and each building might be mostly or entirely consistent within the style selected, or itself an eclectic mixture. Gothic Revival architecture, especially in churches, was most likely to strive for a relatively "pure" revival style from a particular medieval period and region, while other revived styles such as Neoclassical, Baroque, Palazzo style, Jacobethan, Romanesque and many others were likely to be treated more freely.
Eclecticism came into practice during the late 19th century, as architects sought a style that would allow them to retain previous historic precedent, but create unseen designs. From a complete catalogue of past styles, the ability to mix and combine styles allowed for more expressive freedom and provided an endless source of inspiration. Whilst other design professionals (referred to as 'revivalists') aimed to meticulously imitate past styles, Eclecticism differed, as the main driving force was creation, not nostalgiaand there was a desire for the designs to be original.
Eclectic architecture first appeared across continental Europe in various countries such as France (Beaux-Arts architecture), England (Victorian architecture) and Germany (Gründerzeit),in response to the growing push amongst architects to have more expressive freedom over their work.
The École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, considered to be one of the first professional architectural schools, trained students in a rigorous and academic manner, equipping them with skills and professional prestige. Teachers at the École were some of the leading architects in France, and this new method of teaching was so successful, that it attracted students from across the globe.Many of the graduates went on to become pioneers of the movement, and used their Beaux-Arts training as a foundation for new eclectic designs.
Whilst the practise of this style of architecture was widespread (and could be seen in many town halls constructed at the time),eclecticism in Europe did not achieve the same level of enthusiasm that was seen in America – as it was assumed that the presence of old, authentic architecture, reduced the appeal of historical imitation in new buildings.
The end of the 19th century saw a profound shift in American Architecture. Architects educated at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, such as Richard Morris Hunt and Charles Follen McKim were responsible for bringing the beaux-arts approach back from Europe, which was said to be the cornerstone of eclectic architecture in America.At a time of increasing prosperity and commercial pride, many eclectic buildings were commissioned in large cities around the country. The style thrived, as it introduced historical features, previously only seen in the aristocratic architecture of European countries such as Britain and France, contributing to a richer sense of culture and history within America. In the case of Hunt and many other eclectic architects, his 'typically eclectic viewpoint' enabled him to make stylistic choices based on whatever suited the particular project or the client. This flexibility to adapt, and to blend freely between styles gave eclectic designers more appeal to clients.
The creation of skyscrapers and other large public spaces such as churches, courthouses, city halls, public libraries and movie theatres, meant that eclectic design was no longer only for members of high-society, but was also accessible to the general public.While some of these buildings have since been demolished (including the original Pennsylvania station and the first Madison Square garden—both in New York City), projects that remain from this era are still valued as some of the most important structures in America.
Some of the most extreme examples of eclectic design could be seen onboard ocean liners (which at the time were the primary form of overseas transport). The lavish interiors were crafted with a mix of traditional styles—in an attempt to ease the discomfort of months abroad and to create the illusion of established grandeur.
At a similar time, such vessels were being used to transport colonists to undeveloped areas of the world. The colonisation of such areas, further spread the Eclectic architecture of the western world, as newly settled colonists built structures commonly featuring Roman classicism and Gothic motifs.
To a lesser extent, Eclecticism appeared across Asia, as Japanese and Chinese architects who had trained at American Beaux-Arts influenced schools, returned to produce eclectic designs across Asia such as the Bank of Japan (1895) by Kingo Tatsuno. [ citation needed ]The so-called Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, which added details from traditional Indian architecture, mostly Mughal architecture, to essentially Western forms of public buildings and palaces, was an inherently eclectic style. Most of the architects were British.
As a style that offered so much creative freedom, and no guiding rules, the risk of creating an unsuccessful design was apparent to all. Projects that failed to harmoniously blend the different styles were subject to criticism from professionals (particularly those who opposed the movement).
Enthusiasm for historical imitation began to decline in the 1930s and eclecticism was phased out in the curriculums of design schools, in favour of a new style. The shift towards Late Modernism, Postmodernism, Brutalism, Art Deco and Streamline Modernewas significant as it was seen by many as avant-garde and the new technology and materials being produced at the time allowed for greater innovation. Despite the move away from eclecticism, the era still remains historically significant as it "re-opened the doors to innovation and new forms" for architecture in the following years.
