Emasculation is the removal of both the penis and the testicles, the external male sex organs. It differs from castration, which is the removal of the testicles only, although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably.The potential medical consequences of emasculation are more extensive than those associated with castration, as the removal of the penis gives rise to a unique series of complications. There are a range of religious, cultural, punitive, and personal reasons why someone may choose to emasculate themselves or another person. Consensual emasculation may be seen as a form of body modification which enhances a recipient's connection with the community or sense of self. By comparison, non-consensual emasculations, such as those performed punitively or accidentally, may constitute genital mutilation. The medical treatment for an emasculated person differs depending on whether the procedure was consensual or not.
Emasculation is also used metaphorically to refer to the loss of a man's masculinity. A man is said to be emasculated when he loses, or is deprived of, a characteristic traditionally associated with being a man, such as power or independence.
There are several different methods of emasculation. Both the penis and testicles may be removed simultaneously using a sharp instrument, such as a knife or razor or swords. This method is often used by medical surgeons on transgender women,or elders performing cultural or religious emasculations. Non-crushing vascular clamps may also be used in medical surgery to cut off blood circulation and reduce bleeding.
Alternatively, the penis and testicles may be removed at different stages in time. Medical surgeons use this method when performing surgery on trans women who want their genitals removed over multiple sex reassignment surgeries (male-to-female), rather than in a single sitting.In one reported case, a transsexual male used this method on herself, first removing her testicles and later her penis, as she was unable to obtain appropriate gender affirming surgery in a medical setting. Another instance involved a trans woman with schizophrenia progressively tightening a string around her genitals to cut off blood flow.
Short term consequences of emasculation include bleeding,and infection. Historically, death was also a potential complication, although the prevalence is disputed.
Long term complications include incontinenceurethral stricture, urine retention, urinary tract infection, urine extravasation, and bladder stones. Some studies have found that Emasculation may cause a range of physiological changes, such as a shortened torso, widened stomach and hips, increased height, bowed legs, and an elongated skull. Additionally, emasculates typically have less or no facial and body hair, increased fatty tissue or gynecomastia, and a feminine fat pattern distributions. The physiological effects of emasculation are more severe for people who undergo the procedure before the onset of puberty.
Emasculation was performed in China on men to create palace eunuchs for the Imperial court.The practice dates back to the Shang dynasty (1600–1046 BC) and continued up until 1924, when the eunuch system was abolished by the last emperor of China, Puyi. The last living palace eunuch, Sun Yaoting, died in 1996.
Originally, palace eunuchs were prisoners who were involuntarily emasculated. In the Qing dynasty, men began volunteering to undergo the procedure in order to gain employment, although instances of forced emasculation still occurred.One reason why recipients willingly underwent emasculation is that they saw employment as a palace eunuch as a way to acquire wealth and power. Alternatively, poverty was a reason why fathers forced their sons to undergo emasculation, and the desire for financial benefit motivated human traffickers to force emasculation on their victims.
There were several reasons why the Imperial court required its civil servants to be emasculated. Emasculation was thought to ensure a recipient's undivided loyalty to the emperor, as it severs the recipient's existing familial or social bonds and destroys their ability to produce future heirs.The choice to hire emasculated eunuchs also ensured the legitimacy of the emperor's lineage. The choice to emasculate, rather than merely castrate, was motivated by a desire to protect the chastity of women in the court, as emasculation rendered a recipient physically incapable of having sex. While emasculation was a pre-requisite for gaining employment as a palace eunuch, it did not guarantee employment.
The emasculation procedure was typically performed by a trained 'knifer', or 'knife expert'.To prepare for the operation, the recipient was bathed in cold water to numb their senses and, in some instances, their genitals were twisted to reduce blood flow. The recipient was then asked if they consented to the procedure, and if they answered yes the knifer excised the genitals with a single cut. Styptic powder was then applied to the wound to stop bleeding, and a pewter needle or spigot was inserted into the urethra to prevent stenosis (narrowing).
Some notable Chinese emasculates include the great historian Sima Qian, Cao Teng, the grandfather of Cao Cao, Zheng He, a Ming dynasty admiral of the imperial navy who sailed to Africa and possibly America, and the surviving sons and grandson of rebel Yaqub Beg.
To create eunuchs for the Arab slave trade, young black boys from East Africa typically had their penis and scrotum completely amputated.White boys, by comparison, were usually only castrated.
Emasculation was one form of genital mutilation practiced by the Skoptsy, a Russian Christian sect. For males, the other form of mutilation available was castration, whereas females could remove their nipples, breasts, labia majora, labia minora or clitoris.These practices may have begun sometime during the 1760s, after the sect was founded by Kondratii Selivanov, although they were only discovered by the broader community in 1772. They continued up until the 1930s, when the sect was destroyed and its members sentenced.
