Ingram de Ketenis

Last updated

Ingram de Ketenis
Bornbefore 1321
Died1407 or 1408
Occupation cleric
Title Archdeacon of Dunkeld
Rector of Tealing
Bishop of Galloway (unaccepted papal provision)

Ingram de Ketenis [de Kethenys] (died 1407 or 1408) was a medieval cleric from Angus in Scotland.


A graduate of the University of Paris, he was Archdeacon of Dunkeld for over half a century. During his time, he received papal provision to be Bishop of Galloway, but refused to accept the position.

De Ketenis famously left an inscribed funeral monument. In the event, he did not use it, but it survives to this day.

Early life and career

Born before 1321, Ingram was the son of John de Ketenis, owner of the land of Kettins in Angus; he had two known brothers, John de Ketenis and Robert de Ketenis, and was the nephew of John de Pilmuir, Bishop of Moray and thus also Richard de Pilmuir, Bishop of Dunkeld. [1] In the 1340s, Ingram studied at the University of Paris under the renowned Scottish-born teacher, Walter de Wardlaw, becoming a Licentiate in the Arts in May 1347, despite not completing a B. A. [2] In his time as a student he and his two brothers pledged surety to the English Nation of the University of Paris for the expenses of fellow Scot John de Rossy, a pledge that cost them 50 shillings each because in the event Thomas failed to pay. [3] In 1347, he briefly went back to his native Scotland, but returned to Paris in May 1349 to obtain an M. A. [4]

He was at the papal court in Avignon in 1344/5 with his uncle Richard de Pilmuir, attempting to gain favours. He received provision to the church of "Blair", that is, Blairgowrie, on 25 January 1345, with Pope Clement VI commanding the Abbot of Coupar Angus, the Abbot of Scone and the Prior of St Andrews to put him in possession, [5] although it is not clear that he managed to possess full control of this church until 1349 or later. [4] He received a canonry in the diocese of Aberdeen on 18 May 1347, and in the diocese of Moray on 10 May 1349, neither of which he seems to have taken up permanently. [4] He had been at Avignon again in 1349, regarding the Moray canonry, either before or after going to Paris, when he presented petitions for his brother John and his cousin Thomas de Pilmuir. [4] He was recorded at Avignon again in 1350, when he is described as the secretary of Queen Joan; there he was provided to a canonry in the diocese of Glasgow, though once more it is unclear if this provision ever actualised. [6]

Archdeacon of Dunkeld

At some point between 1352 and 1359 he became Archdeacon of Dunkeld, a position which had become vacant because of the death of the previous archdeacon, Adam Pullur. The latter's death occurred before 13 July 1352 when there is a record that one John de Ethie [Athy] was provided to the archdeaconry; the latter provision was unsuccessful, and Ingram is the next known archdeacon. [7] On his funeral monument the inscription says that Ingram was 31 (in "his xxxii yhere") when he obtained the Dunkeld archdeaconry, so he probably obtained at least a claim to the position in 1351 or 1352. [8] He had demitted his right to the church of Blairgowrie by 12 February 1357, and was certainly fully in possession of the archdeaconry by 13 August 1359, when he witnessed a charter (as Archdeacon of Dunkeld) of his uncle John de Pilmuir, Bishop of Moray. [9] The archdeaconry came with the dependent parish church of Tealing in Angus. [4]

His next appearance occurs as a sub-collector of papal taxes to William de Greenlaw, Archdeacon of St Andrews and Dean of Glasgow Cathedral, in 1361. [10] On 17 April 1371, he is a papal mandatory tasked to adjudicate a dispute between a knight and Paisley Abbey. [4] Sometime between 15 July 1378 and 26 February 1379, Ingram was provided as Bishop of Galloway by Avignon Pope Clement VII in opposition to the Urbanist candidate Oswald (see Western Schism). [11] This was done because of the influence of Ingram's old university master, Walter de Wardlaw, now Bishop of Glasgow. [4] Ingram however does not appear to have wanted the bishopric, and found objections to his own provision. [12] As Clement wrote to Thomas de Rossy, the man who did become the Clementine bishop, he had "provided Ingeram, archdeacon of Dunkeld, but he refused to accept his provision". [13]

