Johannes Rydberg

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Johannes Rydberg
Rydberg, Janne (foto Per Bagge; AFs Arkiv).jpg
Johannes Rydberg
Born(1854-11-08)8 November 1854
Died28 December 1919(1919-12-28) (aged 65)
Nationality Swedish
Known for Rydberg formula
Awards Fellow of the Royal Society (1919)
Scientific career
Fields Physics
Institutions Lund University

Johannes (Janne) Robert Rydberg (Swedish:  [ˈrŷːdbærj] ; 8 November 1854 28 December 1919) was a Swedish physicist mainly known for devising the Rydberg formula, in 1888, which is used to describe the wavelengths of photons (of visible light and other electromagnetic radiation) emitted by changes in the energy level of an electron in a hydrogen atom.



Rydberg was born 8 November 1854 in Halmstad in southern Sweden, the only child of Sven Rydberg and Maria Anderson Rydberg. When he was 4 years old his father died, and the family was forced to live on a small income. In 1873 he graduated from Halmstads elementärläroverk, where he received high grades in maths and physics. Later that year he enrolled in Lund University, and two years later he was awarded his bachelor's degree. In 1879 he was awarded his Doctor of Philosophy with his dissertation "Konstruktioner af kägelsnitt i 3- och 4-punktskontakt". [1]

Rydberg began his career as an amanuensis in the institution. He became a docent in maths in 1880, and in 1882 became a docent in physics. At this time he began studying the standard atomic weight, because he wondered what was the reason for the seemingly random increase in weight for the atoms in Mendeleev's periodic system. He searched for a formula for several years to no avail. [2]

His next work was about investigating the atomic spectra, explaining why these occurred. [2] Rydberg's research was preceded by Johann Jakob Balmer's, who presented an empirical formula for the visible spectral lines of the hydrogen atom in 1885. [3] However, Rydberg's research led him to publish a formula in 1888 which could be used to describe the spectral lines not only for hydrogen but other elements as well. After his publication in 1890 on the subject, [4] Rydberg returned to his fruitless research on the periodic table. [5]

Rydberg applied for the a professorship in 1897, but despite the recommendations of experts in the subject he was rejected. However, he became an extraordinary professor instead. It wasn't until 1909 that he was upgraded into a full professorship. [6] To earn extra money he worked part-time as a numerical examiner at Sparbanken in Lund from 1891 and as an actuary in Malmö from 1905. [7]

In 1913, Rydberg became very ill and was forced to slow down his pace of research, and in 1915 he was granted leave on account of his illness. [8] He died on December 28, 1919 at Lund Hospital and was succeeded by his student Manne Siegbahn. [9] [10] Rydberg is buried at the northern cemetery in Lund and left his wife Lydia Carlsson (1856-1925), son Helge Rydberg (1887-1968) and daughter Gerda Rydberg (1891-1983).

Rydberg formula

The physical constant known as the Rydberg constant is named after him, as is the Rydberg unit. Excited atoms with very high values of the principal quantum number, represented by n in the Rydberg formula, are called Rydberg atoms. [11] Rydberg's anticipation that spectral studies could assist in a theoretical understanding of the atom and its chemical properties was justified in 1913 by the work of Niels Bohr (see hydrogen spectrum). An important spectroscopic constant based on a hypothetical atom of infinite mass is called the Rydberg (R) in his honour.

See also

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In spectroscopy, the Rydberg constant, symbol for heavy atoms or for hydrogen, named after the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg, is a physical constant relating to the electromagnetic spectra of an atom. The constant first arose as an empirical fitting parameter in the Rydberg formula for the hydrogen spectral series, but Niels Bohr later showed that its value could be calculated from more fundamental constants via his Bohr model. As of 2018, and electron spin g-factor are the most accurately measured physical constants.

Rydberg formula Formula for spectral line wavelengths in alkali metals

In atomic physics, the Rydberg formula calculates the wavelengths of a spectral line in many chemical elements. The formula was primarily presented as a generalization of the Balmer series for all atomic electron transitions of hydrogen. It was first empirically stated in 1888 by the Swedish physicist Johannes Rydberg, then theoretically by Niels Bohr in 1913, who used a primitive form of quantum mechanics. The formula directly generalizes the equations used to calculate the wavelengths of the hydrogen spectral series.

Lyman-alpha line

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Hydrogen spectral series Important atomic emission spectra

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The Rydberg–Ritz combination principle is an empirical generalization proposed by Walther Ritz in 1908 to describe the relationship of the spectral lines for all atoms. The principle states that the spectral lines of any element include frequencies that are either the sum or the difference of the frequencies of two other lines. Lines of the spectra of elements could be predicted from existing lines. Since the frequency of light is proportional to the wavenumber or reciprocal wavelength, the principle can also be expressed in terms of wavenumbers which are the sum or difference of wavenumbers of two other lines.

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  1. Hamilton, Paul Charles (1992). Janne Rydberg: a physicist in 19th-century Sweden. [Cambridge, Massachusetts]. pp. 26–30.
  2. 1 2 Litzén, Ulf (2015). Fysik i Lund under 300 år (in Swedish). Lund: Lunds universitetshistoriska sällskap. pp. 71–75. ISBN   9789175453200.
  3. Magie, William Francis (1969). A Source Book in Physics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p 360
  4. See:
  5. Litzén (2015). Fysik i Lund under 300 år (in Swedish). p. 96.
  6. Leide, Arvid (1954). "Janne Rydberg och hans kamp för professuren".Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. Hamilton (1992). Janne Rydberg: a physicist in 19th-century Sweden. p. 46.
  8. Litzén (2015). Fysik i Lund under 300 år (in Swedish). p. 84.
  9. Hamilton (1992). Janne Rydberg: a physicist in 19th-century Sweden. pp. 47–48.
  10. Martinson, I.; Curtis, L.J. (2005). "Janne Rydberg – his life and work" (PDF). Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 235 (1–4): 17–22. Bibcode:2005NIMPB.235...17M. doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2005.03.137.
  11. Šibalić, Nikola; S Adams, Charles (2018). Rydberg Physics. IOP Publishing. doi:10.1088/978-0-7503-1635-4. ISBN   9780750316354.