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The list of doctoral degrees awarded by country includes all doctoral degrees worldwide.
The system of Czech and Slovak doctoral degrees has been inherited from Czechoslovakia and is for a large part identical.
These degrees are written before the name and are considered as professional doctorates comparable to the US Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree.
These degrees are written before the name.
Doctoral degrees gained after a rigorous examination are popularly called small doctorate (malý doktorát in Czech or Slovakia). Applicants need a master's degree or a post-graduate degree (5 years+) comparable to Master level or higher and have to write a thesis of 50,000-80,000 words and defend this thesis in a viva voce and a rigorous examination in at least 2-3 subjects.
These degrees are written after the name.
Doctoral degrees gained after post-graduate study are popularly called great doctorate (velký doktorát in Czech).
These degrees are written after the name.
Both Czech and Slovak orthography state that the 'philosophiae doctor' is abbreviated as 'PhD.' in analogy to all of the other degrees, however, perhaps under influence of international use of 'Ph.D.', this foreign form is used in the Czech Law of the Academic and Scientific Degrees.In fact, Czech lawgivers have enacted an orthographical mistake.
This list is comprehensive list of doctoral decrees granted by Finnish universities, based on the Government decree on university degrees. The English translations are official.
Graduate-entry degrees in which the candidate must prepare (usually over a period of three or four years full-time, under the supervision of a more experienced researcher) a thesis or other portfolio of publishable research, demonstrating a contribution to knowledge in the chosen field. The Quality Assurance Agency categorises doctorates into three types: "subject specialist doctorates", "doctorates by publication", and "professional and practice-based (or practitioner) doctorates". Doctorates in the last category, such as the EdD, DClinPsych, DBA and EngD, have a greater emphasis on applied research and professional practice, however they still contain a substantial research component.
Health, Medicine and related subjects:
Higher doctorates are awarded to established academics in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically, the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-reviewed context and/or as specialist textbooks and pay an examination fee. The university then assembles a committee of academics, both internal and external, who review the work submitted and decide whether the candidate has satisfied the requirements for the award.
Higher doctorates can also be awarded as honorary degrees, but these are differentiated from the equivalent degrees earned by presenting a body of work to be reviewed.
All levels of degree - though usually of master's level and above - can be awarded as honorary degrees. However, some universities have a degree which is only awarded honoris causa:
The National Science Foundation recognizes the following as research degrees:
Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an agentive noun of the Latin verb docēre[dɔˈkeːrɛ] 'to teach'. It has been used as an academic title in Europe since the 13th century, when the first doctorates were awarded at the University of Bologna and the University of Paris. Having become established in European universities, this usage spread around the world. Contracted "Dr" or "Dr.", it is used as a designation for a person who has obtained a doctorate. In many parts of the world it is also used by medical practitioners, regardless of whether or not they hold a doctoral-level degree.
A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenting with, and observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Postgraduate education involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is typically referred to as graduate school.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including bachelor's, master's and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries there are lower level higher education qualifications that are also titled degrees.
A doctorate or doctor's degree or doctoral degree, is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi. In most countries, it is a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession. There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which is awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.
The academic dress of the former University of Wales was designed for the first graduations in 1893, and has as its main identifying feature a faculty colour scheme involving 'shot silks'.
Degree abbreviations are used as an alternative way to specify an academic degree instead of spelling out the title in full, such as in reference books such as Who's Who and on business cards. Many degree titles have more than one possible abbreviation, with the abbreviation used varying between different universities. In the UK it is normal not to punctuate abbreviations for degrees with full stops, although this is done at some universities.
The system of academic degrees at the University of Oxford can be confusing to those not familiar with it. This is not merely because many degree titles date from the Middle Ages, but also because many changes have been haphazardly introduced in recent years. For example, the (medieval) BD, BM, BCL, etc. are postgraduate degrees, while the (modern) MPhys, MEng, etc. are undergraduate degrees.
