|, entrez:347730, leucine rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 1|
LRRTM1 is a brain-expressed imprinted gene that encodes a leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein that interacts with neurexins and neuroligins to modulate synaptic cell adhesion in neurons.As the name implies, its protein product is a transmembrane protein that contains many leucine rich repeats. It is expressed during the development of specific forebrain structures and shows a variable pattern of maternal downregulation (genomic imprinting).
LRRTM1 is the first gene linked to increased odds of being left-handed, when inherited from the father's side.Possessing one particular variant of the LRRTM1 gene slightly raises the risk of psychotic mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, again only if inherited from the father's side. As well, LRRTM1 has been associated with measures of schizotypy in non-clinical populations, indicating that the gene may have shared effects on neurodevelopment in both healthy and unhealthy individuals and individuals with schizophrenia.
LRRTM1 is also critically involved in synapse formation within the dorsal Lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of mice. LRRTM1 aids in the assembly of complex retinogenciulate synapses in mice, which are believed to help process complex visual signals. Lack of this gene shows decreased performance in complex visual tasks.
Neurexins (NRXN) are a family of presynaptic cell adhesion proteins that have roles in connecting neurons at the synapse. They are located mostly on the presynaptic membrane and contain a single transmembrane domain. The extracellular domain interacts with proteins in the synaptic cleft, most notably neuroligin, while the intracellular cytoplasmic portion interacts with proteins associated with exocytosis. Neurexin and neuroligin "shake hands," resulting in the connection between the two neurons and the production of a synapse. Neurexins mediate signaling across the synapse, and influence the properties of neural networks by synapse specificity. Neurexins were discovered as receptors for α-latrotoxin, a vertebrate-specific toxin in black widow spider venom that binds to presynaptic receptors and induces massive neurotransmitter release. In humans, alterations in genes encoding neurexins are implicated in autism and other cognitive diseases, such as Tourette syndrome and schizophrenia.
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGR4 gene. LGR4 is known to have a role in the development of the male reproductive tract, eyelids, hair and bone.
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGR6 gene. Along with the other G-protein coupled receptors LGR4 and LGR5, LGR6 is a Wnt signaling pathway mediator. LGR6 also acts as an epithelial stem cell marker in squamous cell carcinoma in mice in vivo.
Neurexin-1-alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NRXN1 gene.
Leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1, also known as LGI1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LGI1 gene. It may be a metastasis suppressor.
Neuroligin-4, X-linked is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLGN4X gene.
Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRRC4 gene.
Neuroligin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLGN1 gene.
Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRIG1 gene. It encodes a transmembrane protein that has been shown to interact with receptor tyrosine kinases of the EGFR family and with MET and RET.
Leucine-rich repeats and death domain containing, also known as LRDD or p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD), is a protein which in humans is encoded by the LRDD gene.
Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPRT gene.
Neurexophilin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NXPH1 gene.
Leucine-rich repeat LGI family member 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LGI2 gene.
Neuroligin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLGN2 gene.
Importin-11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IPO11 gene.
Neuroligin (NLGN), a type I membrane protein, is a cell adhesion protein on the postsynaptic membrane that mediates the formation and maintenance of synapses between neurons. Neuroligins act as ligands for β-Neurexins, which are cell adhesion proteins located presynaptically. Neuroligin and β-neurexin "shake hands", resulting in the connection between two neurons and the production of a synapse. Neuroligins also affect the properties of neural networks by specifying synaptic functions, and they mediate signalling by recruiting and stabilizing key synaptic components. Neuroligins interact with other postsynaptic proteins to localize neurotransmitter receptors and channels in the postsynaptic density as the cell matures. Additionally, neuroligins are expressed in human peripheral tissues and have been found to play a role in angiogenesis. In humans, alterations in genes encoding neuroligins are implicated in autism and other cognitive disorders.
Leucine-rich repeat neuronal protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRRN2 gene.
Leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein FLRT3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLRT3 gene.
Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LRRC17 gene.
Leucine rich repeat containing 24 is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the LRRC24 gene. The protein is represented by the official symbol LRRC24, and is alternatively known as LRRC14OS. The function of LRRC24 is currently unknown. It is a member of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily of proteins.
|In cognitive abilities||Geschwind–Galaburda hypothesis|
|In eyes||Ocular dominance|
|Handedness in boxing||Southpaw stance||Orthodox stance|
|Handedness in people||Musicians|
|Handedness related to|
|Handedness measurement||Edinburgh Handedness Inventory|
|In major viscera||Situs solitus||Situs ambiguus||Situs inversus|
|Footedness in surfing||Regular foot||Goofy foot|
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