Although Walter Trail had been provided to succeed Ingram as archdeacon in expectation of Ingram becoming Bishop of Galloway, Ingram's refusal of this bishopric meant that he retained the archdeaconal possession. [14] He made a grant from the lands of Kettin, which he had inherited from his father, to the Dundee chaplaincy of St Thomas the Martyr (i.e. Thomas Becket) on 13 February 1392. [15] Ingram held the position of Archdeacon of Dunkeld until at least 1398, and perhaps as late as 1407. Sometime between those two dates he witnessed (as Archdeacon of Dunkeld) a charter of David Lindsay, Earl of Crawford. [16] At some point after this charter, he exchanged the archdeaconry with Richard de Cornell for the church of Kilmory on the island of Arran in the diocese of the Isles, presumably as D. E. R. Watt commented "just a formal move to give Cornell a title to [the] Dunk[eld] arch[deaconry]". [4]

Death and memorial

19th century sketch of Ingram's inscribed funeral monument. Ingram de Ketenis monument.jpg
19th century sketch of Ingram's inscribed funeral monument.

One of the most notable facts about Ingram is his planned funeral monument. In the 1380s a memorial stone and a partially incomplete inscription were prepared for him at the church of Tealing; this monument has survived, and lay in a recess in the north wall of the modern (early 19th century) church, having been moved from the earlier church one mile away. [17] It reads as follows:

heyr lyis Ingram of kethenys prist maystir in arit ersdene of dunkeldyn made in his xxxii yhere prayis for hym yat deyit hafand lx ... [sic] ... yherys of eld in the yher of cryst M: ccc: lxxx ... [SIC] ... [18]

Translated into modern English, this is "Here lies Ingram of Kethenys, Priest, Master in Arts, Archdeacon of Dunkeldyn, made in his thirty-second year. Pray for him that died, having (reached) sixty (blank) years of age, in the year of Christ 1380". [17]

The blanks after his age and the date indicate that he expected death soon (within ten years) in 1380, [16] but in the event, Ingram lived into the second half of the first decade of the 15th century. Ingram was still alive on 6 April 1407, but was dead by July 1408, when a papal document confirms his recent death and the resulting vacancy in the church of Tealing. [19] The inscription is probably the earliest, or earliest known inscription, written in Scotland north of the River Forth in the English language. [20]


  1. Dowden, Bishops, p. 365; Hutcheson & Fleming, "Notice of Fragments of Sculptured Stones", p. 427; Watt, Dictionary, p. 292.
  2. Watt, Dictionary, pp. 292-3.
  3. Hutcheson, "Notice of an Early Inscribed Mural Monument", p. 44; Watt, Dictionary, p. 292.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Watt, Dictionary, p. 293.
  5. Dowden, Bishops, p. 365; Watt, Dictionary, p. 293.
  6. Dowden, Bishops, p. 366; Watt, Dictionary, p. 293.
  7. Watt, Dictionary, pp. 293, 457; Watt, Fasti Ecclesiae, p. 120; Watt in Dictionary argues that Ingram may have received archdeaconry as early as 1351.
  8. Hutcheson, "Notice of an Early Inscribed Mural Monument", p. 42; Watt, Dictionary, p. 293.
  9. Innes (ed.), Registrum Episcopatus Moraviensis, p. 368; Watt, Dictionary, p. 293; Watt, Fasti Ecclesiae, p. 120.
  10. Watt, Dictionary, p. 293; Watt, Fasti Ecclesiae, pp. 154, 306.
  11. Watt, Dictionary, p. 293; Watt, Fasti Ecclesiae, p. 131.
  12. Watt, Fasti Ecclesiae, p. 131.
  13. Burns (ed.), Papal Letters, p. 70.
  14. Watt, Dictionary, p. 293; Watt, Fasti Ecclesiae, p. 120
  15. Hutcheson & Fleming, "Notice of Fragments of Sculptured Stones", p. 427; Watt, Dictionary, pp. 292, 293-4.
  16. 1 2 Watt, Dictionary, p. 294.
  17. 1 2 Dowden, Bishops, p.366; Hutcheson, "Notice of an Early Inscribed Mural Monument", p ; "Watt, Dictionary, p. 294.
  18. Dowden, Bishops, p.366; Hutcheson, "Notice of an Early Inscribed Mural Monument", p. 42.
  19. Watt, Dictionary, pp. 293-4.
  20. Hutcheson, "Notice of an Early Inscribed Mural Monument", p. 41.