Doctor of Science, usually abbreviated Sc.D., D.Sc., S.D., or D.S., is an academic research degree awarded in a number of countries throughout the world. In some countries, "Doctor of Science" is the degree used for the standard doctorate in the sciences; elsewhere the Sc.D. is a "higher doctorate" awarded in recognition of a substantial and sustained contribution to scientific knowledge beyond that required for a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). It may also be awarded as an honorary degree.
The Doctor of Psychology is a professional doctoral degree intended to prepare graduates for careers that apply scientific knowledge of psychology and deliver empirically based service to individuals, groups and organizations. Earning the degree was originally completed through one of two established training models for clinical psychology. However, Psy.D. programs are no longer limited to Clinical Psychology as several universities and professional schools have begun to award professional doctorates in Business Psychology, Organizational Development, Forensic Psychology, Counseling Psychology, and School Psychology. The other two degrees are EdD and PhD.
The Doctor of Technology is a degree normally conferred upon candidates after having completed a course of study in technology and a project of lengthy duration in a technologically related field. Like other doctorates, it is usually an academic degree at the highest level; the degree may rank below, alongside, or above the Ph.D. depending on the specifics of the national system within which it is awarded.
A terminal degree is a university degree that can signify one of two outcomes. In some cases, it is the highest degree that can be awarded in a specific academic or professional track. In other cases, it is a degree that is awarded when a candidate completes a certain amount of coursework but does not go on to doctoral work. Some students enroll in a terminal Master's program with the goal of preparing to enter a PhD program. For certain professions and research grants it means the lowest degree to be considered qualified.
Doctor of Letters is a terminal degree in the humanities that, depending on the country, may be considered equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) or equal to a higher doctorate, such as the Doctor of Science. It is awarded in many countries by universities and learned bodies in recognition of superior accomplishment in the humanities, original contributions to the creative or cultural arts, or scholarship and other merits. It may be conferred as an earned degree upon the completion of a regular doctoral course of study, usually including the development and defense of an original dissertation, or may be conferred as an earned higher doctorate after the submission and academic evaluation of a portfolio of sustained scholarship, publications, research, or other scientific work of the highest caliber.
A professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession, often, but not always, meeting the academic requirements for licensure or accreditation. Professional degrees may be either graduate or undergraduate entry, depending on the profession concerned and the country, and may be classified as bachelor's, master's or doctoral degrees. For a variety of reasons, professional degrees may bear the name of a different level of qualification from their classification in qualifications frameworks, e.g. some UK professional degrees are named bachelor's but are at master's level, while some Australian and Canadian professional degrees have the name "doctor" but are classified as master's or bachelor's degrees.
Education in the Czech Republic includes elementary school, secondary school, and post-secondary school. For students ages two to five, there are preschools that are generally not state-funded until the year before elementary school. After preschool, parents are not charged for tuition, but they must provide, stationery, and food for their children. A number of private schools exist across the country, but these schools are largely financially inaccessible for most children. There is an ongoing national discussion regarding the introduction of tuition fees for university education.
A Doctor of Philosophy is the highest university degree that is conferred after a course of study by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are usually required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a thesis or dissertation, and defend their work against experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.
Doctor Medicinae, also spelled Doctor Medicinæ and abbreviated Dr. Med., is a higher doctoral degree in medicine awarded by universities in Denmark and formerly in Norway. It is officially translated as Doctor of Medical Science (D.M.Sc.), corresponding to similarly named higher doctorates found in some Commonwealth countries. It is regarded as a higher doctorate and officially ranks above the Danish PhD degree.
Doctor rerum naturalium, literally: Doctor of the things of nature,doctor of natural sciences, is a post-graduate academic degree awarded by universities in some European countries to graduates in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geology, computer science, pharmacy, other natural sciences and similar areas. These doctoral degrees are equivalent to a PhD. German universities often translate a Dr. rer. nat. to doctorate of natural sciences and graduates are tested in all natural sciences.
Divine Mercy University (DMU) is a private Catholic graduate university of psychology and counseling located in Sterling, Virginia in the United States.