|I Was Monty's Double|
|Directed by||John Guillermin|
|Screenplay by||Bryan Forbes|
|Based on||I Was Monty's Double|
by M. E. Clifton James
|Produced by||Maxwell Setton at Walton Studios|
|Edited by||Max Benedict|
|Music by||John Addison|
|Distributed by||Associated British-Pathé Limited|
I Was Monty's Double (aka Hell, Heaven or Hoboken) is a 1958 film made by Associated British Picture Corporation (ABPC).It was directed by John Guillermin. The screenplay was adapted by Bryan Forbes from the autobiography of M. E. Clifton James, an actor who pretended to be General Montgomery as a decoy during the Second World War.
A few months before the D-Day landings during the Second World War, the British government decides to launch a campaign of disinformation; spreading a rumour that the landings just might take place at a location other than Normandy. The details of the operation (actually, there were several such operations) are handed to two intelligence officers, Colonel Logan (Cecil Parker) and Major Harvey (John Mills). They are initially unable to devise such a plan – but one night, Harvey sees an actor at a London theatre, putting on a convincing impression of General Bernard Montgomery.
Logan and Harvey discover that the actor is M. E. Clifton James (who plays himself in the film), a lieutenant stationed in Leicester with the Royal Army Pay Corps and that he was a professional actor in peacetime. He is called to London, on the pretext that he is to make a test for an army film, and a plan is devised that he should tour North Africa, impersonating "Monty".
'Jimmy' as Harvey calls him, is doubtful that he can carry off an impersonation of Montgomery, especially with his air of command, but with time running short and no options open to him, he agrees.
Disguised as a corporal, he spends some days at Montgomery's headquarters and learns to copy the general's mannerisms and style. After an interview with the general himself, he is sent off to tour North Africa.
Accompanied by Harvey, who has been 'promoted' to brigadier for his cover as Montgomery's aide-de-camp, "Jimmy" arrives at Gibraltar, where the governor, who has known the general for years, can't get over the likeness. To further foster the deception, a local businessman and known German agent, Karl Nielson (Marius Goring), is invited to dinner, knowing that he will spread the information. This happens quickly and their aeroplane is (unsuccessfully) attacked on leaving Gibraltar.
James and Harvey tour several places in North Africa and visit the troops. With only a few days to go before the landings, it is learned that the Germans have indeed been fooled and have kept large numbers of troops in the south, away from Normandy. His job done, James is put into "cold storage" at a heavily guarded villa on the coast.
But the Germans have been fooled more than Harvey realises. A team of German commandos are landed by submarine to kidnap 'Monty'. They kill his guards and are ready to embark with James, but Harvey gets wind of the kidnap and foils it at the last moment. They return quietly to London.
The film broadly follows the account by James in his book of the same name, but according to James, there was no attempt to kidnap him. The German High Command did plan to have him killed, but Hitler vetoed the plan until he could be sure where the landings would actually take place.
Gibraltar was in reality a hotbed of German agents, and James/Montgomery was spied on by several operatives who were smuggled into Gibraltar specifically to discover what "Monty" was up to. James/Montgomery deliberately talked nonsense about non-existent operations and plans, in the hope that the spies would overhear and take such information seriously.
The intelligence officer who initially recruited James was David Niven, at that time serving as a lieutenant-colonel at the War Office.
When James agreed to impersonate Montgomery, he was never to mention it under army regulations. However, after Operation Copperhead was mentioned in the book My Three Years with Eisenhower, James asked for permission to write a book, which was granted.The book was published in 1954. In June 1956 it was announced film rights had been bought by Todon Productions, the company of Tony Owens and Donna Reed, based on England; the key executive there was Maxwell Setton, who had been a wartime executive officer. Todon wanted Laurence Olivier to play Montgomery and Stephen Watts was writing the treatment. Frederic March was named as another possibility for the lead. In mid June it was announced that Clifton James would play himself and Montgomery, with Olivier the leading choice for the other main role. Permission from Montgomery and the War Office was conditional upon script approval. A deal was signed with Columbia to distribute.
In August 1956 the film was listed on Todon's slate which also included Town on Trial, directed by John Guillermin and starring John Mills, who would make Monty's Double. Other films to be made included The Long Haul.In September Michael Rennie was mentioned as a lead.
In July 1957 it was announced Ken Hughes would direct.
Producer Maxwell Setton took the film for Rank, who agreed to finance, but Sir John Davis, head of Rank, wanted Bryan Forbes' script vetted by head of production Earl St. John. Setton then took the project to Robert Clark at ABPC, who agreed to finance. Setton had to change the nationality of Marius Goring's spy character from Spanish to Swedish to enable the unit to film in Gibaltar.
Newsreel footage puts the real Field Marshal Montgomery in many scenes, but "for a few key moments, James stands in for the real Monty."
In January 1959 Associated British signed a deal with NTA for them to distribute this and Ice Cold in Alex in the US.
The film was a success at the British box office.James went on a tour to promote the film.
Variety described it as "excellently acted and directed....the film has several moments of real tension. Even with a somewhat fictionalized ending, there is a documentary flavor about it which is absorbing. Plenty of-news footage has been woven into the pic and it has been done with commendable ingenuity. Bryan Forbes’ taut screenplay is liberally spiced with humor...James shows himself to be a resourceful actor in his own right... An extraordinary story told convincingly and compellingly."
Film reviewer Stephen Vagg wrote that the film was "splendidly entertaining. The script was written by thespian-turned-scribe Bryan Forbes, and there’s some lovely "actor" character stuff in the film, eg. James thinking he’s being hired for a film role and bringing along a scrapbook of his reviews, James having last-minute nerves, James getting up on stage and worrying about blowing it."
Stephen Watts, who was involved in the operation, thought James "played himself with great skill and distinction."
When Montgomery saw the film at a London cinema, audiences outside reportedly assumed he was Clifton James.
I Was Monty's Double inspired a Goon Show episode entitled "I was Monty's Treble", referring to at least three doppelgangers.
The film was also spoofed in the comedy film On the Double , with Danny Kaye playing a double role.[ citation needed ]
The Private Eye comic strip, Battle for Britain, was penned by Ian Hislop under the nom-de-plume Monty Stubble. When the comic strip ended, after the 1987 General Election and Stubble's death, his gravestone was shown to bear the inscription "I was Monty Stubble".[ citation needed ]
Operation Copperhead was a small military deception operation run by the British during the Second World War. It formed part of Operation Bodyguard, the cover plan for the invasion of Normandy in 1944, and was intended to mislead German intelligence as to the location of General Bernard Montgomery. The operation was conceived by Dudley Clarke in early 1944 after he watched the film Five Graves to Cairo. Following the war M. E. Clifton James wrote a book about the operation, I Was Monty's Double. It was later adapted into a film, with James in the lead role.
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