Vasectomy

Last updated
Vasectomy
Vasectomy diagram-en.svg
Background
Type Sterilization
First use1899 (experiments from 1785) [1]
Failure rates (first year)
Perfect use0.10% [2]
Typical use0.15% [2]
"Vas-Clip" nearly 1%
Usage
Duration effectPermanent
ReversibilityPossible, but expensive.
User remindersTwo consecutive negative semen specimens required to verify no sperm.
Clinic reviewAll
Advantages and disadvantages
STI protectionNo
BenefitsNo need for general anesthesia. Lower cost and less invasive than tubal ligation for women.
RisksTemporary local inflammation of the testes, long-term genital pain.

Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. During the procedure, the male vasa deferentia are cut and tied or sealed so as to prevent sperm from entering into the urethra and thereby prevent fertilization of a female through sexual intercourse. Vasectomies are usually performed in a physician's office, medical clinic, or, when performed on an animal, in a veterinary clinic—hospitalization is not normally required as the procedure is not complicated, the incisions are small, and the necessary equipment routine.

Contents

There are several methods by which a surgeon might complete a vasectomy procedure, all of which occlude (i.e., "seal") at least one side of each vas deferens. To help reduce anxiety and increase patient comfort, men who have an aversion to needles may consider a "no-needle" application of anesthesia while the " no-scalpel " or "open-ended" techniques help to accelerate recovery times and increase the chance of healthy recovery. [3]

Due to the simplicity of the surgery, a vasectomy usually takes less than thirty minutes to complete. After a short recovery at the doctor's office (usually less than an hour), the patient is sent home to rest. Because the procedure is minimally invasive, many vasectomy patients find that they can resume their typical sexual behavior within a week, and do so with little or no discomfort.

Because the procedure is considered a permanent method of contraception and is not easily reversed, men are usually counseled and advised to consider how the long-term outcome of a vasectomy might affect them both emotionally and physically. The procedure is not often encouraged for young single childless men as their chances for biological parenthood are thereby more or less permanently reduced to almost zero, but ultimately is up to their own comfort in possibly wanting to conceive a child with a partner. It is seldom performed on dogs (castration, a different procedure, remains the preferred reproductive control option for canines) but is regularly performed on bulls. [4]

Medical uses

A vasectomy is done to prevent fertility in males. It ensures that in most cases the person will be sterile after confirmation of success following surgery. The procedure is regarded as permanent because vasectomy reversal is costly and often does not restore the male's sperm count or sperm motility to prevasectomy levels. Men with vasectomies have a very small (nearly zero) chance of successfully impregnating a woman, but a vasectomy has no effect on rates of sexually transmitted infections.

After vasectomy, the testes remain in the scrotum where Leydig cells continue to produce testosterone and other male hormones that continue to be secreted into the bloodstream. Some studies have found that sexual desire after vasectomy may be somewhat diminished. [5] [6]

When the vasectomy is complete, sperm cannot exit the body through the penis. Sperm is still produced by the testicles but is broken down and absorbed by the body. Much fluid content is absorbed by membranes in the epididymis, and much solid content is broken down by the responding macrophages and reabsorbed via the bloodstream. Sperm is matured in the epididymis for about a month before leaving the testicles. After vasectomy, the membranes must increase in size to absorb and store more fluid; this triggering of the immune system causes more macrophages to be recruited to break down and reabsorb more solid content. Within one year after vasectomy, sixty to seventy percent of vasectomized men develop antisperm antibodies. [7] In some cases, vasitis nodosa, a benign proliferation of the ductular epithelium, can also result. [8] [9] The accumulation of sperm increases pressure in the vas deferens and epididymis. The entry of the sperm into the scrotum can cause sperm granulomas to be formed by the body to contain and absorb the sperm which the body will treat as a foreign biological substance (much like a virus or bacterium). [10]

Efficacy

FrequencyRiskSource
1 in 1400Unwanted pregnancy (failure of vasectomy) [11]
1 in 11For comparison: unwanted pregnancy w/ typical use of pill [2]
1 in 6For comparison: unwanted pregnancy w/ typical use of condom [2]
1 in 40Infection after surgery [12]
1 in 7Pain at 7 months after vasectomy [13]
1 in 110Pain at 7 months affecting quality of life [13]