The Skoptsy practiced genital mutilation because they believed the genitals were the source of original sin, and that by removing them, they could attain salvation.The aim of removing the offending genitalia was to purify the body. Their belief was based on a literal reading of the verse of Matthew 19:12, which states: “There are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother’s womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven’s sake.” In addition, the verses of Matthew 18:8–0 and Luke 23:29 were also cited as support. Of the two types of genital mutilation available to men, emasculation was called the Greater Seal. Castration, by comparison, was called the Lesser Seal. Emasculation was preferable because it rendered a recipient physically incapable of engaging in sinful sexual conduct, allowing them to attain a higher level of purity.
Originally, the emasculation procedure was performed by burning the testicles off with an iron.Later, the genitals were tied at the base and removed using a knife or razor blade. The wound was then cauterised, or a salve was applied, to prevent bleeding. Many of the Skoptsy were peasants and were familiar with animal husbandry, which meant their emasculation procedures were often performed with “surgical precision.” In some instances, members of the Skoptsy would perform the emasculation on themselves, in an act of self-surgery, though it was more typical for the procedure to be performed by an elder during a ceremony.
For the Skoptsy, emasculation did not affect a recipient's gender identity.
Throughout the Indian subcontinent tradition, including India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, some members of the Hijra community reportedly undergo emasculation, or nirvan.
Traditionally, emasculation was a rite of passage into the Hijra community.Today it remains an important ritual, though is not mandatory nor is it universally practiced. When it is performed, it typically occurs several years after an individual has already participated within the Hijra community. While some Hijra are emasculated, others are intersex, undeveloped in puberty or impotent.
Whether or not a Hijra undergoes emasculation is influenced by a range of considerations. Some people are not emasculated because they are fearful of surgical complications, are under financial constraints, or merely as a matter of personal choice.For Muslim Hijra, emasculation may be avoided due to the belief that genital mutilation goes against Allah's will. Others see emasculation is seen as necessary in order to be 'reborn' as a Hijra. On this view, emasculated Hijra as more 'real' than those who are not. The decision to be emasculated may also be motivated by personal beliefs about whether or not a Hijra can have spiritual powers without undergoing the procedure. Amongst members of the Hijra community, this issue is subject to considerable debate.
In the past, the emasculation procedure was performed by barbers or by the individual themselves (i.e. self-emasculation).Nowadays, the operation is performed by a Hijra elder, also called a dai ma (midwife). They have no medical training, but believe they operate with the power of the patron goddess, Bahuchara Mata. The operation takes place early in the morning, around 3 am or 4 am. The recipient is not administered anaesthesia. The penis and testes are tied together with a string, and the elder then makes two diagonal cuts with a sharp surgical knife to completely excise the organs. The elder allows the blood to gush out from the wound as this is necessary to completely cleanse the recipient of their male parts. This is one reason why the procedure is performed by an elder rather than a trained medical surgeon, who may try to stop the haemorrhage and would therefore interfere with the ritual's cleansing effect. Afterwards, no stitches are made and the wound is left exposed, although a small stick is inserted into the urethra to prevent urethral stricture.
For the Hijra, emasculation does affect a recipient's gender identity, with some identifying as female, non-binary, or a third gender.as a result of the procedure.
Emasculation was one of the Five Punishments used in ancient China.It was the prescribed punishment for people who engaged in licentious conduct, such as infidelity or rape. The first evidence of its use dates to the Shang dynasty (1700-1100 BC), when the characters for a knife and male genitalia were carved into oracle bones. It continued up until the Sui dynasty (581-618 CE), when it was formally abolished.
See article: Hanged, drawn and quartered
Emasculation occurs (voluntarily) within the transgender community as a form of gender reassignment surgery, allowing recipients to renounce their masculine characteristics and bring their body into closer alignment with their identified gender. It may be sought by trans women (those assigned male at birth who identify as female), who wish to assume their femininity, or by non-binary transgender individuals (those assigned male at birth who identify as neither male nor female), who want to locate themselves outside of traditional gender categories.
For trans women, emasculation surgery may be performed with or without the creation of a vagina. When a vagina is created, the procedure is called a vaginoplasty,and where it isn't, the procedure is called a cosmesis or cosmetic vulvoplasty.
For non-binary transgender persons, the purpose of emasculation is to make the body less congruent with one's biological sex without the subsequent assumption of femininity.These individuals may identify as non-binary, or as a third-sex or eunuch. Some adopt the term ‘nullo,’ meaning someone whose gender has been nullified.
In some instances, transgender persons may seek emasculation outside of medical facilities (i.e. self-emasculation).
Occasionally self-emasculation is practiced by transgender persons.When compared with the general population, transgender persons are at a higher risk of engaging in acts of genital self-mutilation, including self-emasculation. The inability to acquire gender-affirming surgery by a medical professional has prompted people to resort to self-emasculation.
