Levocardia is a medical condition where the heart is on the normal side of the body (the left),as opposed to dextrocardia, in which the heart is in the right side of the thoracic cavity. This can be associated with situs solitus , where the remainder of the organs are on normal side as well; or situs inversus , in which the viscera (stomach, liver, intestines, lungs, etc.) on the opposite side as normal. The latter condition may or may not be associated with clinically relevant abnormalities.
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a genetic disorder in which the electrical activity within the heart is abnormal. It increases the risk of abnormal heart rhythms and sudden cardiac death. Those affected may have episodes of passing out. The abnormal heart rhythms seen in those with Brugada syndrome often occur at rest. They may be triggered by a fever.
Heart sounds are the noises generated by the beating heart and the resultant flow of blood through it. Specifically, the sounds reflect the turbulence created when the heart valves snap shut. In cardiac auscultation, an examiner may use a stethoscope to listen for these unique and distinct sounds that provide important auditory data regarding the condition of the heart.
The thorax or chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen. The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. It contains organs including the heart, lungs, and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain. The word thorax comes from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via Latin: thorax.
In situ is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position." It can mean "locally", "on site", "on the premises", or "in place" to describe where an event takes place and is used in many different contexts. For example, in fields such as physics, geology, chemistry, or biology, in situ may describe the way a measurement is taken, that is, in the same place the phenomenon is occurring without isolating it from other systems or altering the original conditions of the test.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a medical condition in which the ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth: this allows a portion of oxygenated blood from the left heart to flow back to the lungs by flowing from the aorta, which has a higher pressure, to the pulmonary artery. Symptoms are uncommon at birth and shortly thereafter, but later in the first year of life there is often the onset of an increased work of breathing and failure to gain weight at a normal rate. With time, an uncorrected PDA usually leads to pulmonary hypertension followed by right-sided heart failure.
Dextrocardia is a rare congenital condition in which the apex of the heart is located on the right side of the body. There are two main types of dextrocardia: dextrocardia of embryonic arrest and dextrocardia situs inversus. Dextrocardia situs inversus is further divided.
Situs inversus is a congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are reversed or mirrored from their normal positions. The normal arrangement of internal organs is known as situs solitus while situs inversus is generally the mirror image of situs solitus. Although cardiac problems are more common than in the general population, most people with situs inversus have no medical symptoms or complications resulting from the condition, and until the advent of modern medicine it was usually undiagnosed.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes defects in the action of cilia lining the respiratory tract, fallopian tube, and flagellum of sperm cells. The phrase "immotile ciliary syndrome" is no longer favored as the cilia do have movement, but are merely inefficient or unsynchronized.
Situs ambiguus is a rare congenital defect in which the major visceral organs are distributed abnormally within the chest and abdomen. Heterotaxy in general refers to any defect of left-right laterality and arrangement of the visceral organs. This does not include the congenital defect situs inversus, which results when arrangement of all the organs in the abdomen and chest are mirrored, so the positions are opposite the normal placement. Situs inversus is the mirror image of situs solitus, which is normal asymmetric distribution of the abdominothoracic visceral organs. Situs ambiguus can also be subdivided into left-isomerism and right isomerism based on the defects observed in the spleen, lungs and atria of the heart.
A chest radiograph, called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures. Chest radiographs are the most common film taken in medicine.
Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.
A precancerous condition is a condition or lesion involving abnormal cells which are associated with an increased risk of developing into cancer. Clinically, precancerous conditions encompass a variety of conditions or lesions with an increased risk of developing into cancer. Some of the most common precancerous conditions include certain colon polyps, which can progress into colon cancer, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, which can progress into multiple myeloma or myelodysplastic syndrome. and cervical dysplasia, which can progress into cervical cancer. Pathologically, precancerous lesions can range from benign neoplasias, which are tumors which do not invade neighboring normal tissues or spread to distant organs, to dysplasia, which involves collections of abnormal cells which in some cases have an increased risk of progressing to anaplasia and invasive cancer. Sometimes the term "precancer" is also used for carcinoma in situ, which is a noninvasive cancer that has not progressed to an aggressive, invasive stage. As with other precancerous conditions, not all carcinoma in situ will progress to invasive disease.