Related Research Articles

The Archdeacon of Dunkeld was the only archdeacon in the Diocese of Dunkeld, acting as a deputy of the Bishop of Dunkeld. The following is a list of archdeacons:

Alexander Inglis was a Scottish cleric and royal clerk. He was the son of one George Inglis and his wife Margeret. At some point in his life he had attended university and obtained a Licentiate in Decrees. In 1477 he became Dean of the diocese of Dunkeld, and in 1480 became Archdeacon of St Andrews. On 17 September 1483, after the death of Bishop James Livingston, he was elected to succeed the latter as Bishop of Dunkeld. Inglis ran into difficulty on 22 October, when the Chancellor of the diocese of Aberdeen, George Brown, was also provided as Bishop of Dunkeld. Inglis was styled Bishop-elect in Scotland until 1485, but on 13 June 1484, Brown had been consecrated at the Papal see. Inglis continued to hold his previous posts as Archdeacon and Dean until his death in 1496.

Robert Crichton was a 16th-century Scottish Catholic cleric.

Ingram Lindsay [Ingeram de Lindesay], Doctor in Canon Law, was a 15th-century Scottish cleric. Despite being of illegitimate birth - one of several sons of an unmarried nobleman and an unmarried woman - he nevertheless managed in the end to pursue a successful ecclesiastical career.

Alexander de Kininmund was a 14th-century Scottish churchman. The first mention of Alexander occurs when, as a canon of Dunkeld he is one of three ambassadors sent by King Robert I of Scotland to Avignon in 1320. The purpose of this embassy was to present a letter to Pope John XXII known as the Declaration of Arbroath. As a papal chaplain and lawyer, he was well qualified to argue the Scottish cause, and Barrow makes a strong case that he was, in fact the author of the document.

Thomas de Rossy O. F. M. was a late 14th century Scottish Franciscan friar, papal penitentiary, bishop and theologian. Of unknown, or at least unclear origin, he embarked on a religious career in his early years, entering the Franciscan Order, studying in England and at the University of Paris.

Alexander Vaus [Vause, de Vaus] was a late 14th century and 15th century Scottish prelate. Said to have been the younger son of one Patrick Vaus, he apparently held "church livings" in Galloway as early as 1421.

Gilbert Cavan was a cleric based primarily in Galloway in the early 15th century, a servant of the earls of Douglas and briefly Bishop of Galloway-elect. His name is also written Caven, Cawan, Caben, with other variants, perhaps representing Gaelic or Irish Cabhan, although the name is not locational, it is a dictus rather than a de name.

Thomas de Buittle [Butil, Butill, Butyll, Butyl, Bucyl] was a Scottish prelate, clerk and papal auditor active in the late 14th and early 15th centuries. Probably originating in Galloway, Scotland, Thomas took a university career in canon law in England and France, before taking up service at the court of Avignon Pope Benedict XIII. He obtained a number of benefices in the meantime, including the position of Archdeacon of Galloway, and is the earliest known and probably first provost of the collegiate church of Maybole. The height of his career came however when the Pope provided him to the bishopric of Galloway, a position he held from 1415 until his death sometime between 1420 and 1422.