Vasectomy is the most effective permanent form of contraception available to men. (Removing the entire vas deferens would very likely be more effective, but it is not something that is regularly done. [14] ) In nearly every way that vasectomy can be compared to tubal ligation it has a more positive outlook. Vasectomy is more cost effective, less invasive, has techniques that are emerging that may facilitate easier reversal, and has a much lower risk of postoperative complications. Early failure rates, i.e. pregnancy within a few months after vasectomy, typically result from unprotected sexual intercourse too soon after the procedure while some sperm continue to pass through the vasa deferentia. Most physicians and surgeons who perform vasectomies recommend one (sometimes two) postprocedural semen specimens to verify a successful vasectomy; however, many men fail to return for verification tests citing inconvenience, embarrassment, forgetfulness, or certainty of sterility. [15] In January 2008, the FDA cleared a home test called SpermCheck Vasectomy that allows patients to perform postvasectomy confirmation tests themselves; [16] however, compliance for postvasectomy semen analysis in general remains low.

Late failure, i.e. pregnancy following spontaneous recanalization of the vasa deferentia, has also been documented. [17] This occurs because the epithelium of the vas deferens (similar to the epithelium of some other human body parts) is capable of regenerating and creating a new tube if the vas deferens is damaged and/or severed. [18] Even when as much as five centimeters (or two inches) of the vas deferens is removed, the vas deferens can still grow back together and become reattached—thus allowing sperm to once again pass and flow through the vas deferens, restoring one's fertility. [18]

The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists states there is a generally agreed-upon rate of late failure of about one in 2000 vasectomies— better than tubal ligations for which the failure rate is one in every 200 to 300 cases. [19] A 2005 review including both early and late failures described a total of 183 recanalizations from 43,642 vasectomies (0.4%), and sixty pregnancies after 92,184 vasectomies (0.07%). [11]

Complications

Short-term possible complications include infection, bruising and bleeding into the scrotum resulting in a collection of blood known as a hematoma. A study in 2012 demonstrated an infection rate of 2.5% postvasectomy. [12] The stitches on the small incisions required are prone to irritation, though this can be minimized by covering them with gauze or small adhesive bandages. The primary long-term complications are chronic pain conditions or syndromes that can affect any of the scrotal, pelvic or lower-abdominal regions, collectively known as post-vasectomy pain syndrome. Though vasectomy results in increases in circulating immune complexes, these increases are transient. Data based on animal and human studies indicate these changes do not result in increased incidence of atherosclerosis. The risk of testicular cancer is not affected by vasectomy. [20]

In 2014 the AUA reaffirmed that vasectomy is not a risk factor for prostate cancer and that it is not necessary for physicians to routinely discuss prostate cancer in their preoperative counseling of vasectomy patients. [21] There remains ongoing debate regarding whether vasectomy is associated with prostate cancer. A 2017 meta-analysis found no statistically significant increase in risk. [22] A 2019 study of 2.1 million Danish men found that vasectomy increased their incidence of prostate cancer by 15%. [23] A 2020 meta-analysis found that vasectomy increased the incidence by 9%. [24] Other recent studies agree on the 15% increase in risk of developing prostate cancer, but found that men who get a vasectomy are not more likely to die from prostate cancer than men without a vasectomy. [25] [26]

Postvasectomy pain

Post-vasectomy pain syndrome (PVPS) is a chronic and sometimes debilitating condition that may develop immediately or several years after vasectomy. [27] The most robust study of post-vasectomy pain, according to the American Urology Association's Vasectomy Guidelines 2012 (amended 2015) [28] found a rate of 14.7% reported new-onset scrotal pain at 7 months after vasectomy with 0.9% describing the pain as "quite severe and noticeably affecting their quality of life". [13] The pain can be constant orchialgia or epididymal pain (epididymitis), or it can be pain that occurs only at particular times such as with sexual intercourse, ejaculation, or physical exertion. [10]

Psychological effects

Approximately 90% are generally reported in reviews as being satisfied with having had a vasectomy, [29] while 7–10% of men regret their decision. [30] For men in relationships, regret was less common when both people in the relationship agreed on the procedure. [31]

Men who are of a younger age at the time of having a vasectomy are significantly more likely to regret and seek a reversal of their vasectomy, with one study showing men for example in their twenties being 12.5 times more likely to undergo a vasectomy reversal later in life (and including some who chose sterilization at a young age). [32] Pre-vasectomy counseling is therefore of particular importance in younger patients.

