List of doctoral degrees awarded by country

Last updated

The list of doctoral degrees awarded by country includes all doctoral degrees worldwide.



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Czech Republic and Slovakia

The system of Czech and Slovak doctoral degrees has been inherited from Czechoslovakia and is for a large part identical.

Doctoral degrees gained after graduation

These degrees are written before the name and are considered as professional doctorates comparable to the US Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree.

Doctoral degrees gained by thesis, viva voce and rigorous examination

These degrees are written before the name.

Doctoral degrees gained after a rigorous examination are popularly called small doctorate (malý doktorát in Czech or Slovakia). Applicants need a master's degree or a post-graduate degree (5 years+) comparable to Master level or higher and have to write a thesis of 50,000-80,000 words and defend this thesis in a viva voce and a rigorous examination in at least 2-3 subjects.

Doctoral degrees gained after post-graduate study

These degrees are written after the name.

Doctoral degrees gained after post-graduate study are popularly called great doctorate (velký doktorát in Czech).

Other doctoral degrees

These degrees are written after the name.

Both Czech and Slovak orthography state that the 'philosophiae doctor' is abbreviated as 'PhD.' in analogy to all of the other degrees, however, perhaps under influence of international use of 'Ph.D.', this foreign form is used in the Czech Law of the Academic and Scientific Degrees. [1] In fact, Czech lawgivers have enacted an orthographical mistake.



This list is comprehensive list of doctoral decrees granted by Finnish universities, based on the Government decree on university degrees. The English translations are official. [2]





South Africa

See: List of universities in South Africa

Sri Lanka

United Kingdom

First doctorates

Graduate-entry degrees in which the candidate must prepare (usually over a period of three or four years full-time, under the supervision of a more experienced researcher) a thesis or other portfolio of publishable research, demonstrating a contribution to knowledge in the chosen field. The Quality Assurance Agency categorises doctorates into three types: "subject specialist doctorates", "doctorates by publication", and "professional and practice-based (or practitioner) doctorates". Doctorates in the last category, such as the EdD, DClinPsych, DBA and EngD, have a greater emphasis on applied research and professional practice, however they still contain a substantial research component.

Subject specialist doctorates

Doctorates by publication

Professional and practice-based (or practitioner) doctorates

Generic titles:

Health, Medicine and related subjects:

  • Professional Doctorate in Advanced Healthcare Practice (DAHP) [13]
  • Doctor of Applied Education and Child Psychology (Ap.Ed and ChildPsy D) [3]
  • Doctor of Applied Educational Psychology (Professional Training) (DAppEdPsy) [14]
  • Doctor of Applied Psychology (Education) (DAppPsyEd) [15]
  • Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy or DClinPsych) [3] [7]
  • Doctor of Clinical SciencePsychotherapy (DClinSciPsychotherapy) [7]
  • Doctor of Counselling Psychology (DCounsPsy) [7]
  • Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) [3]
  • Doctor of Dental Science (DDSc) [7]
  • Doctor of Educational Psychology (DEdPsy) [3] [7]
  • Doctor of Forensic Psychology Practice (Foren.Psy.D or DForenPsy) [3] [16]
  • Doctor of Health Research (DHRes) [3]
  • Doctor of Health Science (HScD) [3]
    • Doctor of Health Science (Clinical) (HScD (Clin)) [3]
  • Doctor of Health Studies (DHS) [13]
  • Doctor of Medicine (MD or MD (Res)) [3] [7] (In most universities this degree is a first doctorate, although some classify it as a higher doctorate.)
  • Doctor of Occupational Psychology (DOccPsych) [7]
  • Doctor of Psychology (DPsych) [7]
  • Doctor of Public Health (DrPH) [3] [7]
  • Professional Doctorate in Workplace Health and Wellbeing (DocWHW) [17]

Other subjects:

  • Doctor of Architecture (DArch) [7]
  • Professional Doctorate in Architecture, Design and Built Environment (DArch) [4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Agriculture and Food (DAgriFood) [4]
  • Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) [3] [7]
  • Doctor of the Built Environment (DBEnv) [6]
  • Doctor in Civil Engineering (EngD) [18]
  • Doctor in Construction (EngD) [18]
  • Doctor of Construction Management (DConsMgt) [6]
  • Doctorate in Creative Arts (DCreative) [4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Criminal Justice (DCrimJ) [4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Security Risk Management (DSyRM) [4]
  • Doctorate in Criminology and Criminal Justice (DCCJ) [4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Applied Criminology (DAppCrim) [4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Data Science (DDataSci) [4]
  • Doctorate in Design/Doctor of Design (DDes) [4] [18]
  • Doctor of Digital Media (DDM) [18]
  • Doctor of Education/Professional Doctorate in Education (EdD) [3] [7] [19]
  • Doctor of Engineering (EngD or DEng) [3] [7] [20]
  • Doctor of Fashion Industry (DFI) [18]
  • Doctor of Fine Art (DArt) [7]
  • Doctorate in Fine Arts/Doctor of Fine Art (DFA) [4] [18]
  • Doctorate in Heritage (DHeritage) [4]
  • Doctor of Legal Practice (DLegalPrac) [18]
  • Professional Doctorate in Applied Linguistics (DAppLing) [4]
  • Doctor of Management (DMan) [21]
  • Doctor of Ministry (DMin) [3]
  • Doctorate in Music (DMus) [3]
  • Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA or AMusD) [7]
  • Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT) [3]
  • Doctor of Public Management (DPM) [22]
  • Doctor of Public Policy (DPP) [4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Policy Research and Practice (DPRP) [4]
  • Doctor of Real Estate (DRealEst) [18]
  • Professional Doctorate in Security Risk Management (DSyRM) [4]
  • Doctor of Social and Public Policy (SPPD) [13]
  • Doctor of Social Practice (DSocPrac) [18]
  • Doctor of Social Science/Doctorate in Social science (DSocSci) [3] [4]
  • Doctor of Social Work (DSW) [13]
  • Doctorate in Sport and Exercise (DSE) [4]
  • Doctor of Theology (ThD) [3] [7]
  • Professional Doctorate in Pastoral Theology (DPT) [4]
  • Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT) [3]
  • Professional Doctorate in Practical Theology (DPracTheol or DThM) [3]
  • Professional Doctorate in Veterinary Science (DVet) [4]
  • Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) [23]
  • Doctor of Veterinary Science (DVet Med, DVSc or DVS) [7] [23]

Higher doctorates

Higher doctorates are awarded to established academics in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically, the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-reviewed context and/or as specialist textbooks and pay an examination fee. The university then assembles a committee of academics, both internal and external, who review the work submitted and decide whether the candidate has satisfied the requirements for the award.

Higher doctorates can also be awarded as honorary degrees, but these are differentiated from the equivalent degrees earned by presenting a body of work to be reviewed.

Honorary doctorates

All levels of degree - though usually of master's level and above - can be awarded as honorary degrees. However, some universities have a degree which is only awarded honoris causa:

No longer awarded

United States

Research degrees

The National Science Foundation recognizes the following as research degrees: [33]

Professional degrees

See also

Related Research Articles

Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an agentive noun of the Latin verb docēre[dɔˈkeːrɛ] 'to teach'. It has been used as an academic title in Europe since the 13th century, when the first doctorates were awarded at the University of Bologna and the University of Paris. Having become established in European universities, this usage spread around the world. Contracted "Dr" or "Dr.", it is used as a designation for a person who has obtained a doctorate. In many parts of the world it is also used by medical practitioners, regardless of whether or not they hold a doctoral-level degree.

Psychologist Professional who evaluates, diagnoses, treats, and studies behavior and mental processes

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Postgraduate education involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is typically referred to as graduate school.

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including bachelor's, master's and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries there are lower level higher education qualifications that are also titled degrees.