Oswald, O. Cist. was a Cistercian monk and bishop in the late 14th century and early 15th century. There is an Oswald Botelere (Butler) granted a safe-conduct, along with 12 others, to enter England and study at the University of Oxford, in 1365, but this Oswald Butler cannot be shown to be the same as the later Oswald of Glenluce.

Thomas Tulloch [de Tulloch] was a prelate active in the Kingdom of Scotland in the 15th century. A letter of Pope Martin V in 1429 claimed that he was "of a great noble race by both parents". Robert Keith believed that he had the surname "Urquhart", but that is not supported by the contemporary evidence and is probably spurious.

Robert de Fyvie [also de Fyvin] was a prelate based in the Kingdom of Scotland in the last quarter of the 13th century. Perhaps coming from Fyvie in Formartine, from a family of Teesdale origin, Robert was Archdeacon of Ross and a student at the University of Bologna by 1269. In 1275, he was not only a graduate but the new Bishop of Ross, a post he held until his death in the first half of the 1290s.

Alexander Stewart was a 14th-century Scottish bishop. Probably from Menteith, he appears in the sources from the first half of the 1340s, possessing a university degree and holding the position of Archdeacon of Ross. He was active at the papal curia in the second half of the decade as a papal chaplain and administrator, before being provided as Bishop of Ross in 1350, a position he held until his death in 1371.

Alexander de Waghorn, Bishop of Ross, bears a surname that may suggest an origin in the Glasgow area of southern Scotland, though there are other possibilities.

Albin of Brechin Prelate of the Kingdom of Scotland

Albin was a 13th-century prelate of the Kingdom of Scotland. A university graduate, Albin is known for his ecclesiastical career in the diocese of Brechin, centred on Angus in east-central Scotland.

Fionnlagh MacCailein or Finlay Colini was a medieval Scottish bishop. Both his early life and the details of his career as Bishop of Dunblane are not well known, however it is known that he held the latter bishopric between 1403 and his death in 1419. He was part of the circle of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, and was one of the many clerics from west and central Gaelic-speaking Scotland who benefited from the latter's patronage. He is said to have authorised the construction of the first bridge over the river Allan at Dunblane.

Dúghall of Lorne [or de Ergadia] was a late 14th century and early 15th century prelate in the Kingdom of Scotland. Probably a MacDúghaill (MacDougall) from the province of Lorne in Argyll, he appears to have studied at the University of Oxford before returning to Scotland for an ecclesiastical and administrative career. He obtained benefices in the diocese of Argyll, Dunkeld, Dunblane and St Andrews, and acted as the secretary and chaplain of Robert Stewart, Earl of Fife, before becoming Bishop of Dunblane. He held the bishopric of Dunblane until his death in 1403.

Walter Stewart was a 15th-century churchman in the Kingdom of Scotland. He was a cousin of King James II of Scotland, being like King James a grandson to King Robert III of Scotland.

Thomas de Rossy was a fourteenth-century Scottish prelate. He appears in the historical record for the first time in 1331, when Pope John XXII provided him to succeed Bernard as Bishop of the Isles. At this stage, the papal sources name him as a canon of Dunkeld Cathedral.

John de Crannach was a 15th-century Scottish scholar, diplomat and prelate. Originating in the north-east of Lowland Scotland, he probably came from a family associated with the burgh of Aberdeen. Like many of his relatives, he flourished in the 15th-century Scottish church. After just over a decade at the University of Paris, Crannach became a servant of the then Dauphin Charles (VII).


Religious titles
Preceded by
John de Ethie
Archdeacon of Dunkeld
1351 × 1359-1398 × 1407
Succeeded by
Richard de Cornell
Preceded by Bishop of Galloway
declined papal provision

1378 × 1379
Succeeded by