Dementia

An association between vasectomy and primary progressive aphasia, a rare variety of frontotemporal dementia, was reported. [31] However, it is doubtful that there is a causal relationship. [33] The putative mechanism is a cross-reactivity between brain and sperm, including the shared presence of neural surface antigens. [34] In addition, the cytoskeletal tau protein has been found only to exist outside of the CNS in the manchette of sperm. [34]

Procedure

The traditional incision approach of vasectomy involves numbing of the scrotum with local anesthetic (although some men's physiology may make access to the vas deferens more difficult in which case general anesthesia may be recommended) after which a scalpel is used to make two small incisions, one on each side of the scrotum at a location that allows the surgeon to bring each vas deferens to the surface for excision. The vasa deferentia are cut (sometimes a section may be removed altogether), separated, and then at least one side is sealed by ligating (suturing), cauterizing (electrocauterization), or clamping. [35] There are several variations to this method that may improve healing, effectiveness, and which help mitigate long-term pain such as post-vasectomy pain syndrome (PVPS) or epididymitis, however the data supporting one over another are limited. [36]

Open-ended vasectomy Open Vasectomy .jpeg
Open-ended vasectomy

Other techniques

The following vasectomy methods have purportedly had a better chance of later reversal but have seen less use by virtue of known higher failure rates (i.e., recanalization). An earlier clip device, the VasClip, is no longer on the market, due to unacceptably high failure rates. [44] [45] [46]

The VasClip method, though considered reversible, has had a higher cost and resulted in lower success rates. Also, because the vasa deferentia are not cut or tied with this method, it could technically be classified as other than a vasectomy. Vasectomy reversal (and the success thereof) was conjectured to be higher as it only required removing the Vas-Clip device. This method achieved limited use, and scant reversal data are available. [46]

Vas occlusion techniques

  • Injected plugs: There are two types of injected plugs which can be used to block the vasa deferentia. Medical-grade polyurethane (MPU) or medical-grade silicone rubber (MSR) starts as a liquid polymer that is injected into the vas deferens after which the liquid is clamped in place until is solidifies (usually in a few minutes). [47]
  • Intra-vas device: The vasa deferentia can also be occluded by an intra-vas device (IVD). A small cut is made in the lower abdomen after which a soft silicone or urethane plug is inserted into each vas tube thereby blocking (occluding) sperm. This method allows for the vas to remain intact. IVD technique is done in an out-patient setting with local anesthetic, similar to a traditional vasectomy. IVD reversal can be performed under the same conditions making it much less costly than vasovasostomy which can require general anesthesia and longer surgery time. [48]

Both vas occlusion techniques require the same basic patient setup: local anesthesia, puncturing of the scrotal sac for access of the vas, and then plug or injected plug occlusion. The success of the aforementioned vas occlusion techniques is not clear and data are still limited. Studies have shown, however, that the time to achieve sterility is longer than the more prominent techniques mentioned in the beginning of this article. The satisfaction rate of patients undergoing IVD techniques has a high rate of satisfaction with regard to the surgery experience itself. [49]

Recovery

Vasectomy day 1.jpg
Incision stitches and a shaved scrotum
Vesectomy after 14 days.jpg
14 days after vasectomy surgery

Sexual intercourse can usually be resumed in about a week (depending on recovery); however, pregnancy is still possible as long as the sperm count is above zero. Another method of contraception must be relied upon until a sperm count is performed either two months after the vasectomy or after ten to twenty ejaculations have occurred. [50]

After a vasectomy, contraceptive precautions must be continued until azoospermia is confirmed. Usually two semen analyses at three and four months are necessary to confirm azoospermia. The British Andrological Society has recommended that a single semen analysis confirming azoospermia after sixteen weeks is sufficient. [51]

Post-vasectomy, testicles will continue to produce sperm cells. As before vasectomy, unused sperm are reabsorbed by the body. [52]