Doctorate Academic or professional degree

A doctorate or doctor's degree or doctoral degree, is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi. In most countries, it is a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession. There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which is awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.

The academic dress of the former University of Wales was designed for the first graduations in 1893, and has as its main identifying feature a faculty colour scheme involving 'shot silks'.

Degree abbreviations are used as an alternative way to specify an academic degree instead of spelling out the title in full, such as in reference books such as Who's Who and on business cards. Many degree titles have more than one possible abbreviation, with the abbreviation used varying between different universities. In the UK it is normal not to punctuate abbreviations for degrees with full stops, although this is done at some universities.

The system of academic degrees at the University of Oxford can be confusing to those not familiar with it. This is not merely because many degree titles date from the Middle Ages, but also because many changes have been haphazardly introduced in recent years. For example, the (medieval) BD, BM, BCL, etc. are postgraduate degrees, while the (modern) MPhys, MEng, etc. are undergraduate degrees.

Doctor of Science, usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world. In some countries, "Doctor of Science" is the degree used for the standard doctorate in the sciences; elsewhere the Sc.D. is a "higher doctorate" awarded in recognition of a substantial and sustained contribution to scientific knowledge beyond that required for a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). It may also be awarded as an honorary degree.

The Doctor of Psychology is a professional doctoral degree intended to prepare graduates for careers that apply scientific knowledge of psychology and deliver empirically based service to individuals, groups and organizations. Earning the degree was originally completed through one of two established training models for clinical psychology. However, Psy.D. programs are no longer limited to Clinical Psychology as several universities and professional schools have begun to award professional doctorates in Business Psychology, Organizational Development, Forensic Psychology, Counseling Psychology, and School Psychology. The other two degrees are EdD and PhD.

The Doctor of Technology is a degree normally conferred upon candidates after having completed a course of study in technology and a project of lengthy duration in a technologically related field. Like other doctorates, it is usually an academic degree at the highest level; the degree may rank below, alongside, or above the Ph.D. depending on the specifics of the national system within which it is awarded.

A terminal degree is a university degree that can signify one of two outcomes. In some cases, it is the highest degree that can be awarded in a specific academic or professional track. In other cases, it is a degree that is awarded when a candidate completes a certain amount of coursework but does not go on to doctoral work. Some students enroll in a terminal Master's program with the goal of preparing to enter a PhD program. For certain professions and research grants it means the lowest degree to be considered qualified.

Doctor of Letters is a terminal degree in the humanities that, depending on the country, may be considered equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) or equal to a higher doctorate, such as the Doctor of Science. It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of superior accomplishment in the humanities, original contributions to the creative or cultural arts, or scholarship and other merits. It may be conferred as an earned degree upon the completion of a regular doctoral course of study, usually including the development and defense of an original dissertation, or may be conferred as an earned higher doctorate after the submission and academic evaluation of a portfolio of sustained scholarship, publications, research, or other scientific work of the highest caliber.

A professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession, often, but not always, meeting the academic requirements for licensure or accreditation. Professional degrees may be either graduate or undergraduate entry, depending on the profession concerned and the country, and may be classified as bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees. For a variety of reasons, professional degrees may bear the name of a different level of qualification from their classification in qualifications frameworks, e.g. some UK professional degrees are named bachelor's but are at master's level, while some Australian and Canadian professional degrees have the name "doctor" but are classified as master's or bachelor's degrees.

Education in the Czech Republic includes elementary school, secondary school, and post-secondary school. For students ages two to five, there are preschools that are generally not state-funded until the year before elementary school. After preschool, parents are not charged for tuition, but they must provide, stationery, and food for their children. A number of private schools exist across the country, but these schools are largely financially inaccessible for most children. There is an ongoing national discussion regarding the introduction of tuition fees for university education.

Doctor of Philosophy Postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities in many countries

A Doctor of Philosophy is the highest university degree that is conferred after a course of study by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are usually required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a thesis or dissertation, and defend their work against experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.