The rise in eclectic architecture created a need for interior specialists who had the skill, understanding and knowledge of past historical styles, to produce suitable accompanying interiors. This resulted in the emergence of interior designer as a regarded profession.Prominent interior designers in this era (between the late 19th and early 20th century) include Elsie De Wolfe, Rose Cumming, Nancy McClelland, Elsie Cobb Wilson, Francis Elkins, Surie Maugham and Dorothy Draper. Whilst the clientele of these early designers consisted exclusively of wealthy families and businesses, the works of such decorators were regularly featured in popular publications such as House and Garden , House Beautiful , and the Ladies Home Journal . Publishing the lavish interiors of these magnificent homes helped to spread the eclectic style to the middle classes, and less extravagant imitations or the incorporation of similar decorative elements became a desirable feature in domestic decoration. Aesthetic preferences varied from region to region across America, with Spanish styles being favoured in California, and elements of American Colonial architecture being popular in New England.
In contemporary society, styles that draw from many different cultural and historical styles are loosely described as "eclectic" though references to eclectic architecture within literature and media are usually about buildings constructed within the eclectic movement of the late 19th-early 20th century period.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially the decorative arts. The style is known by different names in different languages: Jugendstil in German, Stile Liberty in Italian, Modernisme in Catalan, and also known as the Modern Style in English. It was popular between 1890 and 1910 during the Belle Époque period, and was a reaction against the academic art, eclecticism and historicism of 19th century architecture and decoration. It was often inspired by natural forms such as the sinuous curves of plants and flowers. Other characteristics of Art Nouveau were a sense of dynamism and movement, often given by asymmetry or whiplash lines, and the use of modern materials, particularly iron, glass, ceramics and later concrete, to create unusual forms and larger open spaces.
The architecture of the United States demonstrates a broad variety of architectural styles and built forms over the country's history of over two centuries of independence and former Spanish and British rule.
Charles Follen McKim was an American Beaux-Arts architect of the late 19th century. Along with William Rutherford Mead and Stanford White, he provided the architectural expertise as a member of the partnership McKim, Mead & White.
Néo-Grec was a Neoclassical Revival style of the mid-to-late 19th century that was popularized in architecture, the decorative arts, and in painting during France's Second Empire, or the reign of Napoleon III (1852–1870). The Néo-Grec vogue took as its starting point the earlier expressions of the Neoclassical style inspired by 18th-century excavations at Pompeii, which resumed in earnest in 1848, and similar excavations at Herculaneum. The style mixed elements of the Graeco-Roman, Pompeian, Adam and Egyptian Revival styles into "a richly eclectic polychrome mélange." "The style enjoyed a vogue in the United States, and had a short-lived impact on interior design in England and elsewhere."
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but also incorporated Renaissance and Baroque elements, and used modern materials, such as iron and glass. It was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century.
Indo-Saracenic architecture was a revivalist architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states. It drew stylistic and decorative elements from native Indo-Islamic architecture, especially Mughal architecture, which the British regarded as the classic Indian style, and, less often, from Hindu temple architecture. The basic layout and structure of the buildings tended to be close to that used in contemporary buildings in other revivalist styles, such as Gothic revival and Neo-Classical, with specific Indian features and decoration added.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the Neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century in Italy and France. It became one of the most prominent architectural styles in the Western world. The prevailing styles of architecture in most of Europe for the previous two centuries, Renaissance architecture and Baroque architecture, already represented partial revivals of the Classical architecture of ancient Rome and ancient Greek architecture, but the Neoclassical movement aimed to strip away the excesses of Late Baroque and return to a purer and more authentic classical style, adapted to modern purposes.
Renaissance Revival architecture is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival nor Gothic Revival but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes. Under the broad designation Renaissance architecture nineteenth-century architects and critics went beyond the architectural style which began in Florence and Central Italy in the early 15th century as an expression of Renaissance humanism; they also included styles that can be identified as Mannerist or Baroque. Self-applied style designations were rife in the mid- and later nineteenth century: "Neo-Renaissance" might be applied by contemporaries to structures that others called "Italianate", or when many French Baroque features are present.
American Craftsman is an American domestic architectural style, inspired by the Arts and Crafts movement, which included interior design, landscape design, applied arts, and decorative arts, beginning in the last years of the 19th century. Its immediate ancestors in American architecture are the Shingle style, which began the move away from Victorian ornamentation toward simpler forms; and the Prairie style of Frank Lloyd Wright. The name "Craftsman" was appropriated from furniture-maker Gustav Stickley, whose magazine The Craftsman was first published in 1901. The architectural style was most widely used in small-to-medium-sized Southern California single-family homes from about 1905, so that the smaller-scale Craftsman style became known alternatively as "California bungalow". The style remained popular into the 1930s, and has continued with revival and restoration projects through present times.