Conceiving after vasectomy

In order to allow the possibility of reproduction via artificial insemination after vasectomy, some men opt for cryopreservation of sperm before sterilization. It is advised that all men having a vasectomy consider freezing some sperm before the procedure. Dr Allan Pacey, senior lecturer in andrology at Sheffield University and secretary of the British Fertility Society, notes that men who he sees for a vasectomy reversal which has not worked express wishing they had known they could have stored sperm. Pacey notes, "The problem is you're asking a man to foresee a future where he might not necessarily be with his current partner—and that may be quite hard to do when she's sitting next to you." [53]

The cost of cryo-preservation (sperm banking) may also be substantially less than alternative vaso-vasectomy procedures, compared to the costs of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) which usually run from $12,000 to $25,000. [54]

Sperm can be aspirated from the testicles or the epididymis, and while there is not enough for successful artificial insemination, there is enough to fertilize an ovum by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. This avoids the problem of antisperm antibodies and may result in a faster pregnancy. IVF may be less costly per cycle than reversal in some health-care systems, but a single IVF cycle is often insufficient for conception. Disadvantages include the need for procedures on the woman, and the standard potential side-effects of IVF for both the mother and the child. [55]

Vasectomy reversal

Although men considering vasectomies should not think of them as reversible, and most men and their partners are satisfied with the operation, [56] [57] life circumstances and outlooks can change, and there is a surgical procedure to reverse vasectomies using vasovasostomy (a form of microsurgery first performed by Earl Owen in 1971 [58] [59] ). Vasovasostomy is effective at achieving pregnancy in a variable percentage of cases, and total out-of-pocket costs in the United States are often upwards of $10,000. [60] The typical success rate of pregnancy following a vasectomy reversal is around 55% if performed within 10 years, and drops to around 25% if performed after 10 years. [61] After reversal, sperm counts and motility are usually much lower than pre-vasectomy levels. There is evidence that men who have had a vasectomy may produce more abnormal sperm, which would explain why even a mechanically successful reversal does not always restore fertility. [62] [63] The higher rates of aneuploidy and diploidy in the sperm cells of men who have undergone vasectomy reversal may lead to a higher rate of birth defects. [62]

Some reasons that men seek vasectomy reversals include wanting a family with a new partner following a relationship breakdown or divorce, their original partner dying and subsequently going on to repartner and to want children, the unexpected death of a child, or a long-standing couple changing their minds some time later, often prompted by situations such as improved finances or existing children approaching the age of school or leaving home. [53] Patients often comment that they never anticipated the possibility of a relationship breakdown or death, or how that may affect their situation at the time of having their vasectomy. A small number of vasectomy reversals are also performed in attempts to relieve post-vasectomy pain syndrome. [64]

Prevalence

Internationally, vasectomy rates are vastly different. [65] While female sterilisation is the most widely used method worldwide, with 223 million women relying on it, only 28 million women rely on their partner's vasectomy. [66] In the world's 69 least developed countries less than 0.1% of men use vasectomies on average. Of 54 African countries, only ten report measurable vasectomy use and only Swaziland, Botswana, and South Africa exceed 0.1% prevalence. [65]

countryvasectomy usagenotes
Canada22%"of all women rely on vasectomy"
UK17% - 21%only range given
New Zealand17% - 21%only range given
South Korea17% - 21%only range given
Australia~10%
Belgium~10%
Denmark~10%
Spain~10%
Switzerland~10%
Swaziland0.3%
Botswana0.4%
South Africa0.7%

In North America and Europe vasectomy usage is on the order of 10% with some countries reaching 20%. [65] Despite its high efficacy, in the United States, vasectomy is utilized less than half the rate of the alternative female tubal ligation. [67] According to the research, vasectomy in the US is least utilized among black and Latino populations, the groups that have the highest rates of female sterilization. [67]

New Zealand, in contrast, has higher levels of vasectomy than tubal ligation. 18% of all men, and 25% of all married men, have had a vasectomy. The age cohort with the highest level of vasectomy was 40–49, where 57% of men had taken it up. [68] Canada, the UK, Bhutan and the Netherlands all have similar levels of uptake. [69]