Doctor Medicinae (Danish and Norwegian degree) Danish and former Norwegian higher research doctorate in medicine

Doctor Medicinae, also spelled Doctor Medicinæ and abbreviated Dr. Med., is a higher doctoral degree in medicine awarded by universities in Denmark and formerly in Norway. It is officially translated as Doctor of Medical Science (D.M.Sc.), corresponding to similarly named higher doctorates found in some Commonwealth countries. It is regarded as a higher doctorate and officially ranks above the Danish PhD degree.

Doctor rerum naturalium, literally: Doctor of the things of nature,doctor of natural sciences, is a post-graduate academic degree awarded by universities in some European countries to graduates in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geology, computer science, pharmacy, other natural sciences and similar areas. These doctoral degrees are equivalent to a PhD. German universities often translate a Dr. rer. nat. to doctorate of natural sciences and graduates are tested in all natural sciences.

Divine Mercy University

Divine Mercy University (DMU) is a private Catholic graduate university of psychology and counseling located in Sterling, Virginia in the United States.


  1. Czech law No. 111/1998 Sb.—The University Law (in Czech) Archived 2008-05-31 at the Wayback Machine
  2. Annex to the Government Decree on University Degrees (Asetus yliopistojen tutkinnoista, 794/2004) Retrieved 5-5-2008. Partly English.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 "Characteristics Statement: Doctoral Degree" (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. September 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Careers Research & Advisory Centre (January 2016). "Provision of professional doctorates in English HE institutions" (PDF). HEFCE . Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  5. "European Doctorate (DocEuro) Regulations". University of Nottingham . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  6. 1 2 3 "Academic Regulations for Research Programmes 2016/17" (PDF). University of Salford. July 2016.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Tom Bourner; Rachel Bowden; Stuart Laing (2001). "Professional Doctorates in England". Studies in Higher Education. 26 (1): 65–83.
  9. "Doctor of Professional Practice". University of Wales Trinity Saint David . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  10. "Doctorate in Professional Practice". Swansea University . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  11. "The Doctorate in Professional Studies". University of Middlesex . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  12. 1 2 "Ordinance 2: Degrees" (PDF). University of Bradford . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  13. 1 2 3 4 "Professional Doctorates". Cardiff University . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  14. "Doctorate of Applied Educational Psychology (Professional Training) Regulations". University of Nottingham . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  15. "Doctorate of Applied Psychology (Educational) Regulations". University of Nottingham . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  16. "Doctor of Forensic Psychology Regulations". University of Nottingham . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  17. "Professional Doctorate in Workplace Health and Wellbeing (DocWHW) Regulations". University of Nottingham . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Code of Practice For Research Degrees" (PDF). Nottingham Trent University . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  19. "Professional Doctorate in Education (EdD) Regulations". University of Nottingham . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  20. "DEng in Renewable Energy Marine Structures (EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training)". University of Oxford . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  21. "Professional Doctorate in Management". University of Hertfordshire . Retrieved 2017-04-25.
  22. "Doctor of Public Management Regulations". University of Nottingham . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  23. 1 2 "Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and Doctor of Veterinary Surgery Regulations". University of Nottingham . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
  24. 1 2 "Report of the review of higher degrees" (PDF). University of Oxford. 2016. p. 2. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "University of London Awards" (PDF). University of London . Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  26. 1 2 3 4 "Cambridge glossary". University of Cambridge . Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  27. 1 2 3 4 5 "Ordinances and Regulations: Higher Doctorates". University of Manchester. June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  28. "Doctor of Medicine". University of Edinburgh . Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  29. "Doctor of Medicine". University of Bath . Retrieved 1 October 2016.
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  31. "Ordinance governing the Degrees of Doctor of Engineering, Doctor of Laws, Doctor of Letters, Doctor of Science or Doctor of Technology" (PDF). University of Bradford . Retrieved 2 October 2016.
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