Janos, Chihuahua

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Janos is a town located in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua. [1] It serves as the municipal seat of government for the surrounding Janos Municipality of the same name. As of 2010, the town of Janos had a population of 2,738. [2]

Mexico country in the southern portion of North America

Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.

Chihuahua (state) State of Mexico

Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.

Municipal seat term for an administrative center used in several Spanish-speaking countries

A municipal seat or cabecera municipal is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a municipality or civil parish with other villes or towns subordinated. The term is used in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Guatemala and Venezuela, countries of Latin-America.

Contents

History

Janos was founded around 1580 by Franciscan missionaries. [3] It was subject to raids by Apache and Jumano Indians, and in 1680 the mission (Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Janos) was completely destroyed in such a raid. As a result, in 1686 the Spanish governor ordered Captain Juan Fernández de la Fuente to send troops to Janos to establish a presidio. It was named Presidio de San Felipe y Santiago de Janos and in 1717 resettlement efforts resulted in the town being re-established with Janos and Jocomes Indians. [3] This settlement offer was also open to Apache, but few took advantage of it. Over the next several years, the Spanish made a number of punitive raids against local Apache groups, both from the Janos Presidio and others in the area. When Hugo Oconor (Hugh O'Connor) assumed command of the military in Chihuahua in 1772, he instituted large scale campaigns against the Apache. In 1789 Chief Squielnoctero and his family surrendered at Janos [4] and with the peace agreement with Ojos Colorados [5] in 1790, the area became relatively peaceful, the Apache having been seriously weakened by war and disease. [3]

The Apache are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Salinero, Plains and Western Apache. Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with which they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. There are Apache communities in Oklahoma, Texas, and reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers. The Apache Nations are politically autonomous, speak several different languages and have distinct cultures.

Presidio Fort type

A presidio is a fortified base established by the Spanish in areas under their control or influence. The term is derived from the Latin word praesidium meaning protection or defense.

Climate

Janos has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). [6] Winters are cool and sunny with a January average of 7.1 °C (44.8 °F) and temperatures regularly fall below freezing. [7] Occasionally, the city can see 2 or 3 snowfalls per year. [7] Summers are warm with June being the warmest month with an average of 22.3 °C (72.1 °F). Most of the precipitation falls during this time of the year, during the monsoon season. The highest recorded temperature was 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) on August 21, 1979 and the lowest recorded temperature was −13 °C (8.6 °F) on December 9, 1978. [8]

Semi-arid climate climat with precipitation below potential evapotranspiration

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.

Köppen climate classification widely used climate classification system

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

North American Monsoon california monsoons

The North American monsoon, variously known as the Southwest monsoon, the Mexican monsoon, the New Mexican monsoon, or the Arizona monsoon, is a pattern of pronounced increase in thunderstorms and rainfall over large areas of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, typically occurring between July and mid September. During the monsoon, thunderstorms are fueled by daytime heating and build up during the late afternoon-early evening. Typically, these storms dissipate by late night, and the next day starts out fair, with the cycle repeating daily. The monsoon typically loses its energy by mid-September when drier and cooler conditions are reestablished over the region. Geographically, the North American monsoon precipitation region is centered over the Sierra Madre Occidental in the Mexican states of Sinaloa, Durango, Sonora and Chihuahua.

Climate data for Janos, Chihuahua
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)26.0
(78.8)
29.0
(84.2)
31.0
(87.8)
36.0
(96.8)
40.0
(104)
42.0
(107.6)
40.0
(104)
45.0
(113)
40.0
(104)
36.5
(97.7)
30.0
(86)
26.0
(78.8)
45.0
(113)
Average high °C (°F)14.2
(57.6)
16.7
(62.1)
19.5
(67.1)
23.1
(73.6)
27.3
(81.1)
31.5
(88.7)
30.1
(86.2)
30.1
(86.2)
27.1
(80.8)
22.7
(72.9)
18.0
(64.4)
14.6
(58.3)
22.9
(73.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)7.1
(44.8)
8.8
(47.8)
11.1
(52)
14.3
(57.7)
18.2
(64.8)
22.3
(72.1)
22.3
(72.1)
22.1
(71.8)
19.4
(66.9)
14.7
(58.5)
10.1
(50.2)
7.4
(45.3)
14.8
(58.6)
Average low °C (°F)−0.1
(31.8)
0.9
(33.6)
2.8
(37)
5.4
(41.7)
9.0
(48.2)
13.2
(55.8)
14.5
(58.1)
14.1
(57.4)
11.6
(52.9)
6.6
(43.9)
2.1
(35.8)
0.2
(32.4)
6.7
(44.1)
Record low °C (°F)−10.0
(14)
−7.5
(18.5)
−7.0
(19.4)
−11.5
(11.3)
−7.0
(19.4)
2.0
(35.6)
2.0
(35.6)
2.0
(35.6)
1.0
(33.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
−12.0
(10.4)
−13.0
(8.6)
−13.0
(8.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)15.3
(0.6)
11.6
(0.46)
11.0
(0.43)
7.1
(0.28)
5.8
(0.23)
16.7
(0.66)
73.8
(2.91)
58.6
(2.31)
46.3
(1.82)
29.5
(1.16)
15.5
(0.61)
21.5
(0.85)
312.7
(12.31)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)3.02.02.01.21.01.89.17.25.23.32.13.441.3
Average snowy days0.600.500.300.050000000.310.572.33
Source #1: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional [8]
Source #2: Colegio de Postgraduados (snowy days) [7]

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References

  1. Janos (Approved) at GEOnet Names Server, GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  2. "Janos". Catálogo de Localidades. Secretaría de Desarrollo Social (SEDESOL). Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  3. 1 2 3 "Presidio de San Felipe y Santiago de Janos Records, 1706-1858". Austin, Texas: University of Texas.
  4. Griffen, William B. Apaches at War and Peace: The Janos Presidio, 1750-1858. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. p.  63. ISBN   978-0-8061-3084-2., originally published in 1988 by the University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico
  5. probably Mangas Colorado Stockel, H. Henrietta (2008). Salvation Through Slavery: Chiricahua Apaches and priests on the Spanish colonial frontier. Albuquerque, New Mexico: University of New Mexico Press. p.  106. ISBN   978-0-8263-4325-3.
  6. Kottek, M.; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated" (PDF). Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130 . Retrieved January 17, 2013.
  7. 1 2 3 "Normales climatológicas para Janos, Chihuahua" (in Spanish). Colegio de Postgraduados. Archived from the original on 2013-02-19. Retrieved February 2013.Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  8. 1 2 "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1951-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved February 2, 2013.

Coordinates: 30°53′16″N108°11′24″W / 30.88778°N 108.19000°W / 30.88778; -108.19000

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.