History

The first recorded vasectomy was performed on a dog in 1823. [70] A short time after that, R. Harrison of London performed the first human vasectomy; however, the surgery was done not for sterilization purposes, but to bring about atrophy of the prostate. [71] [ citation needed ] Soon, however, it was believed to have benefits for eugenics. The first case report of vasectomy in the United States was in 1897, by A.J. Ochsner, a surgeon in Chicago, in a paper titled, "Surgical treatment of habitual criminals." He believed vasectomy to be a simple, effective means for stemming the tide of racial degeneration widely believed to be occurring. [72] [ citation needed ] In 1902, Harry C. Sharp, the surgeon at the Indiana Reformatory, reported that he had sterilized forty-two inmates in an effort to both reduce criminal behavior in those individuals and prevent the birth of future criminals. [73]

Not all vasectomies were performed with the goal of sterilization. Eugen Steinach (1861–1944), an Austrian physician, believed that a unilateral vasectomy (severing only one of the two vasa deferentia) in older men could restore general vigor and sexual potency, shrink enlarged prostates, and cure various ailments by somehow boosting the hormonal output of the vasectomized testicle. [74] This surgery, which became very popular in the 1920s, was undertaken by many wealthy men, including Sigmund Freud and W. B. Yeats. [75] Since these operations lacked rigorous controlled trials, any rejuvenating effect was likely due to the placebo effect, and with the later development of synthetic injectable hormones, this operation fell out of vogue. [74] [76]

Vasectomy began to be regarded as a method of consensual birth control during the Second World War. [77] The first vasectomy program on a national scale was launched in 1954 in India. [78]

Society and culture

Availability and legality

Vasectomy costs are (or may be) covered in different countries, as a method of both contraception or population control, with some offering it as a part of a national health insurance. The Affordable Care Act of the U.S. does not cover vasectomy. Vasectomy was generally considered illegal in France until 2001, due to provisions in the Napoleonic Code forbidding "self-mutilation". No French law specifically mentioned vasectomy until a 2001 law on contraception and infanticide permitted the procedure. [79] In 2014, the Iranian parliament voted for a bill that would ban vasectomies. [80]

Tourism

Medical tourism, where a patient travels to a less developed location where a procedure is cheaper to save money and combine convalescence with a vacation, is infrequently used for vasectomy due to its low cost, but is more likely to be used for vasectomy reversal. Many hospitals list vasectomy as being available. Medical tourism has been scrutinized by some governments for quality of care and postoperative care issues. [81]

Shooting of Dr. Andrew Rynne

In 1990, chairperson of the Irish Family Planning Association, and the Republic of Ireland's first vasectomy specialist, [82] Andrew Rynne, was shot by a former client, but he survived. The incident is the subject of a short film, The Vasectomy Doctor, by Paul Webster. [83]

See also

Related Research Articles

Sterilization is any of a number of medical methods of birth control that intentionally leaves a person unable to reproduce. Sterilization methods include both surgical and non-surgical, and exist for both males and females. Sterilization procedures are intended to be permanent; reversal is generally difficult or impossible.

Tubal ligation Surgical removal or blocking of the fallopian tubes

Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure for female sterilization in which the fallopian tubes are permanently blocked or removed. This prevents the fertilization of eggs by sperm and thus the implantation of a fertilized egg. Tubal ligation is considered a permanent method of sterilization and birth control.

Seminal vesicles Pair of simple tubular glands posteroinferior to the urinary bladder of male mammals

The seminal vesicles, are a pair of two convoluted tubular glands that lie behind the urinary bladder of some male mammals. They secrete fluid that partly composes the semen.

Vas deferens Part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates

The vas deferens, or ductus deferens, is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates. The ducts transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation. The vas deferens is a partially coiled tube which exits the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.

Spermatocele Medical condition

Spermatocele is a fluid-filled cyst that develops at the head of the epididymis. The fluid is usually a clear or milky white color and may contain sperm. Spermatoceles are typically filled with spermatozoa and they can vary in size from several millimeters to many centimeters. Small spermatoceles are relatively common, occurring in an estimated 30 percent of all people with testes. They are generally not painful. However, some people may experience discomfort such as a dull pain in the scrotum from larger spermatoceles. They are not cancerous, nor do they cause an increased risk of testicular cancer. Additionally, unlike varicoceles, they do not reduce fertility.

