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Specialty Cardiology

Levocardia is a medical condition where the heart is on the normal side of the body (the left), [1] as opposed to dextrocardia, in which the heart is in the right side of the thoracic cavity. This can be associated with situs solitus , where the remainder of the organs are on normal side as well; or situs inversus , in which the viscera (stomach, liver, intestines, lungs, etc.) on the opposite side as normal. The latter condition may or may not be associated with clinically relevant abnormalities.


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Thorax frontal part of an animals body, between its head and abdomen

The thorax or chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen. The thorax includes the thoracic cavity and the thoracic wall. It contains organs including the heart, lungs, and thymus gland, as well as muscles and various other internal structures. Many diseases may affect the chest, and one of the most common symptoms is chest pain. The word thorax comes from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via Latin: thorax.

In situ is a Latin phrase that translates literally to "on site" or "in position." It can mean "locally", "on site", "on the premises", or "in place" to describe where an event takes place and is used in many different contexts. For example, in fields such as physics, geology, chemistry, or biology, in situ may describe the way a measurement is taken, that is, in the same place the phenomenon is occurring without isolating it from other systems or altering the original conditions of the test.

Patent ductus arteriosus condition wherein the ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth

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<i>Situs inversus</i> Congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are reversed from their normal positions

Situs inversus is a congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are reversed or mirrored from their normal positions. The normal arrangement of internal organs is known as situs solitus while situs inversus is generally the mirror image of situs solitus. Although cardiac problems are more common than in the general population, most people with situs inversus have no medical symptoms or complications resulting from the condition, and until the advent of modern medicine it was usually undiagnosed.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia primary ciliary dyskinesia that is characterized by sinusitis, bronchiectasis and situs inversus with dextrocardia resulting from dysfunction of the cilia during embryologic development

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Pulmonary atresia

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Focal seizures are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain. The brain is divided into two hemispheres, each consisting of four lobes – the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. A focal seizure is generated in and affects just one part of the brain – a whole hemisphere or part of a lobe. Symptoms will vary according to where the seizure occurs. In the frontal lobe symptoms may include a wave-like sensation in the head; in the temporal lobe, a feeling of déjà vu; in the parietal lobe, a numbness or tingling; and in the occipital lobe, visual disturbance or hallucination.

Cardiomegaly medical condition in which the heart is enlarged

Cardiomegaly is a medical condition in which the heart is enlarged. It is more commonly referred to as an enlarged heart. Other common names for cardiomegaly is megacardia or megalocardia, but they all refer to the same thing. The causes of cardiomegaly vary from patient to patient, depending on each case. Many times this condition results from high blood pressure (hypertension) or coronary artery disease. An enlarged heart may not pump blood effectively, resulting in congestive heart failure. Cardiomegaly may improve over time, but many people with an enlarged heart need lifelong treatment with medications. Having an immediate family member who has or had cardiomegaly may indicate that a person is more susceptible to getting this condition. Cardiomegaly is not a disease but rather a condition that can result from a host of other diseases such as obesity or coronary artery disease. Recent studies suggest that cardiomegaly is associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Cardiomegaly can be serious even though it is not an actual disease. Depending on what part of the heart is enlarged, the patient can suffer from a heart failure. Anyone can experience a heart enlargement, but not everyone will be diagnosed immediately, based on the signs and symptoms. Cardiomegaly leads to clinical heart failure and in United States nearly 5.8 million people suffer. Heart failures increase with age, more common in males, and African Americans. According to research conducted in June 2019, mentioned that half of the people diagnosed with heart failure die within 5 years, after the diagnosis. Cardiomyopathy is also associated with cardiomegaly, and it is a disease of the heart muscle, which makes it difficult for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. Cardiomyopathy can lead to a heart failure. There are three main types of cardiomyopathy: hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive. The difference is that cardiomegaly is a condition of the heart and cardiomyopathy is an actual disease.

Situs solitus normal arrangement (position) of internal (thoracic and abdominal) organs: heart is on the left with the pulmonary atrium on the right and the systemic atrium on the left along with the cardiac apex

Situs solitus is the medical term referring to the normal position of thoracic and abdominal organs. Anatomically, this means that the heart is on the left with the pulmonary atrium on the right and the systemic atrium on the left along with the cardiac apex. Right-sided organs are the liver, the gall bladder and a trilobed lung as well as the inferior vena cava, while left-sided organs are the stomach, single spleen, a bilobed lung, and the aorta.

Ductal carcinoma in situ Human disease

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Familial atrial fibrillation atrial fibrillation that has material basis in autosomal dominant inheritance of the familial atrial fibrillation (ATFB) genes

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Isolated levocardia is a rare type of organs' situs inversus in which the heart is still in normal position but other abdominal viscera are transposed. Isolated levocardia may occur with heart defects and patients without having operations have low life expectancy: only about 5% to 13% of patients survive more than 5 years. Therefore, even though the risk of cardiac surgeries is high, once patients are diagnosed, operations are suggested to be held as soon as possible. Isolated levocardia is congenital. So far, there is not sufficient evidence to prove that chromosome abnormalities will result in isolated levocardia, and the cause of isolated levocardia is still unknown.


  1. Gatzoulis, Michael A.; Webb, Gary D.; Daubeney, Piers E. F. (2017). Diagnosis and Management of Adult Congenital Heart Disease E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 545. ISBN   9780702069314 . Retrieved 5 September 2017.