Pulmonary atresia is a congenital malformation of the pulmonary valve in which the valve orifice fails to develop. The valve is completely closed thereby obstructing the outflow of blood from the heart to the lungs. The pulmonary valve is located on the right side of the heart between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery. In a normal functioning heart, the opening to the pulmonary valve has three flaps that open and close
Focal seizures are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain. The brain is divided into two hemispheres, each consisting of four lobes – the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. A focal seizure is generated in and affects just one part of the brain – a whole hemisphere or part of a lobe. Symptoms will vary according to where the seizure occurs. In the frontal lobe symptoms may include a wave-like sensation in the head; in the temporal lobe, a feeling of déjà vu; in the parietal lobe, a numbness or tingling; and in the occipital lobe, visual disturbance or hallucination.
Cardiomegaly is a medical condition in which the heart is enlarged. It is more commonly referred to as an enlarged heart. Other common names for cardiomegaly is megacardia or megalocardia, but they all refer to the same thing. The causes of cardiomegaly vary from patient to patient, depending on each case. Many times this condition results from high blood pressure (hypertension) or coronary artery disease. An enlarged heart may not pump blood effectively, resulting in congestive heart failure. Cardiomegaly may improve over time, but many people with an enlarged heart need lifelong treatment with medications. Having an immediate family member who has or had cardiomegaly may indicate that a person is more susceptible to getting this condition. Cardiomegaly is not a disease but rather a condition that can result from a host of other diseases such as obesity or coronary artery disease. Recent studies suggest that cardiomegaly is associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Cardiomegaly can be serious even though it is not an actual disease. Depending on what part of the heart is enlarged, the patient can suffer from a heart failure. Anyone can experience a heart enlargement, but not everyone will be diagnosed immediately, based on the signs and symptoms. Cardiomegaly leads to clinical heart failure and in United States nearly 5.8 million people suffer. Heart failures increase with age, more common in males, and African Americans. According to research conducted in June 2019, mentioned that half of the people diagnosed with heart failure die within 5 years, after the diagnosis. Cardiomyopathy is also associated with cardiomegaly, and it is a disease of the heart muscle, which makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. Cardiomyopathy can lead to a heart failure. There are three main types of cardiomyopathy: hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive. The difference is that cardiomegaly is a condition of the heart and cardiomyopathy is an actual disease.
Situs solitus is the medical term referring to the normal position of thoracic and abdominal organs. Anatomically, this means that the heart is on the left with the pulmonary atrium on the right and the systemic atrium on the left along with the cardiac apex. Right-sided organs are the liver, the gall bladder and a trilobed lung as well as the inferior vena cava, while left-sided organs are the stomach, single spleen, a bilobed lung, and the aorta.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), also known as intraductal carcinoma, is a pre-cancerous or non-invasive cancerous lesion of the breast. DCIS is classified as Stage 0. It rarely produces symptoms or a breast lump one can feel, and is usually detected through screening mammography.
Familial atrial fibrillation is an autosomal dominant heart condition that causes disruptions in the heart's normal rhythm. This condition is characterized by uncoordinated electrical activity in the heart's upper chambers, which causes the heartbeat to become fast and irregular.
Isolated levocardia is a rare type of organs' situs inversus in which the heart is still in normal position but other abdominal viscera are transposed. Isolated levocardia may occur with heart defects and patients without having operations have low life expectancy: only about 5% to 13% of patients survive more than 5 years. Therefore, even though the risk of cardiac surgeries is high, once patients are diagnosed, operations are suggested to be held as soon as possible. Isolated levocardia is congenital. So far, there is not sufficient evidence to prove that chromosome abnormalities will result in isolated levocardia, and the cause of isolated levocardia is still unknown.
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