Vas-occlusive contraception Form of male contraception that blocks sperm transport in the vas deferens

Vas-occlusive contraception is a form of male contraception that blocks sperm transport in the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts.

Vasovasostomy is a surgery by which vasectomies are partially reversed. Another surgery for vasectomy reversal is vasoepididymostomy.

Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance

Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance (RISUG), formerly referred to as the synthetic polymer styrene maleic anhydride (SMA), is the development name of a male contraceptive injection developed at IIT Kharagpur in India by the team of Dr. Sujoy K. Guha.

Male contraceptive

Male contraceptives, also known as male birth control, are methods of preventing pregnancy that solely involve the male physiology. The most common kinds of male contraception include condoms, outercourse, and vasectomy. In domestic animals, castration is commonly used for contraception. Other forms of male contraception are in various stages of research and development. These include methods like RISUG/VasalGel and ultrasound.

Prostatectomy Surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland

Prostatectomy as a medical term refers to the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland. This operation is done for benign conditions that cause urinary retention, as well as for prostate cancer and for other cancers of the pelvis.

Congenital absence of the vas deferens (CAVD) is a condition in which the vasa deferentia reproductive organs fail to form properly prior to birth. It may either be unilateral (CUAVD) or bilateral (CBAVD).

Testicular sperm extraction

Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is the surgical procedure of removing a small portion of tissue from the testicle and extracting any viable sperm cells from that tissue for use in further procedures, most commonly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) as part of in vitro fertilisation (IVF). TESE is often recommended to patients who cannot produce sperm by ejaculation due to azoospermia.

Post-vasectomy pain syndrome (PVPS) is a chronic and sometimes debilitating genital pain condition that may develop immediately or several years after vasectomy. Because this condition is a syndrome, there is no single treatment method, therefore efforts focus on mitigating/relieving the individual patient's specific pain. When pain in the epididymides is the primary symptom, post-vasectomy pain syndrome is often described as congestive epididymitis.

Birth control Method of preventing human pregnancy

Birth control, also known as contraception, anticonception, and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century. Planning, making available, and using birth control is called family planning. Some cultures limit or discourage access to birth control because they consider it to be morally, religiously, or politically undesirable.

Vasectomy reversal is a term used for surgical procedures that reconnect the male reproductive tract after interruption by a vasectomy. Two procedures are possible at the time of vasectomy reversal: vasovasostomy and vasoepididymostomy. Although vasectomy is considered a permanent form of contraception, advances in microsurgery have improved the success of vasectomy reversal procedures. The procedures remain technically demanding and expensive, and may not restore the pre-vasectomy condition.

Reproductive surgery is using surgery in the field of reproductive medicine. It can be used for contraception, e.g. in vasectomy, wherein the vasa deferentia of a man are severed, but is also used plentifully in assisted reproductive technology.

Ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) is a pathological condition which is characterized by the obstruction of one or both ejaculatory ducts. Thus, the efflux of semen is not possible. It can be congenital or acquired. It is a cause of male infertility and/or pelvic pain. Ejaculatory duct obstruction must not be confused with an obstruction of the vas deferens.

Vasoepididymostomy or epididymovasostomy is a surgery by which vasectomies are reversed. It involves connection of the severed vas deferens to the epididymis and is more technically demanding than the vasovasostomy.

Vasography

Vasography is an X-ray study of the vas deferens to see if there is blockage, oftentimes in the context of male infertility. An incision is made in the scrotum, contrast is injected in the vas deferens, and X-rays are taken from different angles. Thus, it is an invasive procedure and carries risk of iatrogenic scarring and obstruction of the vas. Vasography has traditionally been considered the gold standard imaging modality for evaluating the seminal tract patency.

No-scalpel vasectomy is a type of vasectomy procedure in which a specifically designed ringed clamp and dissecting hemostat is used to puncture the scrotum to access the vas deferens. This is different from a conventional or incisional vasectomy where the scrotal opening is made with a scalpel. The NSV approach offers several benefits, including lower risk for bleeding, bruising, infection, and pain. The NSV approach also has a shorter procedure time than the conventional scalpel incision technique. Both approaches to vasectomy are equally effective. Because of the inherent simplicity of the procedure it affords itself to be used in public health programs worldwide. This method is used in over 40 countries for male sterilisation.

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