Victorian decorative arts refers to the style of decorative arts during the Victorian era. Victorian design is widely viewed as having indulged in a grand excess of ornament. The Victorian era is known for its interpretation and eclectic revival of historic styles mixed with the introduction of Asian and Middle Eastern influences in furniture, fittings, and interior decoration. The Arts and Crafts movement, the aesthetic movement, Anglo-Japanese style, and Art Nouveau style have their beginnings in the late Victorian era and gothic period.
French architecture consists of numerous architectural styles that either originated in France or elsewhere and were developed within the territories of France.
Romanian architecture is diverse, including medieval, preWW1, interwar, postwar and contemporary 21st century architecture. In Romania, there are also regional differences with regard to architectural styles. Architecture, like the rest of the arts, was highly influenced by the socio-economic context and by the historical situation. For example, during the reign of king Carol I (1866-1914), Romania was in a continuous state of reorganization and modernization. In consequence, most of the architecture was designed by architects trained in Western European academies, particularly the École des Beaux-Arts, and a big part of the downtowns of the Romanian Old Kingdom were built during this period.
Historicism or historism comprises artistic styles that draw their inspiration from recreating historic styles or imitating the work of historic artisans. This is especially prevalent in architecture, such as Revival architecture. Through a combination of different styles or implementation of new elements, historicism can create completely different aesthetics than former styles. Thus, it offers a great variety of possible designs.
Second Empire style, also known as the Napoleon III style, was a highly eclectic style of architecture and decorative arts, which used elements of many different historical styles, and also made innovative use of modern materials, such as iron frameworks and glass skylights. It flourished during the reign of Emperor Napoleon III in France (1852–1871) and had an important influence on architecture and decoration in the rest of Europe and North America. Major examples of the style include the Opéra Garnier (1862–1871) in Paris by Charles Garnier, the Bibliothèque nationale de France, the Church of Saint Augustine (1860–1871), and the Philadelphia City Hall (1871–1901). The architectural style was closely connected with Haussmann's renovation of Paris carried out during the Second Empire; the new buildings, such as the Opéra, were intended as the focal points of the new boulevards.
École des Beaux-Arts refers to a number of influential art schools in France. The term is associated with the Beaux-Arts style in architecture and city planning that thrived in France and other countries during the late nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century.
Architecture in the American city of San Antonio, Texas comes from a wide variety of sources, but many of the city's buildings reflect Texas' Spanish and Mexican roots; with some influence from French builders, among others. Relatively rapid economic growth since the mid twentieth century has led to a fairly wide variety of contemporary architectural buildings.
The Blackstone Apartments are located at 222 Summit Ave East in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle, Washington, United States. The apartment complex was designed and owned by J.S. Long and built by the Long Building Company in 1927. The Long Building Company was known for designing and building many of the Bungalow-style homes, particularly in the First Hill neighborhood of Seattle under the guidance of Stanley Long. The building consists of 26 units with a mixture of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-room suites; it has a brick exterior with a great deal of mahogany woodwork in the interiors and built-ins throughout the units, and was originally fitted with Monarch electric stoves and Frigidaires. The complex was "regarded as one of the most modern units of its kind in the city" when it was completed.
Second Empire, in the United States and Canada, is an architectural style most popular between 1865 and 1900. Second Empire architecture developed from the redevelopment of Paris under Napoleon III's Second French Empire and looked to French Renaissance precedents. It was characterized by a mansard roof, elaborate ornament, and strong massing and was notably used for public buildings as well as commercial and residential design.
In the New World, Queen Anne Revival was a historicist architectural style of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was popular in the United States, Canada, Australia, and other countries. In Australia, it is also called Federation architecture.
Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, has a unique and diverse architectural history. Encompassing government, monumental, commercial, and residential buildings, D.C. is home to some of the country's most famous and popular structures designed by some of the leading architects of their time. The popularity of Washington's buildings is evident by the fact that a 2007 poll of Americans by the American Institute of Architects found that six of the top 10 most popular U.S. structures were located in Washington, D.C. Overall, 17 of the top 150 most popular structures were located in the capital.