There are reports of several self-emasculation cases resulting from mental disorder. Some academics claim that a majority of self-emasculations are a result of psychosis,although this finding has been challenged. Nonetheless, there are several reported cases of people with schizophrenia engaging in self-emasculation.
Skoptic syndrome, or Klingsor syndrome, is a condition where people mutilate their genitals as a result of psychotic religious delusions.For example, a person with Skoptic syndrome is reported to have mutilated his genitals after experiencing auditory hallucinations telling him he would only be allowed into the Kingdom of Heaven if he emasculated himself.
Body integrity dysphoria , or xenomelia, is another mental disorder that may drive a person to seek emasculation.People with this disorder are distressed by the presence of a limb which they don't identify as part of their body, including the genitals. Emasculation in this context alleviates the sufferer from distress, enabling them to become ‘whole’. However, the amputation of healthy limbs by medical professionals is highly controversial. The inability to acquire medically administered emasculation has driven some sufferers to self-emasculation.
In some cases, a person suffering a mental illness has emasculated other people.
In some circumstances, a person may be emasculated involuntarily. For instance, they may be emasculated as the result of an accident,as part of a ritual attack, or due to poor circumcision practice.
In these cases, the objective of medical treatment is different to that for cases of voluntary emasculation. The goals of treatment are to either reattach the severed genitals or to reconstruct an artificial penis and testes.
In the past, cases of involuntarily emasculated children were treated with gender reassignment surgery, similar to the treatment received by David Reimer after his penis was burnt off during a circumcision procedure. It is now known from cases such as Reimer's that gender reassignment surgery in infancy can inappropriately interfere with the process of gender identity formation later in life. As such, gender reassignment is no longer the standard practice for involuntarily emasculated infants
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By extension, the word emasculation has also come to mean rendering a male less masculine, including by humiliation. It can also mean to deprive anything of vigour or effectiveness. This figurative usage has become more common than the literal meaning. For example: "William Lewis Hughes voted for Folkestone’s amendment to Curwen’s emasculated reform bill, 12 June 1809..."
In horticulture, the removal of male (pollen) parts of a plant, largely for controlled pollination and breeding purposes, is also called emasculation.
The clitoris is a female sex organ present in mammals, ostriches and a limited number of other animals. In humans, the visible portion – the glans – is at the front junction of the labia minora, above the opening of the urethra. Unlike the penis, the male homologue (equivalent) to the clitoris, it usually does not contain the distal portion of the urethra and is therefore not used for urination. The clitoris also usually lacks a reproductive function. While few animals urinate through the clitoris or use it reproductively, the spotted hyena, which has an especially large clitoris, urinates, mates, and gives birth via the organ. Some other mammals, such as lemurs and spider monkeys, also have a large clitoris.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common. UNICEF estimated in 2016 that 200 million women living today in 30 countries—27 African countries, Indonesia, Iraqi Kurdistan and Yemen—have undergone the procedures.
The terms genital modification and genital mutilation can refer to permanent or temporary changes to human sex organs. Some forms of genital alteration are performed on adults with their informed consent at their own behest, usually for aesthetic reasons or to enhance stimulation. However, other forms are performed on people who do not give informed consent, including infants or children. Any of these procedures may be considered modifications or mutilations in different cultural contexts and by different groups of people.
A eunuch is a man who has been castrated. Throughout history, castration often served a specific social function.
Castration is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles: the male gonad. Surgical castration is bilateral orchiectomy, and chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs to deactivate the testes. Castration causes sterilization ; it also greatly reduces the production of certain hormones, such as testosterone. Surgical castration in animals is often called neutering.
Body modification is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance. It is often done for aesthetics, sexual enhancement, rites of passage, religious beliefs, to display group membership or affiliation, in remembrance of lived experience, traditional symbolism such as axis mundi and mythology, to create body art, for shock value, and as self-expression, among other reasons. In its broadest definition it includes skin tattooing, socially acceptable decoration, and religious rites of passage, as well as the modern primitive movement.
Gender identity is the personal sense of one's own gender. Gender identity can correlate with a person's assigned sex at birth or can differ from it. Gender expression typically reflects a person's gender identity, but this is not always the case. While a person may express behaviors, attitudes, and appearances consistent with a particular gender role, such expression may not necessarily reflect their gender identity. The term gender identity was originally coined by Robert J. Stoller in 1964.
John William Money was a New Zealand psychologist, sexologist and author known for his research into sexual identity and biology of gender and his conduct towards vulnerable patients. He was one of the first researchers to publish theories on the influence of societal constructs of gender on individual formation of gender identity. Money introduced the terms gender identity, gender role and sexual orientation and popularised the term paraphilia. He spent a considerable amount of his career in America.
The Skoptsy were a sect within the larger Spiritual Christianity movement in the Russian Empire, best known for practicing castration of men and the mastectomy of women in accordance with their teachings against sexual lust. The term is a descriptive one used by the official Russian Orthodox Church.
In the Indian subcontinent, Hijra are eunuchs, intersex people, and transgender people. Also known as Aravani, Aruvani, Jogappa, or (derogatorily) Chhakka, the hijra community in India prefer to call themselves Kinnar or Kinner, referring to the mythological beings that excel at song and dance. In Pakistan, they are called Khawaja Sira, the equivalent of transgender in the Urdu language.
Frot is a non-penetrative form of male-to-male sexual activity that usually involves direct penis-to-penis contact. The term was popularized by gay men activists who disparaged the practice of anal sex, but has since evolved to encompass a variety of preferences for the act, which may or may not imply particular attitudes towards other sexual activities. Owing to its non-penetrative character, frot has the safe sex advantage of minimizing the transmission risk for HIV/AIDS; however, it still carries the risk of skin-to-skin sexually transmitted infections, such as HPV and pubic lice (crabs), both of which can be transmitted even when lesions are not visible.
While Marxists propose replacing the bourgeois state with a proletarian semi-state through revolution, which would eventually wither away, anarchists warn that the state must be abolished along with capitalism. Nonetheless, the desired end results, a stateless, communal society, are the same.
Herpetotheriidae is an extinct family of metatherians. Although sometimes placed in the living opossum family, they may form the sister clade to all living marsupials. Species of this family are generally reconstructed as terrestrial. Fossils of herpetotheriids come from North America, Asia, Europe, Africa, and perhaps South America. The oldest representative is Maastrichtidelphys from the latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of the Netherlands and the youngest member is Amphiperatherium from the Middle Miocene of Europe.
In ancient civilizations, the removal of the human penis was sometimes used to demonstrate superiority or dominance over an enemy. Armies were sometimes known to sever the penises of their enemies to count the dead, as well as for trophies. The practice of castration sometimes involved the removal of all or part of the penis, generally with a tube inserted to keep the urethra open for urination. Castration has been used to create a class of servants or slaves called eunuchs in many different places and eras.
The early life of Joseph Stalin covers the life of Joseph Stalin from his birth on 18 December 1878 until the October Revolution on 7 November 1917. Born Ioseb Jughashvili in Gori, Georgia, to a cobbler and a house cleaner, he grew up in the city and attended school there before moving to Tiflis to join the Tiflis Seminary. While a student at the seminary he embraced Marxism and became an avid follower of Vladimir Lenin, and left the seminary to become a revolutionary. After being marked by Russian secret police for his activities, he became a full-time revolutionary and outlaw. He became one of the Bolsheviks' chief operatives in the Caucasus, organizing paramilitaries, spreading propaganda, raising money through bank robberies, and kidnappings and extortion. Stalin was captured and exiled to Siberia numerous times, but often escaped. He became one of Lenin's closest associates, which helped him rise to the heights of power after the Russian Revolution. In 1913 Stalin was exiled to Siberia for the final time, and remained in exile until the February Revolution of 1917 led to the overthrow of the Russian Empire.
David Reimer was a Canadian man born male but changed to female without his consent and raised as a girl following medical advice and intervention after his penis was severely injured during a botched circumcision in infancy.
Nahid Toubia is a Sudanese surgeon and women's health rights activist, specializing in research into female genital mutilation.
Intersex, in humans and other animals, describes variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit typical binary notions of male or female bodies". Intersex people were historically termed hermaphrodites, "congenital eunuchs", or even congenitally "frigid". Such terms have fallen out of favor, now considered to be misleading and stigmatizing.
In 2015, Nepal introduced constitutional recognition for "gender and sexual minorities". Despite this, the rights situation of intersex people in Nepal is unclear. Local activists have identified human rights violations, including significant gaps in protection of rights to physical integrity and bodily autonomy, and protection from discrimination. A first national meeting of intersex people look place in early 2016,Organised by First openly Intersex Rights Activist Esan Regmi in Nepal. with support from the UNDP.
The presidency of Jomo Kenyatta began in 12 December 1964, when Jomo Kenyatta was named as the 1st president of Kenya, and ended on 22 August 1978 upon his death. Jomo Kenyatta, a KANU member, took office following the formation of the republic of Kenya after independence following his efforts during the fight for Independence. Four years later, in the 1969 elections, he was the sole candidate and was elected unopposed for a second term in office. In 1974, he was re-elected for a third term. Although the post of President of Kenya was due to be elected at the same time as the National Assembly, Jomo Kenyatta was the sole candidate and was automatically elected without a vote being held. He died in 22 August 1978 while still in office and was succeeded by Daniel arap Moi.